01. common terminologies used in an sci


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01. common terminologies used in an sci

  2. 2. ABATTOIR- slaughter house.ABATTOIR- slaughter house.
  3. 3. ABORTION- expulsion of fetus(es);ABORTION- expulsion of fetus(es);expulsion of fully developed pigletsexpulsion of fully developed pigletsbefore the completion of pregnancybefore the completion of pregnancyand before they are able to survive.and before they are able to survive.
  4. 4. ABRASION- tear in the skinABRASION- tear in the skindue to friction or rubbing.due to friction or rubbing.
  5. 5. ABSCESS- localized collection ofABSCESS- localized collection ofpus.pus.
  6. 6. ACCESSIBILITY- the state orACCESSIBILITY- the state orquality to be reached.quality to be reached.
  7. 7. ACCLIMATIZATION- adjustment ofACCLIMATIZATION- adjustment ofthe breeding pig to the conditionsthe breeding pig to the conditionsprevailing on the farm to which itprevailing on the farm to which ithas been introduced to enable it tohas been introduced to enable it toperform at optimum standards.perform at optimum standards.
  8. 8. ACCUMULATIVE - collective.ACCUMULATIVE - collective.
  9. 9. ACIDOSIS- a condition in whichACIDOSIS- a condition in whichthe acidity of body fluids andthe acidity of body fluids andtissues is abnormally high.tissues is abnormally high.
  10. 10. ACUTE- referring to a diseaseACUTE- referring to a diseasewhich has a rapid onset, shortwhich has a rapid onset, shortcourse and pronounced signs.course and pronounced signs.
  11. 11. AGALACTIA - absence of milk;AGALACTIA - absence of milk;failure to secrete milk followingfailure to secrete milk followingbirth.birth.
  12. 12. ALL-IN/ALL-OUT- managementALL-IN/ALL-OUT- managementmethod wherein a group of fatteningmethod wherein a group of fatteningpigs enters the unit at the samepigs enters the unit at the sametime and leaves together at atime and leaves together at acertain period once they reach thecertain period once they reach themarket or slaughter weight.market or slaughter weight.
  13. 13. ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE -ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE -macrophage found in alveoli.macrophage found in alveoli.
  14. 14. ALVEOLI- the terminal part of theALVEOLI- the terminal part of therespiratory system (airway) whererespiratory system (airway) whereoxygen carbon dioxide exchangesoxygen carbon dioxide exchangestake place.take place.
  15. 15. ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK- anANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK- anallergic reaction to anallergic reaction to anadministered drug or vaccine,administered drug or vaccine,which may or may not kill thewhich may or may not kill theanimals.animals.
  16. 16. ANEMIA- reduction in the quantityANEMIA- reduction in the quantityof hemoglobin (oxygen-carrier inof hemoglobin (oxygen-carrier inthe blood); the main symptomsthe blood); the main symptomsare paleness, hurried breathingare paleness, hurried breathingand low resistance to infection.and low resistance to infection.
  17. 17. Aneuploid - Has more or less thanexact number of multiple monoploidchromosomes.
  18. 18. Animal Agriculture - Production and use ofanimals for human consumption.
  19. 19. Animal Welfare Act (AWA) - Regulates thecare and treatment of animals in researchfacilities, dealers, exhibits, andtransportation.
  20. 20. Animal Welfare Act (AWA) - Regulates thecare and treatment of animals in researchfacilities, dealers, exhibits, andtransportation.
  21. 21. ANTIBIOTIC- a chemicalANTIBIOTIC- a chemicalsubstance derived from a mold orsubstance derived from a mold orbacteria that inhibits the growth ofbacteria that inhibits the growth ofother microorganisms.other microorganisms.
  22. 22. ANTIBODY- a protein substanceANTIBODY- a protein substancedeveloped or synthesized by lymphoiddeveloped or synthesized by lymphoidtissues of the body in response to antissues of the body in response to anantigenic stimulus; each antigen elicitsantigenic stimulus; each antigen elicitsproduction of a specific antibody. Inproduction of a specific antibody. Indisease defense, the animal must havedisease defense, the animal must havean encounter with the pathogen/antigenan encounter with the pathogen/antigenbefore a specific antibody is developedbefore a specific antibody is developedin its blood.in its blood.
