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Improving Agricultural Productivity and Food Security in the Arabian Peninsula


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Improving Agricultural Productivity and Food Security in the Arabian Peninsula

  1. 1. IFAD/ICARDA Knowledge Exchange Workshop, 26-29 October 2009   Knowledge and Technology Exchange for Enhanced Quality of IFAD/ICARDA Operations in the NENA region Presented by Ahmed T Moustafa Improving Agricultural Productivity and Food Security in the Arabian Peninsula
  2. 2. Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia Kuwait Bahrain Qatar Emirates Oman Yemen
  3. 3. Constrains <ul><li>Extreme aridity </li></ul><ul><li>Over grazing & degraded Rangeland </li></ul><ul><li>Higher demand for food as a result of increasing population </li></ul><ul><li>Limited renewable water resource </li></ul>lowering of water table & see water intrusion Excessive use of under ground water salinity
  4. 4. Renewable water resources per capita in different regions (m 3 /person/year) Arabian Peninsula Extreme Water Scarcity Asia (exclude ME) 3,947.6 ME & NA 1,397.5 Europe 10,685.7 NA 16,557.8 CA & Carrabin 6,653.4 SS Africa 6,956.6 Oceanic 52,673.8 SA 44,816.4
  5. 5. Project Approach <ul><li>On-Farm Water Use Management </li></ul><ul><li>Rangelands & Forages </li></ul><ul><li>Protected Agriculture </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Potential Solution to water and rangeland problems developing production and rehabilitation systems Exploit the well adapted genetic variability of indigenous forage species
  7. 7. Identify promising indigenous species for forage production with less water Plant collection missions (9) in deserts of AP 190 indigenous plant and shrub species collected and identified 23 indigenous plant species prioritized for further research
  8. 8. Dry matter production of six forages (t/ha) under deficit irrigation (4 L/m 2 /day) Buffel Grass 56% improvement in productivity
  9. 9. Buffel as Indigenous forage <ul><li>Tolerates high salinity and water stress conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Ten annual harvests </li></ul><ul><li>Average annual DM yield of up to 20 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Water productivity of Buffel Grass (0.8kg/m 3 ) is more then 30% higher than Rhodes Grass (0.6 kg/m 3 ) </li></ul>Comparison of chemical composition between Buffel Grass & Rhodes Grass Chemical Component Buffel Grass Rhodes Grass % Dry Mather Bases Crude Protein 9.6 9.4 Natural detergent fiber 70.1 72.9 Acid detergent fiber 38.6 38.8 Acid detergent insoluble N 0.1 0.1 Ash 10.0 9.9
  10. 10. Cumulative number of Buffel growers in UAE from 2003 to 2009
  11. 11. Irrigated Forages & Rangeland Rehabilitation <ul><li>Water harvesting, reseeding and grazing management on rangelands; </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanization of Buffel grass cultivation & harvesting; </li></ul><ul><li>Improve seed quality of promising indigenous plant species; </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate forage (cactus) and feed resources (feed blocks). </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Water use efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Production & Protection Management Programs (IPPM) </li></ul><ul><li>GH Structure, Covering Materials, Ventilation & Cooling </li></ul>
  13. 14. Productivity of 1 m 3 of water Protected Agriculture Vs. Open Field Source: Y.T. Guma, A. Al-Masoum, Acta Hort. 434, ISHS 1996
  14. 15. Total open field production of Tomato in Abu Dhabi (MEW data for 2005) 111,867 ton Photo: Peter Essick which consumed 19.6 million m 3 of water Same production would only consume 1.3 million m 3 of water under Protected Agriculture 93% reduce
  15. 17. Technology Package: Integrated Production & Protection Management (IPPM) Improved integrated production and protection Management (IPPM) practices that ensure strong healthy plants with adequate protection from pests and diseases, using safe control practices with minimal use of chemicals
  16. 18. <ul><li>IPPM techniques applied in a greenhouse (500 m 2 ) planted with Cucumber </li></ul><ul><li>Similar GH with cucumber crop selected as control </li></ul>A.Kirshi, N. Al Ragihi & A.Al Thoris, 2003, ICARDA-APRP Annual Report 2002-03 Applying IPPM techniques in Dhamar, Yemen 1 Aug 2003-1 Dec 2003
  17. 19. Applying IPPM techniques in Dhamar, Yemen 1 Aug 2003-1 Dec 2003
  18. 20. Increasing farmers’ incomes by introducing simple cash crop production system in greenhouses 38 small farmers adopted the protected agriculture techniques for the producing high quality cash crops in Yemen resulted in Up to 400% increase in farmers ’ income. Adoption of protected agriculture in Yemen resulted in Up to 400% increase in their income .
