The System of Rice Intensification (SRI):   Opportunity for Food Security and Water Saving in N. Ghana? NARMSAP III Confer...
More tillers and more than 400 grains per panicle
SRI is giving remarkable and promising results <ul><li>though still “a work in progress”   </li></ul><ul><li>SRI appears ‘...
SRI  IS  A  METHODOLOGY <ul><li>rather than a   “TECHNOLOGY”   </li></ul><ul><li>--  not  a  fixed  set  of  techniques </...
Basic idea of SRI is that  RICE PLANTS DO BEST <ul><li>(A) When their   ROOTS   can grow large and deep because they have ...
“ Starting Points” for SRI <ul><li>Transplant  young seedlings ,  8-15 days  (2 leaves),  quickly  and very  carefully </l...
These practices produce a different  PHENOTYPE <ul><li>Profuse   TILLERING   -- 30 to 50/plant,  80-100 possible, sometime...
 
 
 
OBSERVABLE  BENEFITS <ul><li>Average yields  about 8 t/ha  --   </li></ul><ul><li>twice present world average of 3.8 t/ha ...
LESS OR NO NEED FOR: <ul><li>Changing varieties ,   though best yields from  high-yielding varieties  and  hybrids  -- tra...
ADDITIONAL BENEFITS <ul><li>Seeding rate   reduced as much as 90%, 5-10 kg/ha gives more than 50-100 kg </li></ul><ul><li>...
DISADVANTAGES / COSTS <ul><li>SRI is more   labor-intensive ,  at least initially -- but can become  labor-saving </li></u...
SRI is COUNTERINTUITIVE <ul><li>LESS BECOMES MORE   -- by utilizing the  potentials and dynamics of biology </li></ul><ul>...
Plant Physical Structure and  Light Intensity Distribution  at Heading Stage   (CNRRI Research: Tao et al. 2002)
These results more often come from farms than experiment stations <ul><li>SRI is the due entirely to the work of   Fr. Hen...
 
 
Spread beyond Madagascar <ul><li>Nanjing Agric. University, China - 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Agency for Agricultural Researc...
Reports from Sanya Conference
Results Keep Coming In <ul><li>West Timor, Indonesia:  June 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Yield with farmer methods --  4.4 t/ha ...
Analysis of SRI in Sri Lanka <ul><li>Standard   SRI   _Δ_  </li></ul><ul><li>Yields (tons/ha)   4     8    +88% </li></ul>...
Key Insight:  Rice is  not an aquatic plant <ul><li>Standard view in the literature is that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rice  thr...
 
 
Dry Matter Distribution of Roots in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Plants at Heading Stage  (CNRRI research: Tao et al. 2002...
Root Activity in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Rice (Nanjing Agr. Univ. research: Wang et al. 2002) (Wuxianggeng 9 variety)
 
Importance of Root Growth <ul><li>Supports more vigorous  tiller growth  and then more  grain filling </li></ul><ul><li>Ma...
 
 
Paths for Increased Grain Yield in Relation to N Uptake, using QUEFTS Analytical Model  (Barison, 2002)
The contributions of  soil microbial activity need to be taken more seriously <ul><li>“ The microbial flora causes a large...
SRI  Raises More Questions  than It Gives ANSWERS <ul><li>This is a  PRACTICE-LED  innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
THANK YOU <ul><li>More information is available  </li></ul><ul><li>on the  SRI WEB PAGE : </li></ul><ul><li>http://ciifad....
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0211 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Opportunity for Food Security and Water Saving in N. Ghana?

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Presenter: Norman Uphoff

Audience: NARMSAP III Conference
Tamale, Ghana

Subject Country: Ghana

Published in: Business, Travel
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0211 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Opportunity for Food Security and Water Saving in N. Ghana?

