The System of Rice Intensification (SRI):  A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production SRI Workshop Jakarta, Octo...
Rice sector in 21 st  century needs: acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 <ul><li>Increased  land  productivity-- hig...
SRI practices can meet  all these needs : <ul><li>Higher   yields   by 50-100% -- or more </li></ul><ul><li>Water reductio...
SRI is many things <ul><ul><li>SRI derives from a certain number  of  INSIGHTS , based on  experience   </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>S RI is  NOT A TECHNOLOGY   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While SRI practices may look like a  PACKAGE  or a  RECIPE,  the...
<ul><li>SRI is  NOT YET FINISHED   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Since it was  empirically developed , we are  continually impr...
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in  raised-bed, zero-till  SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. His...
What Is SRI? Six Basic Ideas <ul><li>Transplant  young seedlings   to preserve their growth potential  -- but  DIRECT SEED...
Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084)  and same age (52 DAP)
Additional benefits  of SRI practice: <ul><li>Time to maturity   reduced by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases...
Requirements/Constraints <ul><li>Water control   to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities </...
Status of SRI:   As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
Merits of SRI methods first seen outside of Madagascar in China: 1999:  Nanjing Agric. University 2000-01:  China National...
Prof. Yuan Long-Ping with SRI plot at Sanya station,  China National Hybrid Rice R&D Center, April 2001
CHINA:  Farmers with SRI fields in Bu Tou village, Jie Ton township (Tien Tai city), Zhejiang province, 2004
Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village <ul><li>2004: SRI highest yield in Zhejiang province:  12 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>2005: his SRI ...
47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research I...
Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields <u...
Average super-rice  yields  (kg/ha) with new rice  management (SRI) vs.standard rice management  at different  plant densi...
SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999:   Madagascar 1999-2000...
AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
SRI field at 30 days
SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
Two Paradigms for Agriculture:  <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION  strategy was to: </li></ul><ul><li>* Change the  genetic potenti...
MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
CAMBODIA:  Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI  methods,  Morang  district
IRAN:   SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in  color  as well as  size
INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of  on-farm comparative evaluations  of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06  <ul><li>No. of t...
INDONESIA: Rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system & same drought   -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
<ul><li>Journal of Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology   </li></ul><ul><li>(2009), Vol. 2, No. 23 </li></ul><ul><l...
VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province,  after  typhoon
Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage  as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice  combined ...
Incidence of  Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: * Inse...
Measured Differences in  Grain Quality Conv. Methods  SRI Methods  Characteristic   (3 spacings)  (3 spacings)  Difference...
Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced COSTA RICA: Mechanized version of SRI  -- 8 t/ha yield in ...
Fig 1   Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar
 
Mechanically transplanted SRI field in Costa Rica – 8 t/ha yield
Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
Effect of Active Soil Aeration <ul><li>412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 </li></ul>...
Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings  Farmers  (N) Area  (ha) ...
Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration ,  is also possible
PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
Mechanical transplanter for planting onto raised beds, made by machine
Mechanized/hand transplanting in Pakistan, into holes made by machine, with water sprayed into hole after 10-day seedling ...
Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch  (22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
Pakistan: rice crop planted in dry soil with SRI practices adapted to mechanization: average number of tillers = 90 @ 71 d...
‘ Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia,  from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Ric...
Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid ...
Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings.  On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant ...
What is going on to produce better phenotypes? <ul><li>SRI plants have profuse  ROOT GROWTH   with  little or late senesce...
 
Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of  125-235 t/ha  compared with usual 65 t/ha
<ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF   Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with:  </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water...
Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India  Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of...
<ul><li>SRI is pointing the way toward a  possible paradigm shift  in our agricultural sciences: </li></ul><ul><li>Less  ‘...
Theory of Trophobiosis <ul><li>(F. Chaboussou,  Healthy Crops , 2004) deserves  more attention and empirical evaluation  t...
Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’ <ul><li>Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of  plants’ nutrition :  </li></ul><ul><l...
THANK YOU <ul><li>Check out SRI website:   http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email:   [email_address]   or ...
