Format of the paper It is better if you compose your paper on a computerbecause it will be easier to correct for the submission of thesecond draft. Always choose a standard, easily readable typeface. Oncomputer "Arial" (font size 11) or "Times New Roman" (fontsize 12) are usually used. Use letter size paper, and print on only one side of thepaper. A research paper must be double-spaced throughout,including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Paragraphs in the text must be indented. Direct quotationsthat are longer than three lines must be blocked and have afurther indentation. Each entry of the works cited in the reference list shouldhave an inverted indentation. This means that the first line
Parts of the paper TITLE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY FEASIBILITY OF THE STUDY SURVEY OF RELATED STUDIES RESEARCH DESIGN METHODS OF GATHERING DATA TREATMENT OF THE DATA PROPOSED OUTLINE OF THE STUDY TIMETABLE BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTRODUCTORY paragraph The introduction is very important because here you tell yourreader WHAT the paper is about and HOW it has beenorganized. Thus, in the introduction you should include threeimportant pieces of information. Social conditions: This is the introduction proper. You shouldinclude a description of some general social conditions of thesituation or issue you are going to tackle. Thus, you state thegeneral background to the problem so that you reader gets anintroductory view. General statement of purpose: Here you should write asentence summarizing what the whole paper is going to be about.Phrases like "This paper will discuss . . .", "This paper will analyse. . .", or "This paper will examine . . ." may be useful for you. Details of organization: You should detail each of the sectionsdealing with the topic you have mentioned in the previoussentence. The structure will be something like the following: "I willbegin by . . ." or "First, I will . . .". "Then, I will turn to . . ." or"Second, I will . . .". "Finally, I will . . ."
TITLE The title of a research paper must bestraightforward. You just state what the paper is about. In general, starting with a phrase like ”An Analysis of. . .”, “An Approach to . . .”, or “An Introduction to . . .”shows that yours is not a definite and thoroughapproach to the issue at hand. Just as with the paper itself, beware of stating a toogeneral topic.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Write out in simple language just what you proposedto investigate. It may be in the form of: A question or questions or a single question followed byseveral questions A declarative statement or a series of completestatements; and A statement followed by a series of questions Specific and clearly stated. Its scope should permit depth orcomprehensiveness in treatment
Significance of the study State the value or contribution which your study isexpected to add to your discipline in the particularfield of knowledge in general. Timely Relevant Contribute fruitfully to national development Economic Cultural Social intellectual
FEASIBILITY OF THE STUDY Workability Availability of data Must answer the following: Has the researcher access to the data/sources/referenceshe needed? Does his study merit financial assistance? If yes, is theassistance available? Will this study elicit the cooperation and support ofagencies?
SURVEY OF RELATED STUDIES Give a brief summary of the related studies whichhave already been done or are being done; therelationship to the present proposed researchproblem; whether evidence already available areenough to explain it, or whether there is need forfurther investigation
RESEARCH DESIGN Consider the following: Methods of gathering data. How and where you expect to find the data upon which asolution can be made Include printed materials, documents, interviews,questionnaires, surveys or experimental means that promiseuseful information Treatment of the data. How you propose to arrange or interpret your data so thatconclusions may be drawn from them Proposed outline of the study
RESEARCH DESIGN Consider the following: Proposed outline of the study Before writing the outline of your study consult your departmentchairman or the dean of the college for specific instructions onthis matter
EXAMPLE OF AN OUTLINE Chapter I – Introduction – show the needs1. Statement of the problem2. Definition of terms3. Delimitation- define the boundaries of your study4. Significance- in the proposal stage, this is very importantbecause you are trying to show what its contribution maybe.5. Assumptions (if any)
EXAMPLE OF AN OUTLINE Chapter II – Review of Related Literature1. Review the theories and studies relevant to your researchundertaking2. Conceptual Frameworka. Draw upon the theory available to you and come upwith your ownb. Related literature should be based on foundationareas: Sociology, Psychology, Philosophy, PublicAdministration, etc.3. Research Hypothesis4. Definition of Variables
EXAMPLE OF AN OUTLINE Chapter III – Methodology1. Research Method Useda. Population and Sample/ SamplingProcedures- Subjects/Respondents2. Instrumentsa. Development/Selectionb. Validation3. Quantification of Variables4. Data Gathering Procedures5. Statistical Treatmenta. Processing of Datab. Statistical Analysis
EXAMPLE OF AN OUTLINE Chapter IV – Presentation and Analysis of Data The data should be presented according to:1. Statement of the Problem2. Hypothesis Chapter V – Summary, Conclusions andRecommendations
TIMETABLE Indicate how much time you need for each section ofyour study or how long your investigation will require. Your work schedule will justify the number of monthsyou will indicate in the duration.
PROJECT A(EX. OF A NINE-MONTH DURATION PROJECT)Activity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Sampling and InterviewworkAnalysis &Interpretation of dataWriting of the projectreport
PROJECT BPHASES DESCRIPTION DURATION(WEEKS)1 Sampling, presentation of questionnaires,pre-testing and reproduction42 Collection of field data 83 Editing, compiling and collating of records 124 Data analysis 85 Report writing and presentation 4
BIBLIOGRAPHY Present a list of published materials you will use orintend to look up in the course of your investigation