  23. 23. ANTIGEN- a high molecular-ANTIGEN- a high molecular-weight substance (usually aweight substance (usually aprotein) which, when foreign toprotein) which, when foreign tothe bloodstream of an animal,the bloodstream of an animal,stimulates formation of a specificstimulates formation of a specificantibody and reacts specificallyantibody and reacts specifically ininvivovivo oror in vitroin vitro with itswith itshomologous antibody.homologous antibody.
  24. 24. ANTISEPTIC- a chemicalANTISEPTIC- a chemicalsubstance that prevents thesubstance that prevents thegrowth and development ofgrowth and development ofmicroorganisms.microorganisms.
  25. 25. ARTHRITIS- inflammation of theARTHRITIS- inflammation of thejoints.joints.
  26. 26. Artificial Selection - Human selection ofanimals for reproducing, based on selectedtraits that are desirable.
  27. 27. ASPHYXIATION- suffocation.ASPHYXIATION- suffocation.
  28. 28. ASSAY- determination of (1) theASSAY- determination of (1) thepurity of potency of a substance,purity of potency of a substance,or (2) the amount of any particularor (2) the amount of any particularconstituent of a mixture.constituent of a mixture.
  29. 29. ATAXIA- shaky movements andATAXIA- shaky movements andunsteady gaits.unsteady gaits.
  30. 30. ATONIC- uterus is not contractingATONIC- uterus is not contracting
  31. 31. ATRESIA ANI- no anal opening.ATRESIA ANI- no anal opening.
  32. 32. ATROPHY- shrinkage of a normalATROPHY- shrinkage of a normalorgan.organ.
  33. 33. AUTOINTOXICATION – self-AUTOINTOXICATION – self-poisoning.poisoning.
  34. 34. Autosomes - Not sex chromosomes.
  35. 35. AVERAGE DAILY GAIN (ADG)-AVERAGE DAILY GAIN (ADG)-the average increase in weight ofthe average increase in weight ofan animal per day.an animal per day.
  36. 36. Avian - Bird species
  37. 37. BACTEREMIA- the presence of aBACTEREMIA- the presence of abacteria or microorganisms in thebacteria or microorganisms in theblood.blood.
  38. 38. BARROW- a castrated male pigBARROW- a castrated male pigfor fattening.for fattening.
  39. 39. Biotechnology - Use of living organisms tomake or modify products. Increasesreproduction, clone sheep, increase milkproduction, etc.
  40. 40. BOAR- sexually maturedBOAR- sexually matureduncastrated male pig, at least 8uncastrated male pig, at least 8months old.months old.
  41. 41. BODY CONSTITUTION- ability ofBODY CONSTITUTION- ability ofthe animal’s body to resistthe animal’s body to resistdiseases.diseases.
  42. 42. BOOSTER SHOT OR DOSE- aBOOSTER SHOT OR DOSE- adose given at some time after andose given at some time after aninitial dose to enhance the effect,initial dose to enhance the effect,usually of antigens for theusually of antigens for theproduction of antibodies.production of antibodies.
  43. 43. Bovine- cattle
  44. 44. Breed - Animals in same species but differfrom others within same species (Dog vsBoxer vs Great Dane)
  45. 45. Breed Character - Physical characteristicsthat differentiate between breeds (color,size, coat type, etc.)
  46. 46. BREEDER FEED- feed for sows,BREEDER FEED- feed for sows,gilts and boars, usually containsgilts and boars, usually containsabout 3,000kcal DE and 140gabout 3,000kcal DE and 140gprotein/kg feed.protein/kg feed.
  47. 47. BREEDER MASH- feeds on aBREEDER MASH- feeds on amash form given to sows, boarsmash form given to sows, boarsand gilts with 14% Crude Protein.and gilts with 14% Crude Protein.
  48. 48. BREEDERS- animals used forBREEDERS- animals used forreproduction, such as sows, giltsreproduction, such as sows, giltsand boars.and boars.
  49. 49. BRUISES- small broken bloodBRUISES- small broken bloodvessels that discolor the skin,vessels that discolor the skin,which is not broken.which is not broken.
  50. 50. BRUCELLOSIS- a chronicBRUCELLOSIS- a chronicdisease with symptoms like lossdisease with symptoms like lossof appetite, weakness,of appetite, weakness,progressing to chronic fever andprogressing to chronic fever andswelling of lymph nodes.swelling of lymph nodes.
  51. 51. BRISKET- meat from a pig’sBRISKET- meat from a pig’schest.chest.
  52. 52. BULL- a mature male cattle.BULL- a mature male cattle.
  53. 53. BURROW- to make a hole.BURROW- to make a hole.
