Problem Analysis• In the course of the diagnosis, the various socio- interest groups identify the major problems. In order to seek valid solutions, it is necessary to describe and understand the problem in detail by posing the following questions:• What exactly causes the problems?• Who are affected by these problems? How?• What will happen if the problems are not solved?• So far the problems have not been solved. Why?• Do we intend to solve the problems?• What can be done to solve the problems?
Objectives & Methodology• The objectives of problems analysis are:• To identify the causes and effects of priority problems indicated by the village residents.• To select the most relevant causes which the village residents can and wish to address• Methodology: The methods and tools used for problems analysis are:• a) Village introductory meeting and• b) Problem tree
Village Introductory Meeting• Selection of problems for analysis – A problem for which numerous causes have apparently been responsible. – One of the priority problems indicated by the majority of socio-interest groups; this may – indicate that a large number of people in the village have been affected by the problem. – Problems in the priority list which are of interest to the service agencies represented.
Cont..• Course of the Meeting – The facilitator explains the objectives of problem analysis – The residents are divided into sub-groups and allocated problems analysis – The number of sub-groups should depend on the number of complex problems and the – number and the number of the facilitators available. – It is important that the technical staff from relevant service agencies participate in the problem analysis.
Steps in Participatory Approaches • Rapport building • DIY (Do-It Yourself) • Consultations with the villagers and outsiders • Secondary Data Collection • Training of Trainers • Diagnosis
Some of the these approaches are• Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA)• Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)• Participatory Learning Methods (PALM)• Agro-Ecosystem Analysis (AEA)• Participatory Action Research (PAR)• Participatory Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation (PAME)• Farming Systems Research (FSR)• Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning (PRAP)
Distinguishing Features ofParticipatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) • Closed to Open • Measurement to Comparison • Individual to Group • Democracy of the Ground • Verbal to Visual • Higher to Lower • Reserve to Rapport
Principles of PRA• Listening and Learning• Offsetting Biases• Utilization of precious Community Time• Seeking Diversity• Triangulation /Cross checking• Optimal ignorance and appropriate imprecision• Multi-disciplinary Team
Behavioral Principles of PRA • Handing over the Stick • Self-critical Awareness • Use Your Best Judgments • From Stealing to Sharing
Participatory Tools and Techniques •Space related PRA Methods – Social Map – Resource Map – Transect – Mobility Map •Time Related PRA Methods – Time line – Trend Analysis – Seasonal diagram
Cont..• Relation Related PRA Methods – Cause and effect diagram – Well-being Ranking – Venn diagram