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1810 - Rice Water Management and Reduction in Iraq


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Author: Khidhir Abbas Hameed
Title: Rice Water Management and Reduction in Iraq
Presented at: The 5th International Rice Congress (SRI research side event)
Venue: Sands Expo and Convention Centre, Singapore
Date: October 16, 2018

Published in: Environment
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1810 - Rice Water Management and Reduction in Iraq

  1. 1. Rice water management and reduction in Iraq Khidhir Abbas Hameed Ministry of Agriculture Agricultural Research Office IRAQ 5th International Rice Congress, Singapore , 15-17 October 2018
  2. 2. • Climate: excessive aridity, fluctuating rainfall (100 – 200 mm in Central and South; up to 1000 mm in northern area) • Precipitation: 155 billion m³ per year, but only 10% of this can be used for irrigation • Surface Water: The E-Tigris water was approx. 78-80 BCM in 1990; recently, this flow has declined by half • Ground Water: 2.4 BCM currently used for irrigation The aridity of the climate imposes great constraints on both irrigated and dry rice farming Less water results in declining production of rice 5th International Rice Congress, Singapore , 15-17 October 2018 Overview for Iraq:
  3. 3. Irrigation Water Issues In Iraq  Low water productivity  Decline in water quality  Shortages in water supply  Traditional methods of irrigation being used  Low water use efficiency  Regulation is needed but not very effective
  4. 4. Iraq’s Rice Challenge  Usually, the conventional method of irrigated rice production involves continuous submergence of rice fields, maintaining a layer of water 10 cm deep during the growing season.  Cropping system of rice in alternation with wheat has frequently exhausted the soil.  Generally, seed is directly sown onto ploughed soil, and large amounts of seed are used. New strategy is needed to maintain high rice productivity of with less water and other resources, including seeds 5th International Rice Congress, Singapore , 15-17 October 2018
  5. 5. Research Objectives The Agricultural Research Office has adapted the internationally best-practice approach called the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), developed in Madagascar and applied in many other countries. Objectives: -Increase rice yield and production, improve soil conditions, and reduce water consumption. -Support farmers with a better understanding of agronomic conditions through effective and efficient management approach assisting in increasing net gains. 5th International Rice Congress, Singapore , 15-17 October 2018
  6. 6. SRI Principles  Early transplanting of seedlings.  One seedling per hill.  Wide spacing between seedlings.  Moisten the soil using interval irrigation.  Weeding using rotary hoe or by hand, not using chemical herbicides to reduce the pollution of the soil and water, and  Using organic fertilization as much as With Prof. Norman Uphoff possible to enhance the soil fertility. Cornell University, NY, USA All these used together give better growth and performance of rice plants “SRI is considered as a methodology rather than as a technology” 5th International Rice Congress, Singapore , 15-17 October 2018
  7. 7. Water Consumption for Different Rice Cultivation Methods 5th International Rice Congress, Singapore , 15-17 October 2018 Cultivation method Irrigation days Water consumption )m³/ha( Direct seeding )wet method( 132 94,806 Direct seeding )dry method( 132 85,887 Manual transplanting 123 75,275 Short-duration varieties 76 42,971 SRI methodology 95 21,600 Sprinkler irrigation 132 20,500
  8. 8. Difference in SRI phenotypes vs conventional method 5th International Rice Congress, Singapore , 15-17 October 2018
  9. 9. Recommendation Water management strategy with SRI methodology could help deal with the shortage in water that is facing Iraqi farmers now and in the foreseeable future.
  10. 10. Future directions for research on water 1.Studies on nutrient management with special reference to increasing organic sources and inputs. 2.Precise quantification of savings made in water. 3.Studies on microbial activity and detailed work on root systems. 4.Identification of locations which are most suitable for System of Rice Intensification (SRI) with socio-economic analysis of SRI. 5.Application of environment-friendly methods to save the natural resource base. 6.Improve local rice varieties that are adaptable to drought and water stress, with salinity tolerance, and high yield having good quality. 7.Develop a strategy to use sustainably saline water for irrigation and reclamation.