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0942 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production

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Presenter: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD

Presented at: SRI Workshop. Jakarta

October 9, 2009

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  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • This plot of Liu Zhibin’s was harvested just before my visit, with an official certificate for a yield of 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, when Liu first used SRI methods, on soil that has been kept well supplied with organic matter, he got a yield of 16 t/ha which helped to persuade Prof. Yuan Long-ping, ‘the father of hybrid rice’ in China, to become more interested in SRI. Liu is manager for the seed farm that produces hybrid seed for Prof. Yuan’s operations.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Rena Perez. These two rice plants are ‘twins’ in that they were planted on the same day in the same nursery from the same seed bag. The one on the right was taken out at 9 days and transplanted into an SRI environment. The one on the left was kept in the flooded nursery until its 52 nd day, when it was taken out for transplanting (in Cuba, transplanting of commonly done between 50 and 55 DAP). The difference in root growth and tillering (5 vs. 42) is spectacular. We think this difference is at least in part attributable to the contributions of soil microorganisms producing phytohormones in the rhizosphere that benefit plant growth and performance.
  • This is the most simple description of what SRI entails. Transplanting is not necessary since direct seeding, with the other SRI practices, also produces similarly good results. The principle of SRI is that if transplanting is done , very young seedling should be used, and there should be little or no trauma to the young plant roots. These are often ‘abused’ in transplanting process, being allowed to dry out (desiccate), or are knocked to remove soil, etc.
  • Figures from a paper presented by Dr. Tao to international rice conference organized by the China National Rice Research Institute for the International Year of Rice and World Food Day, held in Hangzhou, October 15-17, 2004. Dr. Tao has been doing research on SRI since 2001 to evaluate its effects in physiological terms.
  • SRI is often hard to accept because it does not depend on either of the two main strategies that made the Green Revolution possible. It does not require any change in the rice variety used (genotype) or an increase in external inputs. Indeed, the latter can be reduced. SRI methods improve the yields of all rice varieties evaluated so far – modern and traditional, improved and local. The highest yields have been attained with HYVs and hybrid varieties (all SRI yields &gt;15 t/ha), but ‘unimproved’ varieties can give yields in the 6-12 t/ha range when soil has been improved through SRI methods, so give the higher market price for these latter varieties, growing them can be more profitable for farmers.
  • Picture provided by George Rakotondrabe, Landscape Development Interventions project.
  • Picture provided by Dr. Koma Yang Saing, director, Cambodian Center for the Study and Development of Agriculture (CEDAC), September 2004. Dr. Koma himself tried SRI methods in 1999, and once satisfied that they worked, got 28 farmers in 2000 to try them. From there the numbers have increased each year, to 400, then 2100, then 9100, then almost 17,000. Over 50,000 farmers are expecting to be using SRI in 2005. Ms. Sarim previously produced 2-3 t/ha on her field. In 2004, some parts of this field reached a yield of 11 t/ha, where the soil was most ‘biologized’ from SRI practices.
  • Picture provided by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Morang District, Nepal. Again, this is a single SRI plant grown from a single seed.
  • Picture provided by Mr. Shichi Sato, project leader for DISIMP project in Eastern Indonesia (S. Sulawasi and W. Nusa Tenggara), where &gt; 1800 farmers using SRI on &gt;1300 ha have had 7.6 t/ha average SRI yield (dried, unhusked paddy, 14% moisture content), 84% more than the control plots, with 40% reduction in water use, and 25% reduction in the costs of production.
  • This picture from Sri Lanka shows two fields having the same soil, climate and irrigation access, during a drought period. On the left, the rice grown with conventional practices, with continuous flooding from the time of transplanting, has a shallower root system that cannot withstand water stress. On the right, SRI rice receiving less water during its growth has deeper rooting, and thus it can continue to thrive during the drought. Farmers in Sri Lanka are coming to accept SRI in part because it reduces their risk of crop failure during drought.
