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1312- System of Wheat Intensification

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System of wheat Intensification: A resource conservation and agro-ecological method of wheat cultivation
Presented by: Ram B. Khadka
Location: Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Khajura, Banke, Nepal
Date: 2013

Published in: Technology, Business

1312- System of Wheat Intensification

  1. 1. SYSTEM OF WHEAT INTENSIFICATION: A RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL METHOD OF WHEAT CULTIVATION Ram B. Khadka Scientist Regional Agricultural Research Station, Khajura, Banke, Nepal
  2. 2. WHAT IS SWI ? New concept and practice of wheat cultivation manipulating the soil environment favorably for better root and shoot growth using principles of SRI  Wide spacing of plants for better light and air utilization  Increased use of compost and organic matter for the soil  Quality seed to be selected and treated using appropriate biotic and abiotic agents  Better soil aeration by use of mechanical weeder.
  3. 3. THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI)  SRI is a “set of insights and practices that change the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients used in growing irrigated rice.” SRI methods promote the growth of more productive and robust plants.  Put simply; SRI is a package of practices developed to improve the productivity of rice, especially for smallholders.  SRI involves intermittent wetting and drying of paddies as well as specific soil and agronomic management practices.  It is civil society innovation…..  Increases rice yield per drop of water, per kg of seed and fertilizers  More tolerable of water stress, drought, flooding, and lodging, due to better roots, stronger tillers  Very suitable for organic production  Resource-conserving technology
  4. 4. Source: Dash & Pal,
  5. 5. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SWI  Principle of root development: proper nourishment and providing sufficient space around the plant  Principle of intensive care: careful management of the soil Outputs / Results  Higher tillering  Increased number of effective tillers / hill  Enhanced panicle length & bolder grains  Enhanced yield
  6. 6. METHODOLOGY  Improved seed  Seed treatment  Land preparation and application of organic manure  Seed rate  Line sowing  Gap filling  Irrigation  Weeding
  7. 7. WEEDING
  8. 8. SEED TREATMENT: Take 10 liters of hot water (60 degrees Celsius) in an earthen pot. Dip 5 kg of improved graded seeds in it. Remove the seeds which float on the top of water. Mix 2 kg of well-decomposed compost, 3 liters cow urine, and 2 kg of jaggery. After mixing it properly, keep the mixed material as such for 6-8 hours. After this, filter it so that solid materials along with seeds and liquids get separated. After that, mix 10 gm of fungicide properly and keep in shade for 10-12 hrs. Then wheat gets germinated. The germinated seeds are used for sowing in the tilled field. Cow urine, well-decomposed compost and jaggery in separate vessels
  9. 9. SWI EXPERIENCE IN NEPAL Participatory Action Research (PAR) by Mercy Corps  Location: Dadeldhura, Doti and Baitadi.  Variety: WK-1204  Seed treatment: Soaking in lukewarm water overnight followed by mixing with cow urine, jaggery and well-decomposed compost. Then the seeds were left to dry under shade for 4 hours.  T1: seed priming + line sowing),  T2 : seed priming + broadcast method,  T3: without priming + local practice of sowing, and  T4: control (local variety + local practices).  Area : 150 m2 was allocated for each trial providing 50 m2 for each plot/treatment.  Fertilizer application: @15 Mt/Ha  Seed rate: @30 Kg/Ha for T1, 80 Kg/Ha for T2 and T3, and 120 Kg/ha for T4. Courtesy : Raut (2011). Mercycorps, Dadeldhura
  10. 10. RESULTS Treatments Plant height (cm) # of tillers per plant Length of spikes (cm) # of grains/ spike 1000 grain weight (gm) Grain yield (kg ha-1) T1(seed priming + line sowing) 88.5 14.35 9.21 74.95 62 6,516 T2 (seed priming + broadcast method) 88.1 11.25 8.91 69.6 58 4,524.7 T3 (without priming + local practice of sowing) 79.8 3.05 6.90 53.2 52 3,738 T4 (local variety + local practices) 89.2 2.01 5.80 44.3 48 3,405.5 Source : Raut (2011). Mercycorps, Dadeldhura
