0914 Dynamics of Rice Intensification System in Nepal
Dynamics of Rice Intensification System in Nepal Presented by Rajendra Uprety TAD/Wageningen UR
Rice in Nepal (2007) Total area: 1.43 million ha Production: 3.68 million tons Productivity: 2.557 tons/ha Region Area (ha) Production (tons) Productivity (t/ha) Mountain 62,263 120,172 1.93 Hills 367,710 933,852 2.54 Terai (plains) 1,009,552 2,626,815 2.60 Morang 81,360 242,476 2.98 Dhankuta 8,145 20,750 2.54
Rice Systems <ul><li>System of Rice Intensification </li></ul><ul><li>Younger seedlings (<15 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Single seedling/hill </li></ul><ul><li>Wider spacing (>25 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>No continuous flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Active soil aeration </li></ul><ul><li>More organic matter than chemical fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Older seedlings (>30 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Many seedlings/hill </li></ul><ul><li>Closer spacing (<20 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Use more chemical fertilizers than compost </li></ul>Double transplanting method. First transplanting: Use 25-30 day-old seedlings, many seedlings/hill with close spacing. After one month, uproot plants and re-transplant in the main field. The second time, the farmer transplants just 1-2 seedlings/hill.
Objective The objective of this study was to analyze social mechanisms of SRI and non-SRI rice management systems in Nepal.
Methodology <ul><li>Selection of 3 Village Development Committee areas </li></ul><ul><li>Household survey of rice growers on those VDCs. </li></ul><ul><li>75 respondent selected (30+30+15 respectively from Jhorahat, Indrapur and Pakhribas VDCs of Morang and Dhankuta districts). </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of the randomly-selected farmers and observation of all rice farm activities from seeding to harvesting. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection, tabulation and analysis by use of Excel and SPSS software. </li></ul>
Rice farming system Farmers Land ownership status Compost/fertilizers Machine/ tools Investment Irrigation facility Labor availability Technical support Variety/seed Land/ land type Distance of farm Cropping system Land owners
Yield distribution of SRI and conventional methods
Seedling age, fewer seedlings/hill, wider spacing, and AWD irrigation: positive effect on rice yield.
Most of the SRI farmers were owner-cultivators Farmers used compost only on their own land The amount of compost used was not sufficient to produce good yield Combination of manure and fertilizers produced good yield
Reliable irrigation Land ownership Labor availability Male/female labor Technical support System of Rice Intensification Water uncertainty Lease land Labor scarcity Delay transplanting Weeder availability Nearness of land Distance of the land Lack of technical support Hire labor Conventional system Partial SRI Double transplanting
<ul><li>SRI method was found to be more productive, but its area within individual farms remains small compared to conventional method. </li></ul><ul><li>Main components for higher yield of rice are younger seedlings, fewer seedlings/hill, wider spacing, and AWD irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Assured irrigation and drainage facility is necessary for using younger seedlings and AWD irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Labor requirement is more if farmers use hired labor (rather than family labor) for transplanting and weeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeding implements could reduce the need for more labor for weeding with SRI method. </li></ul>
Continue……….. <ul><li>Farmers adjust their farming system according to their context/situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Labor scarcity affects transplanting and weeding work of rice systems. Landless laborers give first priority to non-farm work, so labor scarcity is common where non-farm employment was greater. </li></ul><ul><li>Over-watering on rice fields makes it difficult to use younger seedlings, shallow transplanting, fewer seedlings per hill, and wider spacing. In such situations, farmers changed their SRI strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Double transplanting and use of older seedlings are the best alternative if transplanting is delayed. Otherwise, the crop cannot complete its growth stage and is unable to produce more grain yield. </li></ul>
Continue ………… <ul><li>SRI needs careful and continuous attention, which is difficult if the rice field is far from the farmer’s residence. </li></ul><ul><li>For better dissemination of SRI, continued technical support is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Family labor and exchange labor (PERMA system) are more useful for adoption of SRI than hired labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and machines supply/availability for marking and weeding are very useful for adopting SRI in larger areas. </li></ul><ul><li>In labor shortage situations, farmers used weedicides to control early weeds in SRI fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers used more than one variety to reduce risk of crop failure and to fulfill the demands of the landlord. </li></ul>
Reduced Time to Maturity with Younger Seedlings <ul><li>51 Nepali SRI farmers planted the </li></ul><ul><li>same 145-day variety Bansdhan , </li></ul><ul><li>in monsoon season 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Age of N of Days to Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>seedling farmers harvest (in days) </li></ul><ul><li>> 14 d 9 138.5 6.5 </li></ul><ul><li>10-14 d 37 130.6 14.4 </li></ul><ul><li>8-9 d 5 123.6 21.4 </li></ul><ul><li>With SRI doubling yield from 3.1 to 6.3 t/ha </li></ul>
Crop duration (from seed to seed) of different rice varieties using SRI methods compared with conventional methods (in days), Morang District, Nepal, 2008 Varieties Conventional duration SRI duration Difference Bansdhan/Kanchhi 145 127 (117-144) 18 (28-11) Mansuli 155 136 (126-146) 19 (29-9) Swarna 155 139 (126-150) 16 (29-5) Sugandha 120 106 (98-112) 14 (22-8) Radha 12 155 138 (125-144) 17 (30-11) Barse 3017 135 118 17 Hardinath 1 120 107 (98-112) 13 (22-8) Barse 2014 135 127 (116-125) 8 (19-10)
From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web. Agronomists should be very interested in how more than doubled yield can be achieved in three weeks less time than ‘normally’ expected for this variety. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) evaluation of SRI in Andhra Pradesh state of India, conducted by ANGRAU, the state agricultural university, reported 7-10 day shorter maturation of SRI crops. In Cambodia, this has also been seen.