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SYSTEM OF WHEAT INTENSIFICATION (SWI):
      A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT
INTENSIFICATION PRACTICED IN KAILALI, NEPAL




             Ram B Khadka
        Programme Coordinator
  European Union Food Facility Project,
    FAYA- Nepal, Dhangadhi, Kailali
What is SWI ?
New concept and practice of wheat cultivation
  manipulating the soil environment favorably for
  better root and shoot growth using principles of SRI
 Wide spacing of plants for better light and air
  utilization
 Increases use of compost and organic matter
 Quality seed to be selected and treated using
  appropriate biotic and biotic agents
 Better soil aeration by use of mechanical weeder
What have done at Kailali?
• Four farmers' controlled field trials were designed and
  established at Ramsikharjhala, Lalbojhi, and Fulbari
• Each trial had two treatments: 300m2 for farmer's practices
  and 300 m2 for SWI
• Variety used: Gautam and Bhirkuti
• Broadcasting of seed with recommended dose of fertilizer i
  farmers’ practice
• Germinated seeds planted in-line at a distance of 20 cm pla
  to- plant and 20 cm line-to-line by dibbling methods
• Gap-filling was done by transplanting individual wheat
  seedlings at 10 DAS
• Fertilizer dose 100:50:50 Kg NPK/ha and 10 MT FYM per ha
• At 20, 40 and 60 DAS, irrigation were done and each 5 days
  after irrigation weedings were done by SWI weeder machin
•
Obser-
vations




•   Tiller number
•   Plant height
•   Spike number per hill
•   Number of grains per spike
•   Total grain weight
•   Number of spike per m2

Data were taken separately for conventional practices, for SWI
  direct sowing, and for SWI seedling transplanting by
  randomly selecting 10 plants from each type
Results
SN Parameters                      Fulbari        Lalbojhi     Ramsikharjhala
    (average of 10 plants)                                      Conv.
                                 Conv.     SWI Conv. SWI                SWI
                                            25        34                  25
1 Tiller number                   5      (18-36) 4 (22-54)        3    (19-42)
2 Number of spike per hill        5        22.5  4    33         2.4     23.5
     Number of grains per
3   spike                        22.5     45.4   50.1   72.4     60      80
4    Number of spike per m2      310      400    414    446     210     256
5    Spike length (cm)            9       16     9.3    12.3     13      18
6    TGW (gm)                     50      75     40      45      45      50
7    Productivity (Mt/ha)         4        8     5.8    7.95     4.8    6.95
8   Difference in productivity           100%           37%             44%
What was lacking in SWI practices
              at Kailali?
• Seeds were selected and treated by hot water
  only; but better results can be expected with
  treatment using a mixture of jaggery, vermi-
  compost, cow urine, and biotic agents like
  Aspergillium in usual practice of SWI
• Dibbling of seed was done manually so there
  were differences in seed depth (3-4 cm is most
  appropriate) hampering germination percentage;
  use of a SWI drill machine can help uniform seed
  depth
Discussion
• Wheat plants in SWI (leaf width, leaf colour, root
  length, and root distribution ) were seen to be
  quite different; in SWI, leaves were more green
  and wide, roots are deep and well distributed
• The transplanted seedlings did not have as good
  performance in tillering as did direct sowing
• SWI wheat remains greener than conventional,
  even when ready to harvest ; seen as more
  tolerant of hot stress; later senescence appeared
  in SWI
Different between SWI and conventional practices observed
                            at Kailali
SN Parameters                               SWI                         Conventional

1     Seed requirement                  25-30 kg/ha                    100-120 Kg/ha

2     Seed treatment              Should be done by with               Not necessary
                                  biotic and biotic agents
3     Methods of sowing               Dibbling in line                  Broadcasting

4     Spacing                            20 x20 cm                   No proper spacing
5     Weeding                      2-3 weedings by using                  Not done
                                       cono-weeder

6     Length of panicle (cm)                 18                              12
7     No of grains per panicle             60-75                           40-50
8     No. of panicles per hill             53-40                             2-5

