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Africa’s Regreening: Its Integral Role in Increasing Agricultural Productivity and         Strengthening Resiliency       ...
What is Regreening and Its                                 Significance?•   Rainfall capture technologies    – Burkina Fas...
Two Key Challenges Facing                 Africa’s Dryland Smallholders• Rainfall Variability: Rainfall variability is a g...
Climate Change Will              Exacerbate Rainfall Variability• More intensive rainfall events  More run-off  (currentl...
Combating Rainfall Variability by Slowing                     Run-off and Increasing Infiltration                         ...
Dry Season Gardens: A Dividend                               of Rainwater Management                                      ...
High-Value Field Trees: Additional                        Source of Revenue and NutritionREJUVENATED LAND: Dr. Doumbia (le...
Soil Organic Matter (SOM) And Fertilizer-use Efficiency (FUE) On Weathered Soils                           Pieri, C; 1989,...
Addressing Challenges through Mixed           Production SystemsBenefits of Perennials•Increases Soil Organic Matter    • ...
Agroforestry: Source of Drought-               Resistant ProductsHigh value browse          High-valuefor livestock       ...
Changing AttitudesProspects about food security in year following the 2004/05  Drought  (Tahirou et Ibro; 2006, Analyse de...
Illustrative Yield Data on                         Integrated SystemsSystem                 Cereal’s Yield Range   Resilie...
Summary of FindingsFor much of Africa, evidence shows the following:• A high correlation between productivity and  resilie...
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Africa's Regreening: Its Integral Role in Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Strengthening Resiliency

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Mike McGahuey, Natural Resources Management Specialist, USAID

Presentation from March 1, 2012 discussion on experiences in the Sahel using Climate Smart Agriculture to increase productivity and resiliency including lessons learned from farmer innovations and observed landscape transformations in Niger, Burkina Faso & Mali.

FInd out more at http://www.wri.org/event/2012/03/building-climate-smart-agriculture-and-resiliency-sahel

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Africa's Regreening: Its Integral Role in Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Strengthening Resiliency

  1. 1. Africa’s Regreening: Its Integral Role in Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Strengthening Resiliency Mike McGahuey EGAT/NRM/USAID World Resources Institute’s Symposium on Regreening March 1, 2012
  2. 2. What is Regreening and Its Significance?• Rainfall capture technologies – Burkina Faso– 300,000 ha – Niger—200,000 ha – Mali—100,000 ha• On-Farm Forestry – Niger- 5.0 million ha – Mali—500,000 ha – Zambia and Malawi—280K HH’s
  3. 3. Two Key Challenges Facing Africa’s Dryland Smallholders• Rainfall Variability: Rainfall variability is a greater challenge than absolute amount of rainfall• Weathered Soils: Over 80% of Africa’s soils have major productivity constraints (Breman, et.al, 2007) – Naturally low in nutrients – Low capacity to retain nutrients  Benefits of mineral fertilizers marginalized Both of these challenges have been addressed at scale by initiatives that set the stage for more intensified agriculture
  4. 4. Climate Change Will Exacerbate Rainfall Variability• More intensive rainfall events  More run-off (currently estimated at 25-50%)• Longer intervals between events  Root zone desiccation at critical times• Changing rainfall patterns  Shortened season or elimination of season Innovative rainfall management technologies have allowed farmers to successfully adapt to greater variability
  5. 5. Combating Rainfall Variability by Slowing Run-off and Increasing Infiltration Ridge Tillage in MaliIncreased: Results:•Infiltration by 66% • 30-50% yield increase•Soil moisture by 17%•Fertilizer-use Efficiency by  • Water table recharged • Tree Crop Production • Winter Gardens30%
  6. 6. Dry Season Gardens: A Dividend of Rainwater Management • Higher water table allows dry season irrigation; • Higher prices for counter-season produce; • New and additional sources of revenue and nutritious foods. • Resilience StrengthenedSorofin Diarra irrigates her garden while daughters Batama, Youma and Nieba observe. Currently, 80%of Siguidolo households have gardens compared to none 12 years ago before ACN was introduced.(ACN Brochure, Soils Management CRSP)
  7. 7. High-Value Field Trees: Additional Source of Revenue and NutritionREJUVENATED LAND: Dr. Doumbia (left) and farmer Zan Diarra observe a baobabtree that regenerated following the establishment of ACN.
  8. 8. Soil Organic Matter (SOM) And Fertilizer-use Efficiency (FUE) On Weathered Soils Pieri, C; 1989, Fertilite des Terres de Savannes; p. 249 CIRDAD,
  9. 9. Addressing Challenges through Mixed Production SystemsBenefits of Perennials•Increases Soil Organic Matter • Higher fertilizer-use efficiency • Improved green-water productivity•Recycles nutrients•Enhances drought resilience•Provides alternative income when annual crops fail.
  10. 10. Agroforestry: Source of Drought- Resistant ProductsHigh value browse High-valuefor livestock construction poles
  11. 11. Changing AttitudesProspects about food security in year following the 2004/05 Drought (Tahirou et Ibro; 2006, Analyse des Impacts Socio-Economiques des Investissements dans le GRN: Etude de Cas dans les Regions de Maradi, Tahoua, et Tillabery au Niger) Increase Decrease No ChangeVillages with 70% 23% 7%NRMVillages 17% 50% 33%w/out NRM
  12. 12. Illustrative Yield Data on Integrated SystemsSystem Cereal’s Yield Range Resiliency Level in the Sahel Sustained over TimeRegreening + External 2 to 3+ tons/ha HighInputsExternal Inputs only 450-variable kg/ha LoRegreening only 450 to 1,000 kg/ha HighNo treatments 100-500 kg/ha Variable
  13. 13. Summary of FindingsFor much of Africa, evidence shows the following:• A high correlation between productivity and resilience and – Rainfall capture – Soil organic matter levels.• Best results achieved from using external inputs (fertilizer, improved seed) in tandem with sound soil and water management practices.• Diverse farming systems are typically more productive and resilient than single crop systems• In many places in the Sahel, helplessness has been replaced by hopefulness

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