behavioural training


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personality and behavior are critical in people are few tips to do it well

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  • Many managers still believe that having superior technical or domain knowledge is sure way to succeed in career. However the reality is that as you go up in the ladder , it is all about people skills.This seminar and series of them are designed to impart the knowledge and provide certain tips for managing people by understanding the human behavior.
  • In organisations when we work there are shifting priorities and conflicting hsort term goals though everyone agrees that there is one common goal that is growing business and making profit.These conflicts ultimately can lead to unhappiness as every one fears failureWe can therefore say that dealing with people effectively can lead to better conflict managemnet
  • We can’t predict the behaviour of people. For that matter we cant even predict our own behaviour as we react to situations or react to what others do to us.Human nature is to display emotions along with outward behaviour
  • Our behaviour is product of both our inborn –genetic conditioning- and product of our world experiences.Infact if one does really ask this question as to when was I born ?The answer will not be that I was born on x date.Starting with the genetic birth- when the conception took place in mothers womb, We are physically born when the mother delivered, then the psychological birth when our childhood conditioning took place, and then the emotional birth during adolescent days,when our own emotional conditioning took place and finally the social birth when we adjusted and learnt from the societal influences
  • Is your intellectual intelligence the greatest predictor of what you� accomplish in life? We have been conditioned to believe that IQ is the best measure of human potential. In the past 10 years, however, researchers have found that this isn't necessarily the case -- that in actuality, your emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) might be a greater predictor of success.The approach towards managing people in organisations has undergone drastic changes.Gone are the times when employees were made to do what exactly they were told to do.
  • Modern scientific management techniques do attribute a lot to effective management of psychological and emotional and social support to enhance motivation and productivity
  • Control theory put focus on shaping behaviour through manipulative external systems.Choice Theory posits that behavior is central to our existence and is driven by five genetically driven needs, similar to those of Abraham Maslow:Survival (food, clothing, shelter, breathing, personal safety and others)and four fundamental psychological needs:Belonging/connecting/lovePower/significance/competenceFreedom/responsibility, andFun/learning.Lot of our own behaviour is based on what we strongly believe .For example I may believe that people do not do their best unless rewarded or punished.
  • Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations [2]. The word "personality" originates from the Latinpersona, which means mask. Significantly, in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that character. . Freedom versus DeterminismSee also: Free willThis is the debate over whether we have control over our own behavior and understand the motives behind it (Freedom), or if our behavior is causally determined by forces beyond our control (Determinism). Determinism has been considered unconscious, environmental, or biological by various theories.2. Heredity versus EnvironmentMain article: Nature versus nurturePersonality is thought to be determined largely by genetics and biology, by environment and experiences, or by some combination resulting thereof. There is evidence for all possibilities. Contemporary research suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment. One of the forerunners in this arena is C. Robert Cloninger with the Temperament and Character model.3. Uniqueness versus UniversalityThe argument over whether we are all unique individuals (Uniqueness) or if humans are basically similar in their nature (Universality). Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, and Carl Rogers were all advocates of the uniqueness of individuals. Behaviorists and cognitive theorists, in contrast, emphasized the importance of universal principles such as reinforcement and self-efficacy.4. Active versus ReactiveDo we primarily act through our own initiative (Active), or react to outside stimuli (Reactive)? Behavioral theorists typically believe that humans are passively shaped by their environments, whereas humanistic and cognitive theorists believe that humans are more active.5. Optimistic versus PessimisticPersonality theories differ on whether people can change their personalities (Optimism), or if they are doomed to remain the same throughout their lives (Pessimism). Theories that place a great deal of emphasis on learning are often, but not always, more optimistic than theories that do not emphasize learning
  • If personality is so complex do we need to be expert psychologists to manage human behaviour.The answer is no. all that we need to do is to be sensitive enough to understand the fragile human nature.Develop right attitude towards managing people and their emotions.Dealing effectively with conflicts when they arise.Finally aim towards higher levels of motivations and happiness
  • We may believe that higher pay benefits lead to better motivation.The fact is money is not the sole motivator in organisational context.We know of very low paying companies posting highest retentionIn most companies, turnover realistically can be reduced by as much as 50 percent, even if some managers don't believe it can be accomplished," said Jim Kochanski, a principal of the firm UPS.In one study it was found that employee retention was higher in branch where customer retention was higher , this was true within same company which had multiple branches.What made the difference?The manger was effective in providing the leadership to excite people and derive happiness in retaining customer.