9     TGW (gm)                             70-75                           45-50

10    Stem, roots & leaves       Thick stem, long root and   Thin stem, short and surface root
Thanks for your kind
attention

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1304- System of Wheat Intensification in Kailali Nepal (SWI)

  • 1. SYSTEM OF WHEAT INTENSIFICATION (SWI): A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT INTENSIFICATION PRACTICED IN KAILALI, NEPAL Ram B Khadka Programme Coordinator European Union Food Facility Project, FAYA- Nepal, Dhangadhi, Kailali
  • 2. What is SWI ? New concept and practice of wheat cultivation manipulating the soil environment favorably for better root and shoot growth using principles of SRI  Wide spacing of plants for better light and air utilization  Increases use of compost and organic matter  Quality seed to be selected and treated using appropriate biotic and biotic agents  Better soil aeration by use of mechanical weeder
  • 3. What have done at Kailali? • Four farmers' controlled field trials were designed and established at Ramsikharjhala, Lalbojhi, and Fulbari • Each trial had two treatments: 300m2 for farmer's practices and 300 m2 for SWI • Variety used: Gautam and Bhirkuti • Broadcasting of seed with recommended dose of fertilizer i farmers’ practice • Germinated seeds planted in-line at a distance of 20 cm pla to- plant and 20 cm line-to-line by dibbling methods • Gap-filling was done by transplanting individual wheat seedlings at 10 DAS • Fertilizer dose 100:50:50 Kg NPK/ha and 10 MT FYM per ha • At 20, 40 and 60 DAS, irrigation were done and each 5 days after irrigation weedings were done by SWI weeder machin •
  • 4. Obser- vations • Tiller number • Plant height • Spike number per hill • Number of grains per spike • Total grain weight • Number of spike per m2 Data were taken separately for conventional practices, for SWI direct sowing, and for SWI seedling transplanting by randomly selecting 10 plants from each type
  • 5. Results SN Parameters Fulbari Lalbojhi Ramsikharjhala (average of 10 plants) Conv. Conv. SWI Conv. SWI SWI 25 34 25 1 Tiller number 5 (18-36) 4 (22-54) 3 (19-42) 2 Number of spike per hill 5 22.5 4 33 2.4 23.5 Number of grains per 3 spike 22.5 45.4 50.1 72.4 60 80 4 Number of spike per m2 310 400 414 446 210 256 5 Spike length (cm) 9 16 9.3 12.3 13 18 6 TGW (gm) 50 75 40 45 45 50 7 Productivity (Mt/ha) 4 8 5.8 7.95 4.8 6.95 8 Difference in productivity 100% 37% 44%
  • 6. What was lacking in SWI practices at Kailali? • Seeds were selected and treated by hot water only; but better results can be expected with treatment using a mixture of jaggery, vermi- compost, cow urine, and biotic agents like Aspergillium in usual practice of SWI • Dibbling of seed was done manually so there were differences in seed depth (3-4 cm is most appropriate) hampering germination percentage; use of a SWI drill machine can help uniform seed depth
  • 7. Discussion • Wheat plants in SWI (leaf width, leaf colour, root length, and root distribution ) were seen to be quite different; in SWI, leaves were more green and wide, roots are deep and well distributed • The transplanted seedlings did not have as good performance in tillering as did direct sowing • SWI wheat remains greener than conventional, even when ready to harvest ; seen as more tolerant of hot stress; later senescence appeared in SWI
  • 8. Different between SWI and conventional practices observed at Kailali SN Parameters SWI Conventional 1 Seed requirement 25-30 kg/ha 100-120 Kg/ha 2 Seed treatment Should be done by with Not necessary biotic and biotic agents 3 Methods of sowing Dibbling in line Broadcasting 4 Spacing 20 x20 cm No proper spacing 5 Weeding 2-3 weedings by using Not done cono-weeder 6 Length of panicle (cm) 18 12 7 No of grains per panicle 60-75 40-50 8 No. of panicles per hill 53-40 2-5 9 TGW (gm) 70-75 45-50 10 Stem, roots & leaves Thick stem, long root and Thin stem, short and surface root
  • 9.
  • 10. Thanks for your kind attention