  54. 54. Canine- dog
  55. 55. Caprine- goat
  56. 56. Carrier -Animal carries a non-dominant genethat is not expressed.
  57. 57. Centromere - Chromosome part wherespindles are attached.
  58. 58. Chromosome – rod-like bodies or moleculecontaining genes of a living thing. Paired inmost cells.
  59. 59. Co-dominance - Unlike alleles located at oneloci.Neither allele is dominant.
  60. 60. CHRONIC- referring to a diseaseCHRONIC- referring to a diseasecondition that is continuous andcondition that is continuous andlong lasting.long lasting.
  61. 61. CLINICAL- referring to directCLINICAL- referring to directobservation.observation.
  62. 62. COLOSTRUM- the first milkCOLOSTRUM- the first milksecretion from the breast,secretion from the breast,occurring shortly after oroccurring shortly after orsometimes before birth. Itsometimes before birth. Itcontains serum, white blood cellscontains serum, white blood cellsand antibodies.and antibodies.
  63. 63. CONCEPTION - the act of gettingCONCEPTION - the act of gettingpregnant.pregnant.
  64. 64. CONCEPTION RATE-CONCEPTION RATE-percentage of sows that becomespercentage of sows that becomespregnant after service/pregnant after service/insemination.insemination.
  65. 65. CONGENITAL- a condition orCONGENITAL- a condition ordisease that has affected thedisease that has affected theanimal since birth.animal since birth.
  66. 66. CONJUNCTIVITIS - inflammationCONJUNCTIVITIS - inflammationof the conjunctiva manifested byof the conjunctiva manifested bysevere eye discharge.severe eye discharge.
  67. 67. CONTAGIOUS- can be easilyCONTAGIOUS- can be easilytransferred.transferred.
  68. 68. CORROSIVE - gradually makingCORROSIVE - gradually makingsomething weaker, and possiblysomething weaker, and possiblydestroying it.destroying it.
  69. 69. Cow- a mature female catlle
  70. 70. Cow-Calf Operation - Breeding cattle formarket. Most are cross-bred.
  71. 71. CRESOL- type of disinfectantCRESOL- type of disinfectantused to increase solubility andused to increase solubility andapplied in 2- 4% solution.applied in 2- 4% solution.
  72. 72. CRYPTORCHIDISM- mostCRYPTORCHIDISM- mostfrequently encountered genitalfrequently encountered genitaldefect of male piglets whereby thedefect of male piglets whereby thetestes fail to descend from thetestes fail to descend from theabdominal cavity into the scrotum.abdominal cavity into the scrotum.
  73. 73. CRUSHING- mainly due toCRUSHING- mainly due tocrumpling.crumpling.
  74. 74. CRUSTS- a thin, hard, dry layerCRUSTS- a thin, hard, dry layeron the surface.on the surface.
  75. 75. CULLING- the removal ofCULLING- the removal ofundesirable or unproductiveundesirable or unproductiveanimals within the herd.animals within the herd.
  76. 76. CULLS- allCULLS- allunwanted/unproductive animalsunwanted/unproductive animalsremove from the herd.remove from the herd.
  77. 77. CUSHION- something that stopsCUSHION- something that stopsone thing from hitting anotherone thing from hitting anotherthing.thing.
  78. 78. CYANOSIS- bluish discolorationCYANOSIS- bluish discolorationof the extremities due toof the extremities due tocirculatory disturbances.circulatory disturbances.
  79. 79. CYSTIC OVARY- an ovary whichCYSTIC OVARY- an ovary whichcontains an abnormal saccontains an abnormal saccontaining gas, fluid or a semi-containing gas, fluid or a semi-solid material, with a membranoussolid material, with a membranouslining.lining.
  80. 80. DEHYDRATION- loss of bodyDEHYDRATION- loss of bodyfluids.fluids.
  81. 81. DELIVERED/MARKET PIG- a pigDELIVERED/MARKET PIG- a pigthat has been sold for slaughter.that has been sold for slaughter.
  82. 82. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) - Complexmolecule with code of physical characteristics.
  83. 83. Dilution Gene - Affects the expression ofanother color gene. Dilutes one color toappear as another.
  84. 84. Diploid - Two sets of chromosomes.
  85. 85. DIARRHEA- fecal looseness.DIARRHEA- fecal looseness.
  86. 86. DIET/RATION- a selection orDIET/RATION- a selection orcombination of different feedstuffscombination of different feedstuffsprovided on a continuousprovided on a continuousschedule.schedule.
