1014 Current Developments with SRI: Other Methods, Other Crops, Mechanization, etc.
Current Developments with SRI: Other Methods, Other Crops, Mechanization, etc. Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences January 18, 2010 Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
SRI is not yet finished <ul><li>SRI is a system of concepts, ideas, insights, methods – not a technology </li></ul><ul><li>SRI derives from the work and inventiveness of Fr. Henri de Laulanié, who spent 34 years working with farmers in Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>SRI methods were synthesized in 1984-85, but continue to evolve </li></ul><ul><li>Developed for small, poor farmers, but can be adapted more widely </li></ul>
Interesting to see variations: <ul><li>In Sichuan,several innovations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangular system (Liu Zhibin, Meishan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic mulch system (Lu Shihua et al.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Myanmar, Cambodia, Philippines, India: rainfed/upland SRI - no irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>In India, Thailand, Sri Lanka: direct-seeded SRI - no transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>In Pakistan, Costa Rica, India: mechanized SRI - reduce labor-intensity </li></ul><ul><li>In India, Mali, Ethiopia: other crops - wheat, sugar cane, millet, maize, etc. </li></ul>
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; his SRI yield in 2001 (16 t/ha) set provincial yield record
Rainfed/upland SRI <ul><li>Utilize monsoon or other rains </li></ul><ul><li>Change WATER management - no hoarding of rain water </li></ul><ul><li>Change NURSERY management – plant several nurseries , expect to sacrifice all but one of them </li></ul><ul><li>Increase soil organic matter for soil structure & water retention </li></ul>
Cost of cultivation & net profits Subject SRI (Rs) Conv (Rs) Land preparation 2,800 2,800 Seed 45 450 Labour (8) 400 750 DAP-75kg 750 750 Urea -50Kg 310 310 Weeding 600 1,000 Harvesting 420 420 Tractor hiring charges 450 450 Threshing 1,200 1,200 TOTAL COST 6,975 8,130 Irrigation - alternate (hrs) 3 7 Yield (bags) 39 32 Tons/ha 2.73 2.24 GROSS PROFIT 25,389 20,832 NET PROFIT 18,414 12,702
IWMI/India study: 67% higher income per ha, with one field yielding 15 t/ha
Direct-seeding for SRI <ul><li>Sowing of pregerminated seed – Cuba, India, Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting of pregerminated seed and thinning – Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Parachute method – Iran, elsewhere? </li></ul>
Thailand: Farmers making direct-seeder for SRI
India: Southern Andhra Pradesh Direct-seeder at KVK
Mechanization of SRI <ul><li>Need to reduce labor requirements in many places </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting developments in Costa Rica, Pakistan and other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical transplanting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical land preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeding </li></ul></ul>
SRI Methods in Different Agroecosystems <ul><li>Tropical environment – Indonesia/Aceh </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme mountain environment – Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>More benign mountain environment – Bhutan </li></ul><ul><li>Desert environment - Mali </li></ul>
‘ Rice Aplenty in Aceh (Indonesia)’ CARITAS NEWS Spring 2009 SRI methods were introduced in Aceh in 2005 by CARITAS Australia after tsunami had devastated the area – new methods raised local rice yields from 2 t/ha to 8.5 t/ha: “Using less rice seed, less water and organic compost, farmers in Aceh have quadrupled their crop production.”
2009 Report from Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got SRI yields of 10.1 t/ha vs. 5.4 t/ha regular 2009: 42 farmers got SRI yields of 9.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha regular 2 nd year SRI farmers got 13.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha 1 st year SRI farmers got 8.7 t/ha vs. 5.5 t/ha
AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
AKF technician making field visit in Baghlan Province
SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
From Report on SRI in Deorali Geog, Bhutan , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm 9.5 t/ha SRI random spacing 6.0 t/ha SRI @ 30x30cm 10.0 t/ha Standard practice 3.6 t/ha
SRI nursery in Timbuktu region of Mali – 8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
MALI: Farmer working with Africare in Timbuktu region showing difference between regular and SRI rice plants, 2007 -- SRI yield of 8.98 t/ha
<ul><li>* adjusted to 14% grain moisture content </li></ul>Rice grain yield for SRI plots, control plots and farmer-practice plots, Goundam circle, Timbuktu region, Mali, 2000 SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 % Change compared to Control + 66 100 - 11 % Change compared to Farmer Practice + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60
Importance of Soil Aeration <ul><li>Stimulation of aerobic soil organisms is critical for soil fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus solubilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycorrhyzal fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient cycling – protozoa, nematodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induced systemic resistance (ISR) </li></ul></ul>
Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
Effect of Active Soil Aeration <ul><li>412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>No. of No. of Average Range </li></ul><ul><li>weedings farmers yield of yields </li></ul><ul><li>1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) </li></ul><ul><li>2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) </li></ul><ul><li>3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4) </li></ul>
Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772
Why Is Soil Aeration So Important? <ul><li>Promotion of beneficial soil organisms, both bacteria and fungi (mycorrhizae) </li></ul><ul><li>Not only in the soil but also in the plant </li></ul><ul><li>As symbiotic endophytes in ROOTS </li></ul><ul><li>Also as endophytes in the LEAVES </li></ul><ul><li>Even as endophytes in the seed coat ! </li></ul>
Microbial populations in rice rhizosphere Tamil Nadu Agricultural University research T. M. Thiyagarajan, WRRC presentation, Tsukuba, Japan, 2004 Microorganisms Conventional SRI Total bacteria 88 x 10 6 105 x 10 6 Azospirillum 8 x 10 5 31 x 10 5 Azotobacter 39 x 10 3 66 x 10 3 Phosphobacteria 33 x 10 3 59 x 10 3
Total bacteria Total diazotrophs Microbial populations in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering (SRI = yellow; conventional = red) [units are √ transformed values of population/gram of dry soil] Phosphobacteria Azotobacter
Dehydrogenase activity (μg TPF) Urease activity (μg NH 4 -N)) Microbial activities in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management (SRI = yellow; conventional = red) at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering stages [units are √ transformed values of population/gram of dry soil per 24 h] Acid phosphate activity (μg p-Nitrophenol) Nitrogenase activity (nano mol C 2 H 4 )
Total microbes and numbers of beneficial microbes (CFU g -1 ) under conventional and SRI cultivation methods, Tanjung Sari, Bogor, Indonesia, Feb-Aug 2009 (Iswandi et al., 2009) Cultivation method and fertilization Total microbes (x10 5 ) Azoto-bacter (x10 3 ) Azospi- rillum (x10 3 ) P-solubilizing bacteria (x10 4 ) Conventional crop mgmt with NPK 2.3a 1.9a 0.9a 3.3a Inorganic SRI (NPK fertilizer) 2.7a 2.2a 1.7ab 4.0a Organic SRI (compost) 3.8b 3.7b 2.8bc 5.9b Inorganic SRI + biofertilizer 4.8c 4.4b 3.3c 6.4b
Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizo-bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02 ± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants -- symbiotic plant seeds were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
Mechanized Systems of Crop Intensification (MSCI) 1 KM Defence Road, Bhobatian Chowk, Raiwind Road, Lahore, Pakistan Tel: +92 (042) 532 2205 Fax: +92 (042) 532 1509 [email_address] www.farmalltechnology.com Solutions Provider in Farm Sector Pakistan: Private-sector applications of SRI principles; mechanized rice production (8 ha) was 13 t/ha ; applications being made to wheat, sugar cane, potatoes, onions, etc.
Wheat Plantation on Raised Beds <ul><li>Direct seeding on raised beds </li></ul><ul><li>5 rows planted on a 42-inch bed at 9-inch spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Seed rate is lowered to 25 to 30 kg per acre compared to 60 to 80 kg </li></ul><ul><li>350 kg/ha compost is banded, also 250 kg of NPK per ha is banded </li></ul>
True Potato Seed (TPS) Transplantation as of December 22, 2009
PERFORMANCE OF SCI CROPS DURING DROUGHT SEASON 2009 Experiences from Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand PEOPLE’S SCIENCE INSTITUTE, DEHRADUN
Up-scaling of SRI in Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand, 2006-08 Average SRI increase in grain yield has been about 70 per cent -- SRI concepts and methods now being applied to OTHER CROPS Particulars 2006 2007 2008 Conv. SRI Conv. SRI Conv. SRI No. of farmers (villages) 40 (25) 591 (133) 12,214 (496) Area (ha) - 0.95 - 15.00 252.98 Average grain yield (Q/ha) 31.5 52.5 28.5 54.0 39.5 60.5 % increase in grain yield - 67 - 89 - 53 Average straw yield (Q/ha) 58 72.5 55 73.5 110.5 145 % increase in straw yield - 25 - 34 - 31
Alterations in SRI Practices in Drought Year <ul><ul><li>*PAM: Panchgavya, Amritghol, Matkakhad </li></ul></ul>Recommended Practices Normal Year Drought Year (2009) Young seedlings 8-12 days 10-25 days Wider spacing (cm) 25 x 25 P/P : 15-25 R/R : 15-20 Single seedling / hill 1 / hill 1-3/ hill Alternative wetting & drying Yes Water not under control Inter-cultivation 2+ mechanical weedings 1+ mechanical and manual weeding Organic matter PAM* PAM*
SRI Comparative Crop-Cut Results, 2009 ** In this drought year, grain yields of conventional crop decreased by 31% , as compared to a reduction of only 13% in the SRI crop ** Conventional yields stood close to 2.5 tons per ha while SRI yields were 4.8 tons per ha -- 92% higher Normal (2006-2008) Drought (2009) Conv. SRI Conv. SRI No. of effective tillers/ plant 7 21 5 18 Average plant height (cm) 99 122 88 102 Average panicle length (cm) 18 24 19 25 Average no. of grains/panicle 93 177 90 174 Grain yield (t/ha) 3.6 5.5 2.5 4.8 Straw yield (t/ha) 11.1 14.5 5.1 8.5