  1. 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Opportunity for Food Security and Water Saving in N. Ghana? NARMSAP III Conference Tamale, Ghana December 16-19, 2002 Norman Uphoff, Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development
  2. 2. More tillers and more than 400 grains per panicle
  3. 3. SRI is giving remarkable and promising results <ul><li>though still “a work in progress” </li></ul><ul><li>SRI appears ‘too good to be true’ -- the agronomists’ equivalent of the economists’ $100 bill on the sidewalk </li></ul><ul><li>But there is increasing evidence that this system is ‘for real’ </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is being used successfully by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a growing number of farmers in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a growing number of countries (16) including Sierra Leone and The Gambia </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. SRI IS A METHODOLOGY <ul><li>rather than a “TECHNOLOGY” </li></ul><ul><li>-- not a fixed set of techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Different paradigm for growing rice </li></ul><ul><li>that can be explained from the literature </li></ul><ul><li>SRI is basically a set of INSIGHTS and PRINCIPLES that get applied through a set of PRACTICES that farmers are encouraged to adapt to suit their local conditions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Basic idea of SRI is that RICE PLANTS DO BEST <ul><li>(A) When their ROOTS can grow large and deep because they have been </li></ul><ul><li>transplanted carefully , and there is </li></ul><ul><li>wide spacing between plants; also </li></ul><ul><li>(B) When they can grow in SOIL that is: </li></ul><ul><li>well aerated with abundant and diverse </li></ul><ul><li>soil microbial populations </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Starting Points” for SRI <ul><li>Transplant young seedlings , 8-15 days (2 leaves), quickly and very carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Single plants per hill with wide spacing in a square pattern, 25x25 cm or wider </li></ul><ul><li>No continuous flooding of field during the vegetative growth phase (AWD ok) </li></ul><ul><li>Weeding with rotating hoe early (10 DAT) and often (2 to 4 times) </li></ul><ul><li>Application of compost is recommended </li></ul>
  7. 7. These practices produce a different PHENOTYPE <ul><li>Profuse TILLERING -- 30 to 50/plant, 80-100 possible, sometimes 100+ </li></ul><ul><li>Greater ROOT GROWTH -- 5-6x more resistance (kg/plant) for uprooting </li></ul><ul><li>Larger PANICLES -- 150-250+ grains </li></ul><ul><li>Higher GRAIN WEIGHT -- often 5-10% </li></ul><ul><li>POSITIVE CORRELATION between tillers/plant and grains/panicle </li></ul>
  8. 11. OBSERVABLE BENEFITS <ul><li>Average yields about 8 t/ha -- </li></ul><ul><li>twice present world average of 3.8 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum yields can be twice this -- 15-16 t/ha, with some over 20 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>WATER REQUIRED about 50% less </li></ul><ul><li>Increased factor productivity from the land, labor, capital and water used </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs of production -- this is most important for farmers </li></ul>
  9. 12. LESS OR NO NEED FOR: <ul><li>Changing varieties , though best yields from high-yielding varieties and hybrids -- traditional varieties produce 4-10 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilizers -- these give a very positive yield response with SRI, but best results are obtained with compost </li></ul><ul><li>Agrochemicals – plants more resistant to pests and diseases with SRI methods </li></ul>
  10. 13. ADDITIONAL BENEFITS <ul><li>Seeding rate reduced as much as 90%, 5-10 kg/ha gives more than 50-100 kg </li></ul><ul><li>No lodging because of stronger roots </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly production due to water saving, no/fewer chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>More accessible to poor households because few capital requirements </li></ul>
  11. 14. DISADVANTAGES / COSTS <ul><li>SRI is more labor-intensive , at least initially -- but can become labor-saving </li></ul><ul><li>SRI requires greater knowledge/skill from farmers to become better decision-makers and managers -- but this contri-butes to human resource development </li></ul><ul><li>SRI requires good water control to get best results, making regular applications of smaller amounts of water -- this can be obtained through investments </li></ul>
  12. 15. SRI is COUNTERINTUITIVE <ul><li>LESS BECOMES MORE -- by utilizing the potentials and dynamics of biology </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller, younger seedlings will give larger, more productive mature plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer plants per hill and per m 2 can give more yield </li></ul><ul><li>Half the water can give higher yield </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer or no external inputs are associated with greater output </li></ul><ul><li>New phenotypes from existing genotypes </li></ul>
