This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields >15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52 nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
This plot of Liu Zhibin’s was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, when Liu first used SRI methods, on soil that has been kept well supplied with organic matter, he got a yield of 16 t/ha which helped to persuade Prof. Yuan Long-ping, ‘the father of hybrid rice’ in China, to become more interested in SRI. Liu is manager for the seed farm that produces hybrid seed for Prof. Yuan’s operations.
Here we look just at the effect of young seedlings, on better and poorer soil, at Anjomakely. The synergistic effect of compost with aerated soil is seen in the bottom three lines. Compost with saturated soil does less well (7.7 t/ha) than NPK with aerated soil (8.77 t/ha), but compost with aerated soil does by far the best (10.35 t/ha) on better soil. The same relationship is seen on poorer soil (right-hand column).
Two fields of rice growth with normal methods and the 3-S system. The phenotypical differences are evident, much as seen with SRI.
Seedlings are started in heated greenhouses when there is still snow on the ground.
This is a 3-S seedling in upper left, and a 3-S plant in lower right.
As with SRI, there is a measurable improvement in grain quality with these methods.
From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.
1019 An Overview of Opportunities with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
An Overview of Opportunities with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) CNRRI Workshop, Hangzhou February 28-March 2, 2010 Prof. Norman Uphoff Cornell University
SRI Involves Changes in Practices <ul><li>Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth </li></ul><ul><li>Give plants wider spacing -- one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve ‘edge effect’ everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded -- soil should be mostly aerobic -- not continuously saturated </li></ul><ul><li>Actively aerate the soil as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>First 3 practices stimulate plant growth , while the latter 3 practices enhance the growth and the health of plants ROOTS and of soil BIOTA </li></ul>
SRI practices generally contribute: <ul><li>Higher yields -- by 50-100%, or more </li></ul><ul><li>Water reduction -- 25-50% (also rainfed) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced capital need - accessible to poor </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no need for agrochemical inputs which is better for soil and water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for climatic stresses - drought, storm damage, extreme temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Induced pest and disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Better grain quality -- less chalkiness </li></ul><ul><li>Less cost of production higher income </li></ul>
Two Paradigms for Agriculture: <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>SRI ( AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) Promotes the growth of root systems , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) Increases the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRI produces better PHENOTYPES naturally </li></ul>
CUBA: farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon
INDIA: Meteorological and yield data from ANGRAU IPM evaluation, Andhra Pradesh, 2006 * Low yield was due to cold injury for plants (see above) *Sudden drop in min. temp. during 16–21 Dec. (9.2-9.8 o C for 5 days) Period Mean max. temp. 0 C Mean min. temp. 0 C No. of sunshine hrs 1 – 15 Nov 27.7 19.2 4.9 16–30 Nov 29.6 17.9 7.5 1 – 15 Dec 29.1 14.6 8.6 16–31 Dec 28.1 12.2 * 8.6 Season Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha) Rabi 2005-06 2.25 3.47 Kharif 2006 0.21* 4.16
VIETNAM: Reduction in Diseases & Pests National IPM Program conducted evaluation based on data from 8 provinces, 2005-06 * Insects/m 2 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7%
47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
China National Rice Research Institute: Factorial trials over two years, 2004/2005 using two super-hybrid varieties with the aim of breaking the ‘plateau’ limiting yields <ul><li>Standard Rice Mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>30-day seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>20x20 cm spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Rice Mgmt (~SRI) </li></ul><ul><li>20-day seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>30x30 cm spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% chemical, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% organic </li></ul></ul>
Average super-rice yields with standard rice management (SRM) vs. new rice management (NRM~SRI) at different plant densities ha -1 Plant density (plants per hectare) Yield (kg per hectare)
AN ASSESSMENT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) COMPARED WITH RECOMMENDED RICE CULTIVATION PRACTICES IN INDIA A.K. Thakur, N. Uphoff, E. Antony Experimental Agriculture , 46(1), 77-98 (2010) Water-use efficiency is reflected in the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration For the loss of 1 millimol of water by transpiration, In SRI plants, 3.6 millimols of CO 2 are fixed In RMP plants, 1.6 millimols of CO 2 are fixed
