• Introduction to Smart Farming
• Purpose of Smart farming
• Sensors used in Smart Farming
• Components used for making prototype
• Block Diagram
• Recent Technology used for Smart Farming
• Development of Pump from motor
Smart Farming :
- Artificial intelligence (AI)
- Things in which smartness can be inculcated are:
1) Irrigation 2) Harvesting
3) Ploughing 4) Weed & Pest removal
Purpose of Smart Farms
- Climate Independency
- Reducing wastage of resources
- Maximizing Crop yield
- Environmental Friendly
- Absorbing CO2
• Microcontroller ATmega328
• Operating Voltage 5V
• Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V
• Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V
• Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
• Analog Input Pins 6
• DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA
• Flash Memory 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by
• SRAM 2 KB
• EEPROM 1 KB
• Clock Speed 16 MHz
Communication in Ardunio
• The ATmega328 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication,
which is available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX).
• The Ardunio software includes a serial monitor which allows
simple textual data to be sent to and from the Ardunio board.
The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is being
transmitted via the USB-to serial chip and USB connection to
• The portable moisture meters (such as used in the
lumber industry) are usually calibrated in %moisture.
Some of the laboratory (bench) models measure in
parts per million moisture.
Soil Moisture sensor
Real time analysis of TULSI crop
DAY 10:45AM 1:00PM 4:00PM 9:00PM
SUNDAY 450 250 526 200 396 217 368 -
MONDAY 455 225 500 250 400 271 400 -
• Tulasi is very heat and cold sensitive. A room that has a constant warm
temperature, a greenhouse or indoor greenhouse is best. We can place it on
a window sill with a heater right under it, provided the heater is on at night
• Especially in the winter it is very important to ensure tulsi is kept in a
constantly warm place.
• Optimum ground temperature is around 26° Celsius (78,8° Fahrenheit).
water in ppm
Gravimetric measurement is direct, exact and is the 'gold standard' for all other
measurement methods. To measure VWC gravimetrically, a sample is taken from the field
and brought to a lab in an air-tight container. In the lab, the sample is weighed, baked in
an oven long enough to remove all water through evaporation then weighed again. This
directly measures the proportion of water that was in the original sample:
The only accuracy limitations of gravimetric measurements are the accuracy of the scale
and the amount of time available for drying. However, gravimetric measurements are
manual and time consuming and are not practical for everyday use in farming.
Soil Moisture Measurement
• The most accurate method of soil moisture measurement is through weight ('gravimetric')
measurements. While practical in a lab environment, gravimetric methods are too time consuming
for farm water management.
• Commercial Soil Moisture measurement devices can be classified as those that measure Tension and
those that measure VWC.
• Tension sensors include Tensiometers and Gypsum Block sensors.
• VWC sensors include Neutron Probes and Dielectric Probes.
• Most VWC sensors measure soil dielectric properties. To obtain actual VWC, these measurements
must be scaled by a calibration curve that depends on soil type.
• It is usually desirable to measure at several points in the root zone profile. Some moisture probes
accommodate this by providing an array of sensors, in a single probe, positioned at different depths.
• Measuring soil moisture has always played a role in successful farm management. For many years
farmers have relied on the 'look and feel' of soil to evaluate moisture content. In fact, studies have
shown that experienced farmers can identify certain moisture levels, such as Field Capacity, with a
very high degree of accuracy simply by feeling soil and visually observing its characteristics. However,
monitoring soil moisture on an ongoing basis at several positions within the root zone and
systematically using this information to make irrigation decisions requires measurement devices,
computers and networked communication equipment.
• Using Soil Moisture to Make Irrigation Decisions
• Key Points
• Each moisture probe should be located at a point that represents the area being irrigated.
• For most crops, moisture should be measured at several locations throughout the depth of the root
zone and averaged together into a single 'Root Zone Summary.'
• Irrigation decisions can be made with raw data direct from moisture probes instead of calibrated
VWC. This avoids errors that can be introduced through calibration curves that depend on soil type.
• Plan irrigation by tracking soil moisture relative to preset 'Management Lines,' which define five root
zone moisture regions: 'Very Full', 'Full', 'Optimal', 'Refill' and 'Stress'. The goal is to schedule
irrigation to keep moisture in the Optimal region.
• Soil moisture level and its rate of change can be used to predict the time and duration of the next
• Using soil moisture measurements to determine irrigation involves identifying the lowest and
highest root zone moisture you wish to permit, then scheduling irrigation events to keep moisture
levels between those values.
• In this section we discuss how to put this concept into practice by selecting the right sensor
locations, using profile measurements to evaluate average root zone moisture, correctly setting the
high and low moisture points ('Management Lines') and maintaining optimum soil moisture
throughout the season.
• Wheat is grown under irrigation in the tropics either in the highlands near the equator and in the
lowlands away from the equator. In the subtropics with summer rainfall the crop is grown under
irrigation in the winter months. In the subtropics with winter rainfall it is grown under supplemental
irrigation. The length of the total growing period of spring wheat ranges from 100 to 130 days while
winter wheat needs about 180 to 250 days to mature. A dry, warm ripening period of 18°C or more is
preferred. Wheat is relatively tolerant to a high groundwater table; for sandy loam to silt loam a
depth of groundwater of 0.6 to 0.8 m can usually be tolerated, and for clay 0.8 to 1 m. With pre-
irrigation or sufficient rain to wet the upper soil layer, seeds are drilled 2 to 4 cm deep. Under
favourable water supply including irrigation and adequate fertilization row spacing
• Plants/ha (hectare)
• Kg/ha (hectare): surface density
• Sowing rates kg/ha
• The crop coefficient (kc) relating maximum evapotranspiration (ETm) to reference evapotranspiration
(ETo) is: during the initial stage 0.3-0.4 (15 to 20 days), the development stage 0.7-0.8 (25 to 30 days),
the mid-season stage 1.05-1.2 (50 to 65 days), the late-season stage 0.65-0.7 (30 to 40 days) and at
• Crop Coefficient, Kc
• Root Depth, m
• Depletion Coefficient, p
• Yield Response Factor, Ky
• Grain yield factor
If Old McDonald had a farm today, he could manage it from his
laptop computer and map it with an application on his handheld
1. For General Information on Automatic water irrigation :
2. For block diagram and step by step building process of project:
3.Wheat crop analysis in different periods:
4. Research Papers:
I) J. BURRELL ET AL. VINEYARD
Computing Sensor networks in agricultural production. IEEE pervasive computing
II) A. BAGGIO
Wireless sensor networks in precision agriculture
III) S. BLACKMORE
“Precision Farming: An Introduction,” Outlook on Agriculture Journal
IV) N. WANG, N. ZHANG AND M. WANG
“Wireless Sensors in Agriculture and Food Industry: Recent Development and Future Perspective