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Index
• Introduction to Smart Farming
• Purpose of Smart farming
• Sensors used in Smart Farming
• Components used for mak...
Introduction
Smart Farming :
- Sensors
- Automation
- Artificial intelligence (AI)
- Things in which smartness can be incu...
Purpose of Smart Farms
- Automation
- Efficient
- Climate Independency
- Reducing wastage of resources
- Maximizing Crop y...
Sensors
- Electromagnetic
- Optical
- Mechanical
- Electrochemical
- Airflow
- Acoustic
New Waspmote Sensor Board enables extreme precision
agriculture in vineyards and greenhouses.
Parameters:
-air temperature...
Libelium Smart Agriculture IoT Vertical Kit
Components used for making
prototype
• Ardunio UNO Board
• Moisture sensor with LM 393 driver
• Pump 12 V
• LCD Display wi...
ARDUNIO BOARD
Technical Specification
• Microcontroller ATmega328
• Operating Voltage 5V
• Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V
• Input Vol...
Communication in Ardunio
• The ATmega328 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication,
which is available on digital pins 0...
LCD Display with RTC
interface
Pump
• The portable moisture meters (such as used in the
lumber industry) are usually calibrated in %moisture.
Some of the labo...
Moisture Sensor with LM 393
driver
Farm Bot
Advance Farming Robots
Real time analysis of TULSI crop
DAY 10:45AM 1:00PM 4:00PM 9:00PM
SUNDAY 450 250 526 200 396 217 368 -
MONDAY 455 225 500 ...
Gravimetric Methods
Gravimetric measurement is direct, exact and is the 'gold standard' for all other
measurement methods....
Soil Moisture Measurement
Key Points
• The most accurate method of soil moisture measurement is through weight ('gravimetr...
• Using Soil Moisture to Make Irrigation Decisions
• Key Points
• Each moisture probe should be located at a point that re...
• Wheat:
• Wheat is grown under irrigation in the tropics either in the highlands near the equator and in the
lowlands awa...
If Old McDonald had a farm today, he could manage it from his
laptop computer and map it with an application on his handhe...
References:
1. For General Information on Automatic water irrigation :
http://www.instructables.com/id/Arduino-Automatic-W...
Smart farming using ARDUINO (Nirma University)
Smart farming using ARDUINO (Nirma University)
Smart farming using ARDUINO (Nirma University)
Smart farming using ARDUINO (Nirma University)
Smart farming using ARDUINO (Nirma University)
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Smart farming using ARDUINO (Nirma University)

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this is to giude those who wants to learnf about automation in the field of agriculture and green harvesting.

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Smart farming using ARDUINO (Nirma University)