Many versions of SRI: <ul><li>In China, many different innovations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangular spacing, raised beds/no-till ; now also plastic mulch on raised beds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Myanmar, Cambodia, Philippines, India: rainfed/upland SRI – no irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>In India, Thailand, Sri Lanka: getting direct-seeded SRI - no transplanting </li></ul><ul><li>In Pakistan, Costa Rica, India: have mechanized SRI - reducing labor-intensity </li></ul><ul><li>In India, Mali, Ethiopia: other crops - wheat, sugar cane, millet, maize, etc. </li></ul>
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; his SRI yield in 2001 (16 t/ha) set provincial yield record
<ul><li>Science and Technology Daily , Chengdu - 26 June 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>“ A New Technology Saves Millions in Paddy Fields in Drought Season in Sichuan Province” – Sheng Li </li></ul><ul><li>Yield per mu in this drought-prone area is normally 300 kg ( 4.5 t/ha ); with new methods it can exceed 500-600 kg/mu ( 7.7-9.0 t/ha ), and can even reach 800 kg/mu ( 12 t/ha ). </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of mulching with new methods is 40 ¥/mu; but costs of weeding, land preparation, fertilizer and irrigation are decreased by 230 ¥/mu </li></ul><ul><li>Net income can increase with higher yield by 460 ¥/mu ($1,015/hectare) – while using less water </li></ul>
Rainfed/upland SRI <ul><li>Utilize monsoon or other rainfall: </li></ul><ul><li>Change WATER management - no hoarding of rain water </li></ul><ul><li>Change NURSERY management – plant several staggered nurseries – expect to use only one of them </li></ul><ul><li>Increase soil organic matter for soil structure & water retention </li></ul>
Direct-seeding for SRI <ul><li>Sow pre-germinated seed in square pattern – Cuba, India, Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast of pregerminated seed and thin out plants by weeding – Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Parachute method – Iran, elsewhere? (but spacing is not regular) </li></ul>
INDIA: Southern Andhra Pradesh Direct-seeder at KVK
Mechanization of SRI <ul><li>Need to reduce labor requirements in many places </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting developments in Costa Rica, Pakistan and other countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical transplanting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical land preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeding </li></ul></ul>
SRI Methods in Different Agroecosystems <ul><li>Tropical environment – Indonesia/Aceh </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme mountain environment – Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>Benign mountain environment – Bhutan </li></ul><ul><li>Desert environment - Mali </li></ul>
‘ Rice Aplenty in Aceh (Indonesia)’ CARITAS NEWS Spring 2009 SRI methods were introduced in Aceh in 2005 by CARITAS Australia after tsunami had devastated the area – new methods raised local rice yields from 2 t/ha to 8.5 t/ha: “Using less rice seed, less water and organic compost, farmers in Aceh have quadrupled their crop production.”
2009 Report from Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got SRI yields of 10.1 t/ha vs. 5.4 t/ha regular 2009: 42 farmers got SRI yields of 9.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha regular 2 nd year SRI farmers got 13.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha 1 st year SRI farmers got 8.7 t/ha vs. 5.5 t/ha
AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
BHUTAN: Report on SRI in Deorali Geog , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm 9.5 t/ha SRI random spacing 6.0 t/ha SRI @ 30x30cm 10.0 t/ha Standard practice 3.6 t/ha
MALI: SRI nursery in Timbuktu region – 8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
MALI: Farmer in Timbuktu region showing difference between regular and SRI rice plants -- 2007: SRI yield was 8.98 t/ha
<ul><li>* adjusted to 14% grain moisture content </li></ul>Rice grain yield for SRI plots, control plots and farmer-practice plots, Goundam circle, Timbuktu region, Mali, 2008 SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 % Change compared to Control + 66 100 - 11 % Change compared to Farmer Practice + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60
Normal 3-S 3-S rice-growing method developed by Prof. Jin Xueyong, Northeast Agricultural University, Haerbin, Heilungjiong
3-S seedlings are started at the end of winter in plastic greenhouses
Seedling for transplanting -- and resulting plant
Importance of Soil Aeration <ul><li>Stimulate aerobic soil organisms as they are critical for soil fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixation - nitrifiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus solubilization – phosphobacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycorrhyzal fungi – access water, P, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient cycling – protozoa, nematodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Induced systemic resistance (ISR) </li></ul></ul>
Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