  19. 21. Production After First Season Comparing Selected Pilot Growers Cucumber Production in Open field and under GH (2005) Base on Bench mark study and production records
  20. 22. Introduction of Protected Agriculture into Mountain Terraces in Yemen created additional income for farmers through the cultivation of cash crops Introduce new techniques of cultivation and irrigation Intensified the use of terrace lands Create additional jobs for the rural population, thereby encouraging farmers to settle in rural areas
  21. 24. Improving Family Incomes and Livelihood in Rural Afghanistan through Promotion of Sustainable Production Systems for High Value Crops with Less Water <ul><li>Establishment of PAC in Kabul </li></ul><ul><li>18 Training Courses </li></ul><ul><li>7 Farmers Field School conducted </li></ul><ul><li>430 Farmers, Extension Agents, NGO trained </li></ul><ul><li>16 Afghan Farmer, Extension Agent trained in a leading farms and advanced research centers in Oman and Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>35 GHs Established at Farmers sites in 6 provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing farmers income up to 135% </li></ul><ul><li>Another 30 growers shared 50% of GH costs with ICARDA and received GHs as well as technical back stopping </li></ul>
  22. 25. Socio-Economic Study Comparison of profitability of cucumber production under greenhouse and in open field (1 jerib) <ul><li>Data source: information obtained on spring production of cucumbers from the grower in Parwan. </li></ul><ul><li>For adequate spacing and ventilation 6 greenhouses could fit on 1 jerib of land. </li></ul><ul><li>Open field cucumbers are longer and bigger than those being produced in greenhouses due to variety difference; accordingly 6 open field cucumbers weigh 1 Kg while 8 greenhouse cucumbers weigh 1 Kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Cucumbers are sold per unit not per kilogram; greenhouse cucumber carries a price premium for quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Assume open field uses 10 times more water than greenhouse cucumber production. </li></ul>
  23. 26. PA as Alternative Livelihood for Poppy Growers Comparison between the Net Income of one Jerib of Poppy and one GH (270 m2) of cucumber (one year production) Based on interview with farmers and socio-economic study
  24. 27. Increased yield per unit of water, space and energy
  25. 28. Hydroponics Maximizes Production per Unit of Water Comparison of cost of production between soil bed and Hydroponics System in Kuwait Items Costs (KD) Soil Beds Hydroponics Green House 55,397.00 29,734.00 Production Materials 176.00 3900.00 water (Irrigation) 32,610.00 720.00 Growing Media 750.00 2,050.00 Fertilizers 660.00 245.00 Insecticides 346.50 144.00 Manpower 7,200.00 3,000.00 Total 97,139.50 39,793.00 Comparison of Production and Plant Density between soil bed and hydroponics system in Kuwait
  26. 29. Before After
  27. 30. Now
  28. 31. Cost, Income and Profits of cucumber in Hydroponics System (Farsi farm, 3 GHs - 5 growing seasons 04-05) OR
  29. 32. Establish soilless production system at growers sites, UAE
  30. 33. Cucumber Production from Soil and Soilless in Hamranieh RS and Pilot Growers in Ajman and Ras Al Khaimeh (Feb to May 2009) Plant/m 2 Soil HRS Soilless Grower in RAK Soilless HRS Soilless Grower in AJM
  31. 34. Weekly Harvest of Cucumber (kg) from Soil and Soilless (Feb-May 2009)
  32. 36. <ul><li>Indigenous plant species has higher water productivity and great potential for replacing exotic species; </li></ul><ul><li>Protected Agriculture and its associated techniques increases income of the resource-poor farmers; </li></ul><ul><li>Financial mechanism to support growers for adopting the new technologies is required; </li></ul><ul><li>On the job training for researcher and growers increases the adoption rate of new technologies </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>The Agricultural promotional fund, the Credit Banks, and other financial agencies should be encouraged to provide support to growers who adopted the new technology; </li></ul><ul><li>More degree & non-degree training programs should be planed for researcher in the region; </li></ul><ul><li>Growers who successfully adopted the new technology should be recognized; </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of growers production union/association should be supported by policy makers. </li></ul>