  1. 1. Index • Introduction to Smart Farming • Purpose of Smart farming • Sensors used in Smart Farming • Components used for making prototype • Block Diagram • Recent Technology used for Smart Farming • Development of Pump from motor • Conclusion • References
  2. 2. Introduction Smart Farming : - Sensors - Automation - Artificial intelligence (AI) - Things in which smartness can be inculcated are: 1) Irrigation 2) Harvesting 3) Ploughing 4) Weed & Pest removal
  3. 3. Purpose of Smart Farms - Automation - Efficient - Climate Independency - Reducing wastage of resources - Maximizing Crop yield - Environmental Friendly - Absorbing CO2
  4. 4. Sensors - Electromagnetic - Optical - Mechanical - Electrochemical - Airflow - Acoustic
  5. 5. New Waspmote Sensor Board enables extreme precision agriculture in vineyards and greenhouses. Parameters: -air temperature -air humidity -soil temperature -soil moisture -leaf wetness -atmospheric pressure -solar radiation -trunk/stem/fruit diameter -wind speed/direction -rainfall
  6. 6. Libelium Smart Agriculture IoT Vertical Kit
  7. 7. Components used for making prototype • Ardunio UNO Board • Moisture sensor with LM 393 driver • Pump 12 V • LCD Display with RTC Interface • Relay Module
  8. 8. ARDUNIO BOARD
  9. 9. Technical Specification • Microcontroller ATmega328 • Operating Voltage 5V • Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V • Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V • Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output) • Analog Input Pins 6 • DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA • Flash Memory 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader • SRAM 2 KB • EEPROM 1 KB • Clock Speed 16 MHz
  10. 10. Communication in Ardunio • The ATmega328 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). • The Ardunio software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Ardunio board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the USB-to serial chip and USB connection to the computer
  11. 11. LCD Display with RTC interface Pump
  12. 12. • The portable moisture meters (such as used in the lumber industry) are usually calibrated in %moisture. Some of the laboratory (bench) models measure in parts per million moisture. Soil Moisture sensor
  13. 13. Moisture Sensor with LM 393 driver
  14. 14. Farm Bot
  15. 15. Advance Farming Robots
  16. 16. Real time analysis of TULSI crop DAY 10:45AM 1:00PM 4:00PM 9:00PM SUNDAY 450 250 526 200 396 217 368 - MONDAY 455 225 500 250 400 271 400 - • Tulasi is very heat and cold sensitive. A room that has a constant warm temperature, a greenhouse or indoor greenhouse is best. We can place it on a window sill with a heater right under it, provided the heater is on at night too. • Especially in the winter it is very important to ensure tulsi is kept in a constantly warm place. • Optimum ground temperature is around 26° Celsius (78,8° Fahrenheit). water in ppm
  17. 17. Gravimetric Methods Gravimetric measurement is direct, exact and is the 'gold standard' for all other measurement methods. To measure VWC gravimetrically, a sample is taken from the field and brought to a lab in an air-tight container. In the lab, the sample is weighed, baked in an oven long enough to remove all water through evaporation then weighed again. This directly measures the proportion of water that was in the original sample: The only accuracy limitations of gravimetric measurements are the accuracy of the scale and the amount of time available for drying. However, gravimetric measurements are manual and time consuming and are not practical for everyday use in farming.
  18. 18. Soil Moisture Measurement Key Points • The most accurate method of soil moisture measurement is through weight ('gravimetric') measurements. While practical in a lab environment, gravimetric methods are too time consuming for farm water management. • Commercial Soil Moisture measurement devices can be classified as those that measure Tension and those that measure VWC. • Tension sensors include Tensiometers and Gypsum Block sensors. • VWC sensors include Neutron Probes and Dielectric Probes. • Most VWC sensors measure soil dielectric properties. To obtain actual VWC, these measurements must be scaled by a calibration curve that depends on soil type. • It is usually desirable to measure at several points in the root zone profile. Some moisture probes accommodate this by providing an array of sensors, in a single probe, positioned at different depths. • Measuring soil moisture has always played a role in successful farm management. For many years farmers have relied on the 'look and feel' of soil to evaluate moisture content. In fact, studies have shown that experienced farmers can identify certain moisture levels, such as Field Capacity, with a very high degree of accuracy simply by feeling soil and visually observing its characteristics. However, monitoring soil moisture on an ongoing basis at several positions within the root zone and systematically using this information to make irrigation decisions requires measurement devices, computers and networked communication equipment.
  19. 19. • Using Soil Moisture to Make Irrigation Decisions • Key Points • Each moisture probe should be located at a point that represents the area being irrigated. • For most crops, moisture should be measured at several locations throughout the depth of the root zone and averaged together into a single 'Root Zone Summary.' • Irrigation decisions can be made with raw data direct from moisture probes instead of calibrated VWC. This avoids errors that can be introduced through calibration curves that depend on soil type. • Plan irrigation by tracking soil moisture relative to preset 'Management Lines,' which define five root zone moisture regions: 'Very Full', 'Full', 'Optimal', 'Refill' and 'Stress'. The goal is to schedule irrigation to keep moisture in the Optimal region. • Soil moisture level and its rate of change can be used to predict the time and duration of the next irrigation cycle. • Using soil moisture measurements to determine irrigation involves identifying the lowest and highest root zone moisture you wish to permit, then scheduling irrigation events to keep moisture levels between those values. • In this section we discuss how to put this concept into practice by selecting the right sensor locations, using profile measurements to evaluate average root zone moisture, correctly setting the high and low moisture points ('Management Lines') and maintaining optimum soil moisture throughout the season.
  20. 20. • Wheat: • Wheat is grown under irrigation in the tropics either in the highlands near the equator and in the lowlands away from the equator. In the subtropics with summer rainfall the crop is grown under irrigation in the winter months. In the subtropics with winter rainfall it is grown under supplemental irrigation. The length of the total growing period of spring wheat ranges from 100 to 130 days while winter wheat needs about 180 to 250 days to mature. A dry, warm ripening period of 18°C or more is preferred. Wheat is relatively tolerant to a high groundwater table; for sandy loam to silt loam a depth of groundwater of 0.6 to 0.8 m can usually be tolerated, and for clay 0.8 to 1 m. With pre- irrigation or sufficient rain to wet the upper soil layer, seeds are drilled 2 to 4 cm deep. Under favourable water supply including irrigation and adequate fertilization row spacing • Plants/ha (hectare) • Kg/ha (hectare): surface density • Sowing rates kg/ha • The crop coefficient (kc) relating maximum evapotranspiration (ETm) to reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is: during the initial stage 0.3-0.4 (15 to 20 days), the development stage 0.7-0.8 (25 to 30 days), the mid-season stage 1.05-1.2 (50 to 65 days), the late-season stage 0.65-0.7 (30 to 40 days) and at harvest 0.2-0.25. • Crop Coefficient, Kc • Root Depth, m • Depletion Coefficient, p • Yield Response Factor, Ky • Grain yield factor
  21. 21. If Old McDonald had a farm today, he could manage it from his laptop computer and map it with an application on his handheld device.
  22. 22. References: 1. For General Information on Automatic water irrigation : http://www.instructables.com/id/Arduino-Automatic-Watering-System-For-Plants/ 2. For block diagram and step by step building process of project: http://duino4projects.com/arduino-automatic-watering-system-2/ 3.Wheat crop analysis in different periods: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/cropinfo_wheat.html 4. Research Papers: I) J. BURRELL ET AL. VINEYARD Computing Sensor networks in agricultural production. IEEE pervasive computing II) A. BAGGIO Wireless sensor networks in precision agriculture III) S. BLACKMORE “Precision Farming: An Introduction,” Outlook on Agriculture Journal IV) N. WANG, N. ZHANG AND M. WANG “Wireless Sensors in Agriculture and Food Industry: Recent Development and Future Perspective

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