Effects of Active Soil Aeration with Mechanical Weeder Mechanical Weedings (N) Yield (t ha -1 ) MADAGASCAR: 1997-98 main season -- Ambatovaky (N=76) None 2 5.97 One 8 7.72 Two 27 7.37 Three 24 9.12 Four 15 11.77 NEPAL: 2006 monsoon season – Morang district (N=412) One 32 5.16 (3.6 – 7.6) Two 366 5.87 (3.5 – 11.0) Three 14 7.87 (5.85 – 10.4)
Why Is ‘Weeding’ So Important? <ul><li>Not just to control weeds ; also benefit from green-manure effect of weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of beneficial soil organisms , both bacteria and fungi (mycorrhizae) </li></ul><ul><li>These organisms are functioning not only in the soil -- but also in the plant </li></ul><ul><li>As symbiotic endophytes in ROOTS </li></ul><ul><li>Also as endophytes in the LEAVES </li></ul><ul><li>Even as endophytes in the seed coat ! </li></ul>
Microbial populations in rice rhizosphere Tamil Nadu Agricultural University research T. M. Thiyagarajan, WRRC presentation, Tsukuba, Japan, 2004 Microorganisms Conventional SRI Total bacteria 88 x 10 6 105 x 10 6 Azospirillum 8 x 10 5 31 x 10 5 Azotobacter 39 x 10 3 66 x 10 3 Phosphobacteria 33 x 10 3 59 x 10 3
Total bacteria Total diazotrophs Microbial populations in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering (SRI = yellow; conventional = red) [units are √ transformed values of population/gram of dry soil] Phosphobacteria Azotobacter
Total microbes and numbers of beneficial microbes (CFU g -1 ) under conventional and SRI cultivation methods, Tanjung Sari, Bogor, Indonesia, Feb-Aug 2009 (Iswandi et al., 2009) Cultivation method and fertilization Total microbes (x10 5 ) Azoto-bacter (x10 3 ) Azospi- rillum (x10 3 ) P-solubilizing bacteria (x10 4 ) Conventional crop mgmt with NPK 2.3a 1.9a 0.9a 3.3a Inorganic SRI (NPK fertilizer) 2.7a 2.2a 1.7ab 4.0a Organic SRI (compost) 3.8b 3.7b 2.8bc 5.9b Inorganic SRI + biofertilizer 4.8c 4.4b 3.3c 6.4b
Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizo-bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02 ± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants -- symbiotic plant seeds were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
Estimated marginal value product of nitrogen fertilizer (Kshs/kg N) conditional on plot soil carbon content (Marenya and Barrett, AJAE, 2009) Plot content (%) of soil organic carbon (SOC) In Western Kenya, applying N fertilizer to soil with < 3-4% SOC does not repay farmers’ expenditure
PERFORMANCE OF SCI CROPS DURING DROUGHT SEASON 2009 Experiences from Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand PEOPLE’S SCIENCE INSTITUTE, DEHRADUN
Up-scaling of SRI in Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand, 2006-08 Average SRI increase in grain yield has been about 70 per cent -- SRI concepts and methods now being applied to OTHER CROPS Particulars 2006 2007 2008 Conv. SRI Conv. SRI Conv. SRI No. of farmers (villages) 40 (25) 591 (133) 12,214 (496) Area (ha) - 0.95 - 15.00 252.98 Average grain yield (t/ha) 3.15 5.25 2.85 5.40 3.95 6.05 % increase in grain yield - 67 - 89 - 53 Average straw yield (t/ha) 5.8 7.25 5.5 7.35 11.0 14.5 % increase in straw yield - 25 - 34 - 31
SRI Comparative Crop-Cut Results, 2009 ** In this drought year, grain yields of conventional crop decreased by 31% , as compared to a reduction of only 13% in the SRI crop ** Conventional yields stood close to 2.5 tons per ha while SRI yields were 4.8 tons per ha -- 92% higher Normal (2006-2008) Drought (2009) Conv. SRI Conv. SRI No. of effective tillers/ plant 7 21 5 18 Average plant height (cm) 99 122 88 102 Average panicle length (cm) 18 24 19 25 Average no. of grains/panicle 93 177 90 174 Grain yield (t/ha) 3.6 5.5 2.5 4.8 Straw yield (t/ha) 11.1 14.5 5.1 8.5
Experiments on System of Crop Intensification (SCI), 2009 Crops Total Farmers Area (in Ha) Maize 183 10.34 Kidney bean ( Rajma ) 679 14.01 Sesame ( Til ) 22 0.41 Finger millet ( Mandwa ) 340 8.04 Black gram ( Urad ) 314 2.00 Soyabean 77 2.47 Tomato 45 4.36 French bean 44 0.35 1,704 41.98
<ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with: </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water, and </li></ul><ul><li>25% reduction in chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The inspiration for putting </li></ul><ul><li>this package together is </li></ul><ul><li>from the successful </li></ul><ul><li>approach of SRI – System </li></ul><ul><li>of Rice Intensification.’ </li></ul>
Comparison of SRI and usual rice plants – Miyatty Jannah, Crawuk village, Ngawi, E. Java
<ul><li>SRI is pointing the way toward a paradigm shift toward ‘post-modern agriculture’ – the most modern agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Less genocentric -- more fundamentally biocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding epigenetics </li></ul><ul><li>Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to capitalize on benefits of biodiversity and ecological dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Less chemical-dependent -- more energy-efficient </li></ul><ul><li>More oriented to health of humans and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on greater factor productivity and sustainability </li></ul>
THANK YOU <ul><li>Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>or [email_address] </li></ul>