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1906 - Improving Productivity of Rice under Water Scarcity in Africa: The Case for the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)


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Author: Bancy Mati
Title: Improving Productivity of Rice under Water Scarcity in Africa: The Case for the System of Rice Intensification
Date: June 26-29, 2019
Presented at: The International Rice Development Conference and Seminar on China-Africa Development
Location: Changsha, China

Published in: Environment
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1906 - Improving Productivity of Rice under Water Scarcity in Africa: The Case for the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

  1. 1. Improving Productivity of Rice under Water Scarcity in Africa: The case for the System of Rice Intensification Presentation by: Prof. Bancy M. Mati Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT); Kenya at the: International Rice Development Conference and Seminar on China-Africa Rice Development Changsha, China June 26 to 29, 2019
  2. 2. WATER SCARCITY IN AFRICA It's more about economic water scarcity than physical water scarcity
  3. 3. Africa Has Ample Water Resource Endowments
  4. 4. The water that Africa has, quantified • Africa has about 4,000 cu km of freshwater. • There are 17 major rivers with catchment areas > 100 000 km2 • There are 160 lakes > 27 km2 • Mean annual rainfall: 670 mm/yr • Highly variable rainfall, from <100 mm in deserts to more than 2,000 mm in rainforests & highlands • Huge hydropower potential of about 1,750 TWh (12% of the global capacity) • Vast groundwater resources • The continent is surrounded by three oceans: vast marine water
  5. 5. Africa when conditions are conducive… Agricultural productivity supports sustainable livelihoods 5
  6. 6. But water is poorly distributed -- spatially & temporally Map of Africa showing Rainfall excesses and deficits Source: UNEP, 2010 Deserts Big rivers
  7. 7. • About 65% of Africa’s land area is comprised of drylands (annual rainfall 100-800 mm) • Rainfall is erratic, droughts, floods & high runoff losses • High runoff losses -- over 50% of rainfall is lost • High evaporation losses -- up to x 10 annual rainfall • Poorly distributed surface water resources (rivers, lakes) • Renewable water resources constitute only about 20% of total rainfall. Vast drylands, low rainfall, and water losses
  8. 8. Groundwater resources remain un-mapped & untapped Source: WHYMAP (2008) Groundwater resources of the world.
  9. 9. Africa is getting warmer: Climate Change is here! • Africa is warmer by 0.5°C than it was 100 years ago • The six warmest years recorded in Africa have occurred since 1987 • 7 droughts in 1980-1990 and then 10 droughts in 1991-2003 • Between 2000-2006, there were 60 weather- related disasters • Both floods and droughts have increased 9
  10. 10. Climatic extremes are on the increase Flooding in Mozambique after Cyclone Kenneth, April 2019
  11. 11. Climate Change is also Affecting Water Towers Satellite image comparing Mount Kilimanjaro’s glaciers between 1976 & 2006 • Since 1912, the ice caps on Mt. Kilimanjaro have decreased by between 50 to 80% Mt. Kilimanjaro glaciers in 1976 Mt. Kilimanjaro glaciers in 2006
  12. 12. Economic water scarcity: Poorly developed infrastructure • Only about 4% of Africa's renewable water resources have been developed • Total annual withdrawals are only 5.5% of internal renewable resources. • Water withdrawals for agriculture account for 3.3% of total renewable water
  13. 13. Then there are shrinking water bodies, e.g. Lake Chad
  14. 14. As a result, rural livelihoods are badly affected Crops suffer moisture stress Livestock suffer due to drought Flooded rangeland vs same rangland in dry season
  15. 15. Current Enablers Moving forward - Enablers Building partnerships for financing, marketing Smart Financing, with co- investment by private entities Improved access to credit Water productivity (income per drop), increased production, and improved value chains Food and nutrition security WHAT THE SMALL-SCALE FARMERS NEED….