SRI Crop Performance during Kharif 2009 Particulars Rainfed Irrigated UKD HP UKD HP Conv SRI Conv SRI Conv SRI Conv SRI No. of effective tillers/ hill 3 12 4 18 5 18 8 23 Average plant height (cm) 70 86 86 98 95 108 96 112 Average panicle length (cm) 14 19 18 26 20 26 22 28 Average no. of grains /panicle 64 102 79 230 113 170 109 189 Grain yield (t/ha) 1.1 1.9 3.4 6.3 2.6 4.6 2.9 5.9 Straw yield (t/ha) 1.9 2.7 5.8 10.1 5.9 9.7 9.1 12.8 % increase in grain yield - 73 - 74 - 77 - 103 % increase in straw yield - 42 - 78 - 64 - 41
Experiments on System of Crop Intensification (SCI), 2009 Crops Total Farmers Area (in Ha) Maize 183 10.34 Kidney bean ( Rajma ) 679 14.01 Sesame ( Til ) 22 0.41 Finger millet ( Mandwa ) 340 8.04 Black gram ( Urad ) 314 2.00 Soyabean 77 2.47 Tomato 45 4.36 French bean 44 0.35 1,704 41.98
SCI Adaptations Made for Wheat <ul><ul><li>*PAM: Panchgavya, Amritghol, Matkakhad </li></ul></ul>Practice Conventional SWI Young seedling Broadcasting Direct seed sowing / transplanting Wider spacing - P to P : 20 - 25cm R to R: 20 – 25 cm Single seedling / hill - 1-2 seed/seedling per hill Inter- cultivation 1+ manual weeding 2+ manual weeding and weeder Organic matter Compost+ chemical fertilizer Compost + PAM*
Extensions of SRI to Other Crops (SCI) Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 2007 Wheat (Irrigated) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60
SCI Adaptations Made for Finger Millet & Maize <ul><ul><li>*PAM: Panchgavya, Amritghol, Matkakhad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finger Millet : 340 farmers = 8.04 ha Maize : 183 farmers = 10.34 ha </li></ul></ul>Practice Finger Millet Maize Conv. SCI Conv. SCI Young Seedling Broad- Casting Transplanting @ 15-20 days or direct line sowing Direct seed sowing Direct seed sowing Spacing Thinning out P to P : 20 cm R to R: 20 cm Broadcasting P to P : 30 cm R to R : 30 cm Single seedling/hill - 1 plant/hill or line sowing - 1-2 seeds/hill Inter-cultivation (manual weedings) 2+ 2+ 1+ 2+ Organic matter Compost Matka Khad , Vermi-compost, PAM* Compost Cow dung, Matka Khad , PAM*
<ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with: </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water, and </li></ul><ul><li>25% reduction in chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The inspiration for putting </li></ul><ul><li>this package together is </li></ul><ul><li>from the successful </li></ul><ul><li>approach of SRI – System </li></ul><ul><li>of Rice Intensification.’ </li></ul>
Comparison of SRI and usual rice plants – Miyatty Jannah, Crawuk village, Ngawi, E. Java
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This plot of Liu Zhibin’s was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, when Liu first used SRI methods, on soil that has been kept well supplied with organic matter, he got a yield of 16 t/ha which helped to persuade Prof. Yuan Long-ping, ‘the father of hybrid rice’ in China, to become more interested in SRI. Liu is manager for the seed farm that produces hybrid seed for Prof. Yuan’s operations.
Here we look just at the effect of young seedlings, on better and poorer soil, at Anjomakely. The synergistic effect of compost with aerated soil is seen in the bottom three lines. Compost with saturated soil does less well (7.7 t/ha) than NPK with aerated soil (8.77 t/ha), but compost with aerated soil does by far the best (10.35 t/ha) on better soil. The same relationship is seen on poorer soil (right-hand column).
From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
These data were reported in Prof. Robert Randriamiharisoa's paper in the Sanya conference proceedings. They give the first direct evidence to support our thinking about the contribution of soil microbes to the super-yields achieved with SRI methods. The bacterium Azospirillum was studied as an &quot;indicator species&quot; presumably reflecting overall levels of microbial populations and activity in and around the plant roots. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no significant difference in Azospirillum populations in the rhizosphere. But there were huge differences in the counts of Azospirillum in the roots themselves according to soil types (clay vs. loam) and cultivation practices (traditional vs. SRI) and nutrient amendments (none vs. NPK vs. compost). NPK amendments with SRI produce very good results, a yield on clay soil five times higher than traditional methods with no amendments. But compost used with SRI gives a six times higher yield. The NPK increases Azospirillum (and other) populations, but most/much of the N that produced a 9 t/ha yield is coming from inorganic sources compared to the higher 10.5 t/ha yield with compost that depends entirely on organic N. On poorer soil, SRI methods do not have much effect, but when enriched with compost, even this poor soil can give a huge increase in production, attributable to the largest of the increases in microbial activity in the roots. At least, this is how we interpret these findings. Similar research should be repeated many times, with different soils, varieties and climates. We consider these findings significant because they mirror results we have seen in other carefully measured SRI results in Madagascar. Tragically, Prof. Randriamiharisoa, who initiated this work, passed away in August, 2004, so we will no longer have his acute intelligence and probing mind to advance these frontiers of knowledge.
Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.