  • Prof. Ma Jun in his paper to the Haerbin conference included data on rice quality that he had collected. They showed SRI rice grains (from three different spacings within the SRI range) to be clearly superior in two major respects to conventionally-grown grains (two spacings). A reduction in chalkiness makes the rice more palatable. An increase in outturn is a ‘bonus’ on top of the higher yields of paddy (unmilled) rice that farmers get with SRI methods. We have seen this kind of improvement in outturn rates in Cuba, India and Sri Lanka, about 15%. More research on other aspects of SRI grain quality should be done, including nutritional content.
  • Here the seedlings are being set into the soil, very shallow (only 1-2 cm deep). The transplanted seedlings are barely visible at the intersections of the lines. This operation proceeds very quickly once the transplanters have gained some skill and confidence in the method. As noted already, these seedling set out with two leaves can already have a third leaf by the next day.
  • From report by Rajendra Uprety, District Agricultural Development Office, Biratnagar, Nepal – for Morang District. Available from SRI home page on the web.
  • This is Subasinghe Ariyaratna’s own design. He is a small rice farmer (2 ha) in Mahaweli System ‘H’ of Sri Lanka. He has also devised a method of crop establishment that is labor saving. Instead of transplanting young seedlings 10 days old, at a seed rate of 5 kg/ha, he germinates seed and broadcasts it on prepared muddy soil at a rate of 25 kg/ha. Then at 10 days, when the seedlings are established, he ‘weeds’ the field as recommended for SRI, with rows 25x25 cm, in both directions, removing (churning under) about 80% of the seedlings, leaving just 1 or maybe 2 or 3 plants at the intersections of his passes. This saves the labor of making and managing a nursery and of transplanting, at a cost of 20 kg of seed/ha. He says this can assure a yield of 7.5 t/ha. As his household labor supply is limited (he has two young children and his wife teaches), he needs to economize on labor.
  • This is explained in the book referenced above.
  • This is explained in the book by Chaboussou for which reference is given above.
  • Tefy Saina is more comfortable communicating in French language, but it can communicate in English and reads English very well. CIIFAD maintains worldwide contacts on SRI through the internet. Queries are invited, directed to CIIFAD generally or to Norman Uphoff specifically. The SRI web page maintained by CIIFAD in cooperation with Tefy Saina has recent information on SRI experience in countries around the world.
  • 0942 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production

    1. 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production SRI Workshop Jakarta, October 9, 2009 Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
    2. 2. Rice sector in 21 st century needs: acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 <ul><li>Increased land productivity-- higher yield </li></ul><ul><li>Higher water productivity -- crop per drop </li></ul><ul><li>Technology that is accessible for the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Technology that is environmentally friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Greater resistance to pests and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate change) </li></ul><ul><li>Better grain quality for consumers, and </li></ul><ul><li>Greater profitability for farmers </li></ul>
    3. 3. SRI practices can meet all these needs : <ul><li>Higher yields by 50-100% -- or more </li></ul><ul><li>Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed) </li></ul><ul><li>Little need for capital expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no need for agrochemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Induced pest and disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for drought; little/no lodging </li></ul><ul><li>Better grain quality (less chalkiness) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs of production by 10-20% which gives farmers higher income </li></ul>
    4. 4. SRI is many things <ul><ul><li>SRI derives from a certain number of INSIGHTS , based on experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is a set of PRINCIPLES that have sound scientific justifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI gets communicated to farmers in terms of specific PRACTICES that improve the growing environment for their rice plants - at same time, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI is an alternative PARADIGM - a different approach to agriculture </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>S RI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While SRI practices may look like a PACKAGE or a RECIPE, they are really more like a MENU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers are encouraged to use as many of the practices as possible, as well as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is considerable research evidence that each practice contributes to higher yield </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is also evidence that there exists some synergy among the practices – so the best results come from using them together </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>SRI is NOT YET FINISHED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Since it was empirically developed , we are continually improving our scientific understanding of SRI concepts/theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Being farmer-centered , SRI is always being modified, improved, extended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are also now rainfed versions of SRI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And zero-till, direct-seed, raised-bed forms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SRI ideas are extrapolated to other crops : wheat, sugar cane, millet, teff, beans, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. His SRI yield in 2001 set provincial yield record: 16 t/ha