  16. 16. Rice Production under Water Scarcity Conditions
  17. 17. Importance of Rice: Globally & in Africa Share of rice of total calories consumed (Source: FAO and World Bank 2010)
  18. 18. IRRIGATED AREA IN THE WORLD 2005/2007 and 2050 (million ha) 6/28/19 18 Source: World Agriculture Towards 2030-2050 As a result, Africa imports US$20 billion worth of food each year
  19. 19. Agro-ecological and water management systems for rice Source: Breeding Rice for Drought-Prone Environments(IRRI: International Rice Research Institute, 2003) With bund only rainfall With bund and irrigationNo bund, only rainfall
  20. 20. International Research Organizations on Rice in Africa i. Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) ii. Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) iii. Bioscience East and Central Africa (BECA) iv. Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD) v. West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF) vi. CGIAR’s Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP) vii. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) viii.International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) - (HRDC Hybrid Rice Development Consortium) ix. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) x. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) xi. International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) xii.Inland Valley Consortium (INC) xiii.International Water Management Institute (IWMI) xiv. Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA)
  21. 21. Africa’s Demand for Rice is Growing • Demand for rice is increasing at about 4-5% per year due to urbanization and changing dietary habits • Africa rice production is about 26.4 million tons of paddy or 17.3 million tons of milled rice. • Rice is grown in 38 African countries - but all countries are net importers of rice • SSA imports 10 million tons of milled rice 21
  22. 22. 22 Wastes waterand has low yields • Rice yields are low-- less than 3 t/ha vs. potential up to 15 t/ha • Traditional practices result in low rice yields • Water management challenges, from scarcity to poor drainage • Low-yielding landraces – need for hybrid rice Conventional flooded paddy cultivation:
  23. 23. Other challenges facing the rice sector in Africa 1. Fragmented rice value-chain 2. Lack of adequate rice milling facilities 3. High production costs 4. Low use of agricultural inputs (rice farmers have little or no access to farm inputs such as fertilizers and hybrid seeds) 5. Poor mechanization 6. Lack of adequate human resources in the rice value-chain 7. Poor infrastructure (weak market information, high costs of processing, poor roads and networks 8. Inappropriate policy environment Source: Feeding Africa, UNECA, 2015
  24. 24. The System of Rice Intensification Responding with sustainable solutions to water scarcity
  25. 25. What is the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)? • SRI is a set of practices that improves productivity of rice grown in paddies. • The SRI concept is based on the premise of “growing more rice with less water.“ • Moreoptimalpracticeswillproducebetter,more robustphenotypesfromagivengenotype 25
  26. 26. 26 What SRI is Not • SRI is NOT a new type of rice. • It is NOT a new rice variety • SRI is not GMOs • It does not modify the genetic make-up of rice. • SRI is also NOT about growing upland rice varieties, although upland varieties can also benefit from SRI. • While rice is an aquatic plant, SRI has shown that rice crops do not have to be grown in continuously flooded paddies.
  27. 27. Major Components of SRI Conventional flooded nursery SRI: younger seedlings, just 2 leaves 1. Raise seedlings in un-flooded nurseries, well-supplied with organic matter, 2. Transplant younger seedlings; i.e. at 8 to 12 days X SRI has seven major components (deviating from conventional flooded paddy)
  28. 28. Early transplanting, at wider spacing under SRI Transplanting conventional Transplanting SRI young seedlings flooded paddy seedlings at wider spacing X 3. SRI involves transplanting only one seedling per hill (NOT in clumps of 3-5 seedlings), 4. Seedlings are transplanted at wider spacing in a square pattern • SRI uses less seed& farmers save up to 80% of the cost of seed
  29. 29. Water management: SRI saves over 30% irrigation water 5. Alternate wetting and drying of the paddy field (do not continuously flood the soil) to ensure good aeration of the root zone
