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Dr. Rupasi Tiwari
DIVISION OF EXTENSION EDUCATION
INDIVIDUAL CONTACT METHOD:-
Direct contact of the extension worker with an
individual person or farmer or farm women or youth for
Extension worker maintains regular contact with
individual farmers. Practically, this method poses a
challenge to extension workers in terms of the number of
individual farmers to be covered.
Farm and home visit
Correspondence course ()
Face to face individual contact by the extension worker
with the farmer.
Objectives of this method:-
Good relation and confidence.
Discuss individual problem.
Identify local leader and demonstrator.
Not reachable farmers can be met .
Visit should have the definite purpose.
Allow the farmer to talk more.
Use simple language with famer.
Avoid argument with the farmer.
Record the visit, it will help for the follow up.
Costly and time consuming
Only limited number of farmer were contacted.
Extension worker may do favoritism & other will blame for it.
tendency to visit same farm or home again and again.
It is a call made by a farmer or a group on the extension
worker at his office for obtaining information or other farm-
The number of office calls is related to the degree of public
interest in the programme of extension service.
Relationship depends on the accessibility of office to rural
Economic use of extension workers time and energy.
Farmers in the reception stage of mind ready to follow
It reinforce other method.
Proper recording helps in follow up activity and one of
the measure for public participation.
Not able to get detailed first hand knowledge of farmers
Limited contact with the farmer.
It is a personal or individual letter written by extension worker to
a farmer in connection with extension work. In practice personal
letters are used to answer enquired from farmer regarding specific
farm problems, supplies and services.
points to be considered while using personal letter method:-
1. Extension worker should give reply to queries as early as
possible. “information delayed is information
2. Writing should be complete, concise, clear, correct with
3. The writing should be neat, free from over writing, striking,
spelling mistake and grammatical mistakes.
4. There should be easy readability.
Individual problem can be easily solved.
Useful to educate farmers.
Percentage of adaption is very high.
Best method to reach the farmers who could not
reached by farm & home visit and office call.
Extension worker will get first hand information
about rural problem.
Time consuming method.
Majority of the farmers are illiterate this method has limited
It is very difficult for the extension worker to answer each and
every individual problem.
Only few persons can be contacted.
It is the contact between Extension worker and farmer over the
telephone for one or more specific purpose connected with
For fast dissemination of the information like First aid treatment
We cannot see the farmer and his farm directly.
It is demonstration conducted by a farmer under direct
supervision of an extension worker to provide the worthiness of
a recommended practice or combination of practices, in this the
new practice is compared with old one of the farmer.
Farmer learn by seeing and doing.
Types of result demonstration:-
1. Short duration:- deworming
2. Long duration:- cross breeding
3. Single practice:- debeaking
it gives extra assurance farmer.
It will increase the confidence level in both.
More number of the people understand easily.
Useful for introducing new technologies in field.
Contribute to discover the local leaders.
costly and time consuming.
Difficult to find good demonstrator.
Unfavorable weather may destroy the value.
Electronic mail, commonly known as email, is a method of
exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more
recipients. Email operates across the Internet or other computer
An email message consists of three components, the message
envelope, the message header, and the message body.
A visual communication between two people it is also called
as Video-telephony comprises the technologies for the
reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at
different locations, for communication between people.
Skype popularized video calling, which enables any two
individuals in the world who have access to computer, internet
and web camera .
Is an interactive learning process between counselor and
client, in which counselor approaches in a holistic way, to
solve social, cultural, economic and emotional issues.
Counseling involves talking with a person in a way that helps
that person solve a problem or helps to create conditions that
will cause the person to understand and/or improve his
behavior, character, values or life circumstances.
Distance education. It has been described as "a process to
create and provide access to learning when the source of
information and the learners are separated by time and