    8. 8. What Is SRI? Six Basic Ideas <ul><li>Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth </li></ul><ul><li>Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic -- not continuously saturated </li></ul><ul><li>Actively aerate the soil as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>First 3 practices stimulate plant growth , while the latter 3 practices enhance the growth and health of plants’ ROOTS and of soil BIOTA </li></ul>
    9. 9. Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
    10. 10. Additional benefits of SRI practice: <ul><li>Time to maturity reduced by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases, and to adverse climate; can replant sooner </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach – want farmers to become better managers of their resources, experimenting, evaluating… </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt to larger- scale production through mechanization </li></ul>
    11. 11. Requirements/Constraints <ul><li>Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Supply of biomass for making compost – can use fertilizer as alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil at same time it controls weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; SRI can become labor-saving once techniques are mastered </li></ul><ul><li>Support of experts? have faced opposition </li></ul>
    12. 12. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
    13. 13. Merits of SRI methods first seen outside of Madagascar in China: 1999: Nanjing Agric. University 2000-01: China National Hybrid Rice R&D Center at Sanya 2001: China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI) in Hangzhou, and Sichuan Acad.of Agricultural Sciences Then Indonesia (AARD-Sukamandi) & Philippines (CDSMC) in 2000-01
    14. 14. Prof. Yuan Long-Ping with SRI plot at Sanya station, China National Hybrid Rice R&D Center, April 2001
    15. 15. CHINA: Farmers with SRI fields in Bu Tou village, Jie Ton township (Tien Tai city), Zhejiang province, 2004
    16. 16. Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village <ul><li>2004: SRI highest yield in Zhejiang province: 12 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>2005: his SRI rice fields were hit by three typhoons – even so, he was able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha -- while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storm damage </li></ul><ul><li>2008: Nie used chemical fertilizer, and crop lodged </li></ul>
    17. 17. 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
    18. 18. Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields <ul><li>Standard Rice Mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>30-day seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>20x20 cm spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Rice Mgmt (SRI) </li></ul><ul><li>20-day seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>30x30 cm spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% chemical, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% organic </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha -1
    20. 20. SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Congo, Ecuador, Costa Rica 2009: Timor Leste, Malaysia Now in 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in 37 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    21. 21. AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
    22. 22. SRI field at 30 days
    23. 23. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
    24. 24. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
    25. 25. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: </li></ul><ul><li>* Change the genetic potential of plants, and </li></ul><ul><li>* Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>SRI ( AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* To promote the growth of root systems , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* To increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES </li></ul>
    26. 26. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
    27. 27. CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
    28. 28. NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
    29. 29. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
    30. 30. INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
    31. 31. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06 <ul><li>No. of trials: 12,133 </li></ul><ul><li>Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in water requirements : 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in fertilizer use : 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in costs of production : 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Note: In Bali (DS 2006) 24 farmers on 42 ha: SRI + Longping hybrids -> 13.3 vs. 8.4 t/ha </li></ul>
    32. 32. INDONESIA: Rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
    33. 33. Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
    34. 34. SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system & same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
    35. 35. <ul><li>Journal of Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>(2009), Vol. 2, No. 23 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Introduction of Land-Cover Integrated Technologies with Water Saving and High Yield” -- Lv Shihua et al. </li></ul><ul><li>Yield in normal year is 150-200 kg/mu ( 2.25-3.0 t/ha); yield in drought year is 200 kg/mu ( 3.0 t/ha) or even more </li></ul><ul><li>Net income in normal year is increased by new methods from profit of 100 ¥/mu to 600-800 ¥/mu (i.e., from profit of $220 /ha to >$1,500 /ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Net income in drought year with new methods goes from loss of 200-300 ¥/mu to 300-500 ¥/mu profit (from a loss of $550 /ha to a profit of $880 /ha) </li></ul>
    36. 36. VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon
    37. 37. Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice combined with different age of seedlings and spacing in Chiba, 2008 (Chapagain and Yamaji, 2009) Irrigation method Seed-ling age Spacing (cm 2 ) Time to flowering Time to maturity Plant lodging percentage Partial Complete Total Inter-mittent irrigation (AWDI) 14 30x30 75 118 6.67 0 6.67 30x18 74.67 118.67 40.00 6.67 46.67 21 30x30 72.67 117.67 26.67 20 46.67 30x18 74.33 117 13.33 13.33 26.67 Ordinary irrigation (contin-uous flooding) 14 30x30 73.33 122 16.67 33.33 50.00 30x18 72 121 26.67 53.33 80.00 21 30x30 72 120.67 20 76.67 96.67 30x18 72.67 121 13.33 80 93.33
    38. 38. Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: * Insects/m 2 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7%
    39. 39. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004 Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 -30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 -65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5%
    40. 40. Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced COSTA RICA: Mechanized version of SRI -- 8 t/ha yield in first season
    41. 41. Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar
    42. 43. Mechanically transplanted SRI field in Costa Rica – 8 t/ha yield
    43. 44. Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
    44. 45. Effect of Active Soil Aeration <ul><li>412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>No. of No. of Average Range </li></ul><ul><li>weedings farmers yield of yields </li></ul><ul><li>1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) </li></ul><ul><li>2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) </li></ul><ul><li>3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4) </li></ul>
    45. 46. Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772
    46. 47. Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration , is also possible
    47. 48. PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
    48. 49. Mechanical transplanter for planting onto raised beds, made by machine
    49. 50. Mechanized/hand transplanting in Pakistan, into holes made by machine, with water sprayed into hole after 10-day seedling is dropped into it.
    50. 51. Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch (22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
    51. 52. Pakistan: rice crop planted in dry soil with SRI practices adapted to mechanization: average number of tillers = 90 @ 71 days
    52. 53. ‘ Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizo-bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02 ± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
    53. 54. Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants (symbiotic plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum ) Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
    54. 55. Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
    55. 56. What is going on to produce better phenotypes? <ul><li>SRI plants have profuse ROOT GROWTH with little or late senescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue taking up N until end of cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots are reaching lower horizons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More uptake of micronutrients (Cu, Zn …) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also more uptake of silicon (Si)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction and interface with SOIL MICROORGANISMS – phytohormones ? </li></ul></ul>
    56. 58. Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
    57. 59. <ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with: </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water, and </li></ul><ul><li>25% reduction in chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The inspiration for putting </li></ul><ul><li>this package together is </li></ul><ul><li>from the successful </li></ul><ul><li>approach of SRI – System </li></ul><ul><li>of Rice Intensification.’ </li></ul>
    58. 60. Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63
    59. 61. <ul><li>SRI is pointing the way toward a possible paradigm shift in our agricultural sciences: </li></ul><ul><li>Less ‘genocentric’ and more profoundly ‘biocentric’ ? </li></ul><ul><li>Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to capitalize on biodiversity and ecological dynamics ? </li></ul><ul><li>Less chemical-dependent ? </li></ul><ul><li>More energy-efficient ? </li></ul><ul><li>More oriented to health of humans and the environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of production > continued extensification? </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on factor productivity and sustainability ? </li></ul>
    60. 62. Theory of Trophobiosis <ul><li>(F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops , 2004) deserves more attention and empirical evaluation than it has received to date </li></ul><ul><li>Its propositions are well supported by published literature over last 50 years -- and by long-standing observations about adverse effects of nitrogenous fertilizers and chlorinated pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Theory does not support strictly ‘organic’ approach because nutrient amendments are recommended if soil deficits exist </li></ul>
    61. 63. Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’ <ul><li>Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of plants’ nutrition : </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient imbalances and deficiencies lead to excesses of free amino acids in the plants’ sap and cells, not yet synthesized into proteins – and more simple sugars in sap and cytoplasm not incorporated into polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>This condition attracts and nourishes insects, bacteria, fungi, even viruses </li></ul>
    62. 64. THANK YOU <ul><li>Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] or [email_address] </li></ul>

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