  30. 30. Weeding is preferably mechanized under SRI practice Weeding SRI paddy with rotary weeder Women weeding conventional rice paddy 6. Weed control is preferably done with a simple mechanical rotary weeder. This aerates the soil as it eliminates weeds, improving root vigour and enhancing the life in the soil Rotary weeding saves up to 75% on labor costs compared to manual weeding X
  31. 31. Organic fertilization under SRI 7. SRI utilizes organic manures or fertilizers to the extent possible; chemical fertilizer only when and where needed 6/28/19 31 More reliance on of organic manures saves on the costs of fertilizers; improves soil health and fertility
  32. 32. Common practices for both conventional and SRI • Land preparation (tillage, rotavation, levelling) • Crop protection against pests and Diseases (preferably IPM) • Draining paddy at crop maturity • Harvesting • Post-harvest processing
  33. 33. 33 Why SRI is Win-Win Technology for Africa
  34. 34. JKUAT Research has Shown that SRI Works 1. Ph.D. student is assessing SRI for up- scaling in Mwea irrigation scheme. - Using AQUACROP model to predict scheme-level grain yields, amounts of water saved, and cost/benefit analysis. 2. M.Sc. assessed adaptability of SRI in Mwea - completed 3. M.Sc. assessed the effects of SRI on mosquito survival rates. 4. M.Sc. has assessed bio-physical characteristics of four schemes; Mwea, Ahero, West Kano, and Bunyala for SRI adaptability 5. M.Sc. is assessing impacts of labour SRI 6. Other MIAD research on SRI spacings Mosquito trap in research plot Measuring water input in a research plot
  35. 35. 6/28/19 Participatory Research (SRI Farmer trials) SRI farmer trials Innovations by farmers
  36. 36. Under SRI, rice yields have Increased More productive panicles, higher yields 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 Week4s after 5transpl6anting7 8 9 Numberoftillersperhill Growth pattern for the tillers under SRI and CF S…
  37. 37. Results show that SRI improves rice productivity Key findings – based on farmers’ data from Mwea, Kenya SRI rice cultivation 1. Basmati yields : 7 – 10 t/ha 2. BW rice yields: 11 - 20 t/ha 3. Bag of paddy weighs 100-110 kg 4. Uses 25-33% less water 5. Grains are harder, not easily broken in milling 5. Plants have strong stems resisting damage from rain and wind 6. Weeding can be done by men or women; easier with weeder 7. Higher returns (30-50% increase in net income) 37 Conventional paddy 1. Basmati yields : 4 – 5 t/ha 2. BW rice yields : 7 - 10 t/ha 3. Bag of paddy weighs 80-90 kg 4. Water to grow 1 kg of rice = 3,000-5,000 litres 5. Grains easily break during milling 6. Flooded paddies suffer lodging from windy storms 7. Weeding flooded paddies is done by women; difficult work 8. Lower return on investment
  38. 38. Water savings comparing SRI with conventional flooded paddy in Mwea, Kenya *Rainfall water was drained from SRI plots, hence lower than that in the CF plots Source: Omwenga et al., 2014 Rainfall (m3/ha) Irrigation water (m3/ha) Water use (m3/ha)*** Water produc- tivity (kg/m3) Savings on irrigation water (%) Variety SRI CF SRI CF SRI CF SRI CF Basmati 370 613* 2,821** 8,422 11,610 9,035 14,431 0.7 0.4 27.5 BW 196 696* 3,464** 11,573 15,691 12,269 19,155 0.5 0.2 26.2 IR 2793-80-1 613* 2,644** 10,420 15,096 11,033 17,740 1.0 0.5 31.0
  39. 39. Mosquito larvae are eliminated under SRI management compared with flooded conditions %EMERGENCE Source: Kepha Omwenga - MSC progress report MOSQUITO DATA FOR SRI CONDITIONS 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 DRYING DAYS % Emerged from depression % emerged from observation dish
  40. 40. Costs of inputs are reduced under SRI 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Costofinputs(KShs/ha) Cost components SRI FP Inputs costs comparing SRI with flooded paddy (FP) practices at Mwea (Source: Ndiiri et al., 2014)
  41. 41. Extension (Capacity building) • Field visits with ToT training • Hands-on training of farmers • Training of trainers (ToT) • Special training for women • Field days according to crop agronomy • Invited trainers supported by WBI-trained staff & SRI farmers from India & Japan • Exchange visits for farmers & staff • Some 10,00 farmers have adopted SRI in Kenya 41