  • The first step in understanding human behaviour will be to start from self.Do I understand or understanding comes naturally to me?Do others understand me easily or they say I am a hidden iceberg? do I conclude very quickly about people.?These are the questions we can start asking ourselves
  • Personality that we spoke earlier is the sum total of reaction and interactions that bring out behaviour
  • behavioural training

    1. 1. Understanding Human Behavior<br />Why bother trying to understand it?<br />Dr. E. J. Sarma<br />Saama Technologies, Inc.<br />
    2. 2. 8/29/2011<br />Page 2<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Human Behavior Why bother trying to understand it? And… <br />We hear this everyday from line managers<br />Everyone wants this<br />Constantly we are searching the meaning of these<br />People skills is the success factor<br />
    3. 3. 8/29/2011<br />Page 3<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The beast in usa<br />
    4. 4. 8/29/2011<br />Page 4<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Nature and Nurture<br />Human behavior is a product both of <br />our innate human nature and <br />of our individual experience and environment.<br />
    5. 5. Understanding Human Behavior :What is the key to success? : <br />8/29/2011<br />Page 5<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
    6. 6. 8/29/2011<br />Page 6<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Scientific Approach: :<br />The Scientific Approach: The late 1800’s brought the Industrial Revolution <br />There was no one best way to do a job .<br />Scientific methods and tools can solve people’s problems <br />The Hawthorne Effect :<br />Paying attention to workers’ needs affected output. Social and psychological factors play important roles in productivity. <br />
    7. 7. 8/29/2011<br />Page 7<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The important drivers <br />
    8. 8. What is personality<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 8<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
    9. 9. Few steps in mastering the behavioural skills <br />8/29/2011<br />Page 9<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
    10. 10. Human Relation- organisational context:<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 10<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />People are motivated by many factors, not just pay/money<br />Employees have feelings and attitudes that affect the work . <br />Informal workgroups affect performance .<br />Employees like and need to participate in decision making .<br />Communication channels should flow down, up and horizontally <br />
    11. 11. Reflection<br />
    12. 12. Personality<br />
    13. 13. Personality<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15. How do we start to understand people management?<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 15<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
    16. 16. Review of what we learned<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 16<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Technical skills are necessary but not sufficient for career success as go up in career ladder.<br /><ul><li>human nature is to combine behaviour with emotions
    17. 17. nature is the product of innate and learned experiences.
    18. 18. traditional approaches to managing people in organisations have limited or no validity in modern complex organisations .</li></li></ul><li>mastering behavioural skills involve<br />8/29/2011<br />Page 17<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
    19. 19. 8/29/2011<br />Page 18<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />
    20. 20. 8/29/2011<br />Page 19<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Behavioral Movement: Supervisors learned they needed communication skills .<br />Managers now had to handle conflict and change .<br />Employees treated more as equals and informal relationships started <br />
    21. 21. The Development of Personality<br /><ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture
    22. 22. Heredity and biology - genes, nervous system, endocrine system and other systems
    23. 23. Environment and life experiences
    24. 24. Identical twins share the same template but have different “states”
    25. 25. Twins raised in different families have often demonstrated similar tastes, choosing the same profession and even using the same brands of products</li></li></ul><li>The Development of Personality<br /><ul><li>Some traits may be more strongly linked to heredity than others
    26. 26. The initial few years are critical in the formation of personality
    27. 27. Plaster vs. Plasticity hypothesis
    28. 28. Set like plaster
    29. 29. Changes throughout adulthood</li></li></ul><li>Views on Personality<br /><ul><li>Trait Theories – personality is a set of mental structures/systems, different for each individual, resulting in characteristic responses to situations
    30. 30. Humanist Theories – difficult to predict behaviour – lives are not scripted – personalities are defined by their own different perceptions and experiences
    31. 31. Behavioural Theories – Personality is the constantly changing set of learned behaviour, influenced by reinforcements</li></li></ul><li>Interactionism<br /><ul><li>Human behaviour is influenced by:
    32. 32. Personality traits
    33. 33. The situation
    34. 34. The interaction between personality and situation
    35. 35. How one perceives or defines a situation is a critical factor of behaviour</li></li></ul><li>CASE<br /><ul><li>Doctors report that the child would never be able to play any physically exerting sport… the child grows to be the fittest athlete in the world
    36. 36. How did the parents define the situation?
    37. 37. How did the child define the situation?