  11. 11. FARMERS FIELD SCHOOL IN KAILALI  Location: Ramsikharjhala, Lalbojhi and Fulbari.  Number of farmers: 25 farmers per FFS  Area: 300 m2 for SWI and 300 m2 for conventional  Seed Treatment: Seeds were selected by mild hot water for 10 minutes. All floating seeds were removed and only those that sank were used for sowing. Seed were allowed to germinate for 12 hours.  Sowing: 20×20 spacing at a depth of 3-4 cm . Two germinated seed were placed at each location by hand dibbling.  Fertilizer application: Recommended fertilizer was 100:50:50 Kg NPK/ha @ 10 Mt/ha  Gap filling:. After 10 days of sowing, gap filling was done by dibbling the seed. First (light) irrigation was provided 20 days after sowing (DAS)  Weeding: @ 25 DAS, 45 DAS and 65 DAS weeding were done with the help of a cono weeder.  Irrigation: 20, 40, 60 100 DAS
  12. 12. Parameters (average of 10 plants) Fulbari Lalbojhi Ramsikharjhala Conv. SWI Conv. SWI Conv. SWI Tiller number 5 25 (18-36) 4 34 (22-54) 3 25 (19-42) Number of spike per hill 5 22.5 4 33 2.4 23.5 Number of grains per spike 22.5 45.4 50.1 72.4 60 80 Number of spike per m2 310 400 414 446 210 256 Spike length (cm) 9 16 9.3 12.3 13 18 TGW (gm) 50 75 40 45 45 50 Productivity (Mt/ha) 4 8 5.8 7.95 4.8 6.95 Difference in productivity 100% 37% 44% Results
  13. 13. DIFFERENCE IN YIELD COMPONENT IN SWI &CONVENTIONAL
  14. 14. Parameters SWI Conventional Seed requirement 25-30 kg/ha 100-120 Kg/ha Seed treatment Required Not necessary Methods of sowing Dibbling in line Broadcasting Spacing 20 x20 cm No proper spacing Weeding 2-3 weedings Not done Length of panicle (cm) 18 12 No. of grains per panicle 60-75 40-50 No. of panicles per hill 53-40 2-5 TGW (gm) 70-75 45-50 Stem, roots & leaves Thick stem, long root, wide and green flag leaves Thin stem, short and superficial roots, and narrow and pale green flag leaves DIFFERENT BETWEEN SWI & TRADITIONAL METHODS
  15. 15. FARMER FIELD SCHOOL (FSS) IN SINDHULI  Location: Bhimasthan–3, Kadame, 397 masl in altitude  Duration: December 2011 to 2012  Soil type: Sandy loam soil, (pH 5.1); 0.061% total N; medium P2O5; 79.23 kg ha-1 K2O; and 1.22 % organic matter  Plot size: 4×1 m.  Fertilizer dose: 10 ton/ha of NPK (100:50:25)  Variety: Bhirkuti (germinated seed)  Spacing: 20x20 cm.  Irrigation was provided during CRI and tillering stage.  Weeding was done manually. Courtesy : Adhikari, 2012. DADO, Sindhuli
  16. 16. RESULTS Methods of cultivation Production (kg) Production (mt / ha) Broadcast 1.5 3.7 Line-sown 2.0 5.0 SWI practices 2.6 6.5 Courtesy : Adhikari, 2012. DADO, Sindhuli
  17. 17. COMPARATIVE EXPERIENCE IN SWI State/ province/ district No. of farmers Conventio nal yield (t/ha) SWI ave. yield (t/ha) SWI increase (%) Remarks India Uttara- khand state 151 Irrigated 2.77 5.04 82 Evaluation done by People's Science Institute in 2008-09 season 317 Unirrig. 1.74 3.32 91 India Bihar state 415 (2008-09) 1.6 3.6 125 Initial on-farm trials done in Gaya district by NGO PRADAN; Bihar state govt. started supporting SWI in 2010; SWI methods used on 183,063 ha in 2011-12, average yield of 5.1 t/ha 15,808 (2009-10) 1.8 4.6 150 Mali Timbuktu region 21 (2010-11) 1.96 5.45 178 On-farm trials in response to initiatives of Africare 142 (2011-12) 0.94 3.2 240 Drought year; results from 13 villages Nepal Kailali district (2010-11) 3.4 Broadcasti ng 6.5 Line sowing 90 Farmer field school trials at 4 sites; all with improved variety Nepal Sindhuli district (2011-12) 3.7 Broadcasti ng 6.5 Transplantin g 74 FFS trials, all with improved variety; line sowing gave yield of 5.0 t/ha Range and average 0.94-3.7 3.2-6.5 130 Source : Styger et. al. 2013 (ms. in draft)
  18. 18. BED PLANTING SYSTEMS IN WHEAT Photo courtesy : Kamboj et al. 2008
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES OF BED PLANTING SYSTEM  Irrigation is improved, is simpler, and more efficient (use 30% less water than flat bed methods and improve crop yields by more than 20%)  Saves 30% to 50% of wheat seed compared to flat planting  Better upland crop production is possible in the wet monsoon because of better drainage.  Fertilizer efficiency can be increased because of better placement, including top dress applications  Better tillering, increased panicle/ear length, and bolder grains, more resistant to lodging.  Weeds management is easier  Opportunities for intericropping Photo courtesy : Kamboj et al. 2008
  20. 20. 1. On 5 ropani of land, SWI can increase yield as much as 100%, which can enable attaining food security for more than 6 months for a 6- member household, assuming their consumption rate is 4 kg/day. 2. Tediousness of line sowing can be minimized by introducing simple, manually-operated, women-friendly seed-drill machines. 3. SWI maximizes the labor factor productivity when utilized in the marginal lands. 4. Seed treatment with mixture of jaggery, cow urine and vermi-compost increases the soil fertility by the action of non-symbiotic biological nitrogen-fixing agents in soils. CONCLUSIONS
  21. 21. THANK YOU THANK YOU

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