  13. 16. Plant Physical Structure and Light Intensity Distribution at Heading Stage (CNRRI Research: Tao et al. 2002)
  14. 17. These results more often come from farms than experiment stations <ul><li>SRI is the due entirely to the work of Fr. Henri de Laulanié, S.J . (1920-1995), trained in agriculture at INA (1937-1939) </li></ul><ul><li>He lived and worked with farmers in Madagascar, 1961-1995, SRI from 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI now being promoted by NGO named Association Tefy Saina , working with CIIFAD since 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>This is an innovation of civil society </li></ul>
  15. 20. Spread beyond Madagascar <ul><li>Nanjing Agric. University, China - 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesia - 1999-2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>China Hybrid Rice Center - 2000-2001 </li></ul><ul><li>International conference, Sanya, China, April 2001 -- 15 countries represented </li></ul>
  16. 21. Reports from Sanya Conference
  17. 22. Results Keep Coming In <ul><li>West Timor, Indonesia: June 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Yield with farmer methods -- 4.4 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Yield with SRI methods -- 11.6 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Lampung, Indonesia -- 3 to 8 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Pucallpa, Peru (jungle): Oct 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional yields -- 2 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>SRI yields -- 8 t/ha -- plus a </li></ul><ul><li>Ratoon crop -- 70% of first crop (5.5 t/ha) </li></ul>
  18. 23. Analysis of SRI in Sri Lanka <ul><li>Standard SRI _Δ_ </li></ul><ul><li>Yields (tons/ha) 4 8 +88% </li></ul><ul><li>Market price (Rs/ton) 1,300 1,500 +15% </li></ul><ul><li>Total cash cost (Rs/ha) 22,000 18,000 -18% </li></ul><ul><li>Gross returns (Rs/ha) 58,500 120,000 +74% </li></ul><ul><li>Net profit (Rs/ha) 36,500 102,000 +180% </li></ul><ul><li>Family labor earnings Increased with use of SRI </li></ul><ul><li>WATER SAVINGS 40-50%compared to usual </li></ul><ul><li>Data from Dr. Janaiah Aldas, formerly economist at IRRI, now at Indira Gandhi Development Studies Institute, Mumbai, based on visit to Sri Lanka and interviews with SRI farmers, October, 2002 </li></ul>
  19. 24. Key Insight: Rice is not an aquatic plant <ul><li>Standard view in the literature is that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rice thrives on land that is water-saturated or even submerged during part or all of its growth cycle.” (p. 43) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Most varieties maintain better growth and produce higher grain yields when grown in flooded soil than when grown in unflooded soil.” (pp. 297-298) (emphases added) </li></ul><ul><li>S. K. DeDatta, The Principles and Practices of Rice Production , J. W. Wiley, NY, 1981. </li></ul>
  20. 27. Dry Matter Distribution of Roots in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Plants at Heading Stage (CNRRI research: Tao et al. 2002) Root dry weight (g)
  21. 28. Root Activity in SRI and Conventionally-Grown Rice (Nanjing Agr. Univ. research: Wang et al. 2002) (Wuxianggeng 9 variety)
  22. 30. Importance of Root Growth <ul><li>Supports more vigorous tiller growth and then more grain filling </li></ul><ul><li>Makes rice plants better able to withstand effects of drought and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Root growth and performance is result of both chemical nutrient and physical factors, but also of microbiological processes in the soil </li></ul>
  23. 33. Paths for Increased Grain Yield in Relation to N Uptake, using QUEFTS Analytical Model (Barison, 2002)
  24. 34. The contributions of soil microbial activity need to be taken more seriously <ul><li>“ The microbial flora causes a large number of biochemical changes in the soil that largely determine the fertility of the soil.” (DeDatta, 1981, p. 60, emphasis added ) </li></ul>
  25. 35. SRI Raises More Questions than It Gives ANSWERS <ul><li>This is a PRACTICE-LED innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists have a challenge/opportunity to develop and “retrofit” explanations </li></ul><ul><li>By raising factor productivities and by reducing the need for irrigation water and agrochemicals, SRI should benefit particularly poor households and the environment -- explore opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Water saving is becoming more crucial </li></ul>
  26. 43. THANK YOU <ul><li>More information is available </li></ul><ul><li>on the SRI WEB PAGE : </li></ul><ul><li>http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>including Sanya conference proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>E-MAIL ADDRESSES : </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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