    38. 38. How did it influence their behaviour?</li></li></ul><li>Other Attributes<br /><ul><li>Locus of Control(internal/external)The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate
    39. 39. Self-Esteem - Feelings of self-worth stemming from the individual's positive or negative beliefs about being valuable and capable
    40. 40. Self-awareness - being aware of oneself, including one's traits, feelings, behaviours and limitations
    41. 41. Risk Taking - a person’s willingness to take chances or risks</li></li></ul><li>Personality Models<br />
    42. 42. Is this Personality Good or Bad?<br /><ul><li>Before we examine various types of personalities we should remember:
    43. 43. There is no “right”, “wrong”, “good” or “bad” type
    44. 44. Each type has “strengths” and “weaknesses”
    45. 45. A personality may however be more “suitable” for a given role or situation
    46. 46. Personality traits may shift over time
    47. 47. Behaviour/performance is not dependent on personality alone</li></li></ul><li>Personality Models<br /><ul><li>The Big Five
    48. 48. Cattell’s 16 Primary Factors
    49. 49. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator</li></li></ul><li>The Big Five<br />
    50. 50. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
    51. 51. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
    52. 52. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
    53. 53. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors<br />
    54. 54. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)<br /><ul><li>4 Scales
    55. 55. Extraversion - Introversion
    56. 56. Sensing – Intuition
    57. 57. Thinking – Feeling
    58. 58. Judging - Perceiving
    59. 59. 16 Types</li></li></ul><li>MBTI Scales<br />
    60. 60. MBTI Scales<br />
    61. 61. MBTI – 16 Personality Types<br />
    62. 62. MBTI – 16 Personality Types<br />
    63. 63. MBTI – 16 Personality Types<br />
    64. 64. MBTI – 16 Personality Types<br />
    65. 65. Application<br /><ul><li>Self-management
    66. 66. Understand strengths, weaknesses and preferences
    67. 67. Predict, plan and avoid failures
    68. 68. Self-optimize, excel and adapt
    69. 69. Managing relationships
    70. 70. Understand strengths, weaknesses and preferences
    71. 71. Predict, plan and avoid conflict and failures
    72. 72. Adapt and support</li></li></ul><li>Application<br /><ul><li>Try to accommodate type mismatch
    73. 73. Remember, type mismatch is unavoidable
    74. 74. Remember, 50% of the mismatch is caused by you 
    75. 75. Do not blame the person for something s/he hasn’t done
    76. 76. Do not forget that the perceived weakness could be a real advantage in a different situation</li></li></ul><li>Application<br /><ul><li>Diversity
    77. 77. Recognizing differences as natural
    78. 78. Appreciating diversity
    79. 79. Developing complementary work teams
    80. 80. Expertise and task assignment </li></ul>Caution: other components of behaviour + development of others<br /><ul><li>Synergy
    81. 81. n1 + n2 = k x (n1 + n2)where k > 1</li></li></ul><li>Application: Other Considerations<br /><ul><li>For those traits that are not dominant
    82. 82. Avoid over exposure and over commitment
    83. 83. Understand the consequences
    84. 84. Cognition (thinking)
    85. 85. Self-monitoring
    86. 86. Positive attitude
    87. 87. Learning and practice
    88. 88. Changes in socio-technical environment</li></li></ul><li>Exercise: Trait Recognition<br />Can you visualize someone who:<br /><ul><li>would panic under stress, is a frequent worrier or would be intensely tense on slightest criticism
    89. 89. is very open to change, new idea or suggestion
    90. 90. would do all it takes to get the job done, on time, even if it involves taking on enormous stress
    91. 91. Enjoys parties and gatherings, is talkative even with strangers, is adventurous and is action oriented
    92. 92. Is very considerate and sympathetic, and works hard to ensure that others feelings are not hurt</li></li></ul><li>Exercise: “Undesirable” Traits<br /><ul><li>Identify a trait that you perceive as a “weakness”, then think of a situation where it could be utilized as a strength</li></li></ul><li>Afterthoughts<br /><ul><li>Awareness and recognition is the first step towards change
    93. 93. After self-evaluating your personality, observe other available templates and see how that may help you in adapting into a “new” person or adopting a different response set
    94. 94. If no traits are absolutely bad, then recognize that differences, perspectives and conflicts are actually opportunities to broaden our thinking and prospects</li></li></ul><li>Final Word<br /><ul><li>While dealing with people, lose your spectacle and put on their glasses – try to understand first before being understood</li></li></ul><li>Thank you<br />
    95. 95. Q & A<br />
    96. 96. 8/29/2011<br />Page 51<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Behavioral Movement: Expanded role of manager Managers became more people focused Incentives and sources of motivation were studied <br />
    97. 97. 8/29/2011<br />Page 52<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Management Theory Today :<br />Management Theory Today The Systems Theory Approach: every system has input, transformation and output Ripple effects <br />
    98. 98. 8/29/2011<br />Page 53<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Management Theory Today :<br />Management Theory Today :<br />Management Theory Today The Systems Theory Approach: every system has input, transformation and output Ripple effects <br />
    99. 99. 8/29/2011<br />Page 54<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />The Contingency Approach: :<br />The Contingency Approach: No two situations are exactly alike. With each event, you size up the situation and choose the best course of action <br />The Quality of Work Life Approach: :<br />The Quality of Work Life Approach: Seeks to make work productive as well as satisfying to workers Quality Circles <br />
    100. 100. 8/29/2011<br />Page 55<br />dr.sarma/saamaacademy<br />Caring and Trust: The bottom line in Human Relations today. <br />Herb Kelleher of Southwest Airlines :<br />He doesn’t put making a profit first or put customers first – so who comes first? <br />To lead yourself,use you head.To lead others,use your heart. :<br />