  42. 42. 42 6/28/4219 Field Days & Open Days for SRI Training SRI field day in Mwea SRI Open Day - all stakeholders SRI field day (transplanting) SRI field day in Bunyala
  43. 43. Awareness creation & Outreach • Open days with invited guests • Displays in the Nairobi International Show • Media outings • Radio broadcast/adverts in vernacular languages • Engaging with private sector, e.g. rice millers • Scientific papers & forums • Presenting SRI at exhibitions and other forums • SMS messaging as a mode of extension • Marketing of SRI-branded rice in the new project SRI Exhibits at Nairobi Show 2012 SRI Display at African Forum –President Kibaki -2012
  44. 44. Up-scaling SRI in Ahero, Bunyala , West Kano & SW Kano SRI Training in Ahero Scheme SRI training in West Kano Scheme SRI Training in Bunyala SchemeVideo Conference
  45. 45. Quality of Milled SRI Rice is Superior 6) SRI rice has a harder grain, thus less breakage during milling. 7) This results in better grain quality, so it sells faster at slightly higher price. 8) Millers prefer SRI due to higher recovery of whole grains 9) SRI rice weight heavier than conventional paddy
  46. 46. Note: SRI has superior milling qualities in all the categories Findings of SRI vs Conventional Paddy Milling Test SRI rice is Super Grade!! Properties SRI Conve ntional SRI Advantage Head rice (%) 90 81 +9 (+11%) White rice (Kgs) 631 594 +37 (+6%) Recovery (%) 63 59 +4 (+7%) Broken (Kgs) 37 56 -19 (-34%) Chicken feed (Kgs) 4.4 5.5 -1.1 (-20%) Bran/dust (Kgs) 79 101 -22 (-22%) Colour sorter (Kgs) 1.5 1.9 -0.4 (-21%)
  47. 47. Some Major Challenges Faced in Promoting SRI •Farmers’ skepticism •More weeds under SRI •Shortage of rotary weeders •Lack of funding •Shortage of SRI trained staff •Lack of SRI value-chain.
  48. 48. Countries which have started SRI in Africa Some 21 countries have adopted SRI in Africa, including: Country . Country 1. Madagascar where SRI originated 12. Mali 2. Benin 13. Mozambique 3. Burkina Faso 14. Niger 4. Burundi 15. Nigeria 5. Cameroon 16. Rwanda 6. Cote d’Ivore 17. Senegal 7. Dem. Rep. Congo 18. Sierra Leone 8. Ethiopia 19. Tanzania 9. Guinea 20. The Gambia 10. Kenya 21 Togo 11. Liberia
  49. 49. Why an SRI-Africa Network • The scientific basis for adoption of SRI has been proven in many countries in Africa, large published literature. • The main gap is knowledge flows -- upwards to reach policy makers, and laterally to reach more farmers and extension workers • Because… Africa is a continent fragmented by national boundaries, languages, geographic zones, and cultural differences • Technological divides between scientists and farmers, hence missed opportunities • There has been no one-stop-shop knowledge management platform for bringing together SRI community in Africa • Networks break these barriers and help establish human resource pools, for contacts, for specific needs/facilities
  50. 50. SRI-AFRICA Knowledge Portal established at JKUAT Main Objective: Build a vibrant Africa-wide Community of Practice on SRI, for knowledge-sharing, advocacy and action -- create an African voice for SRI More specifically: a) Build SRI-Africa Network for peer support with a platform for learning and knowledge-sharing on SRI b) Gather, contribute to, share, and utilize knowledge and best practices on SRI to facilitate informed choices c) Resource mobilization to support SRI actions d) Implement programmes/projects & activities that lead to upscaling of SRI – including meetings, exchange visits, etc. e) Work towards establishing national SRI networks that can implement projects – first, develop national workshops which then culminate in an Africa-wide SRI network We have already developed a web portal for knowledge-sharing – credit to Cornell University (SRI-Rice) baseline database Website for knowledge-sharing:
  51. 51. 51 6/28/19 Taking SRI to the Next Level: Growing more rice with less water • Train extension workers to support SRI farmers • Innovative ways to encourage farmers to adopt SRI • Develop rotary weeders suited to local conditions and facilitate their availability • Conduct more research to assist informed choices • Create a value chain for SRI, e.g. branding • Expand SRI to all rice growing areas in Africa to grow more rice with less water! • Need to introduce hybrid rice under SRI – for Higher Yields = China-Africa collaboration.
  52. 52. 6/28/19 THANK YOU