  87. 87. DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE)-DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE)-gross energy minus fecal energy.gross energy minus fecal energy.
  88. 88. DILUENT- the water used toDILUENT- the water used todissolve a lyophilized vaccine.dissolve a lyophilized vaccine.
  89. 89. DISH- SHAPED- slightly bent orDISH- SHAPED- slightly bent orcurving.curving.
  90. 90. DRAFT- moisture.DRAFT- moisture.
  91. 91. DRESS WEIGHT - carcassDRESS WEIGHT - carcassweight; weight after slaughteringweight; weight after slaughteringand removal of entrails.and removal of entrails.
  92. 92. DOCILENESS- easily controlled,DOCILENESS- easily controlled,quiet.quiet.
  93. 93. DRY PERIOD- the time intervalDRY PERIOD- the time intervalfrom weaning to the nextfrom weaning to the nextconception.conception.
  94. 94. DRY SOWS- unbred sows whichDRY SOWS- unbred sows whichhave just been weaned; non-have just been weaned; non-pregnant sows.pregnant sows.
  95. 95. DISINFECTANT- a chemicalDISINFECTANT- a chemicalcapable of destroying disease-capable of destroying disease-causing microorganisms orcausing microorganisms orparasites.parasites.
  96. 96. Diversified Farms - Multi-purpose farm:dairy, vegetables, other livestock.
  97. 97. Domestic Animal - Thrives in environment ofclose human contact. Bred over generationsto benefit humans.
  98. 98. Drylot - Do not contain grass for grazing.Grains are used to feed dairy cattle whilethey live in large pens.
  99. 99. DRYNESS - free from moisture.DRYNESS - free from moisture.
  100. 100. DUNGING AREA- whereDUNGING AREA- wherefasteners are supposed tofasteners are supposed todefecate.defecate.
  101. 101. DYSPNOEA - difficulty inDYSPNOEA - difficulty inbreathing.breathing.
  102. 102. DYSTOCIA - difficulty inDYSTOCIA - difficulty infarrowing.farrowing.
  103. 103. EDEMA- swelling of a part or allEDEMA- swelling of a part or allof the body due to theof the body due to theaccumulation of excess water.accumulation of excess water.
  104. 104. EDEMATOUS - a conditionEDEMATOUS - a conditionwherein the area (tissue spaces)wherein the area (tissue spaces)is filled with fluid.is filled with fluid.
  105. 105. ELECTROLYTES- a liquidELECTROLYTES- a liquidsolution or fresh salt.solution or fresh salt.
  106. 106. EMACIATION- excessive loss ofEMACIATION- excessive loss offlesh.flesh.
  107. 107. ENERGY- vigor or power inENERGY- vigor or power inaction.action.
  108. 108. ENTERIC- relating to or affectingENTERIC- relating to or affectingthe intestine.the intestine.
  109. 109. ENZOOTIC- endemic; denoting aENZOOTIC- endemic; denoting adisease of animals which isdisease of animals which isindigenous to a certain locality.indigenous to a certain locality.
  110. 110. EPINEPHRINE - a hormoneEPINEPHRINE - a hormoneresponsible for the “fight or flight”responsible for the “fight or flight”reaction.reaction.
  111. 111. Epistasis - One gene or allele affecting theexpression of another gene somewhere elseon the chromosome.
  112. 112. Equine- horse
  113. 113. Ethology - Study of animal behavior and well-being as related to the environment.
  114. 114. ESTRUS CYCLE- the periodESTRUS CYCLE- the periodintervening between twointervening between twosuccessive heat periods in thesuccessive heat periods in theabsence of pregnancy.absence of pregnancy.
  115. 115. ESTRUS PERIOD- the timeESTRUS PERIOD- the timeduring which the sow will acceptduring which the sow will acceptthe boar; also known as the heatthe boar; also known as the heatperiod.period.
  116. 116. ESTRUS- the period of sexualESTRUS- the period of sexualreceptivity in females; also heat.receptivity in females; also heat.
  118. 118. EXUDATE- any fluid that hasEXUDATE- any fluid that hasmoved out of a tissue or itsmoved out of a tissue or itscapillaries, specifically because ofcapillaries, specifically because ofinjury or inflammation.injury or inflammation.
  119. 119. FARROWING- the act of givingFARROWING- the act of givingbirth in pigs.birth in pigs.
  120. 120. Farrow-to-Finish - Breeds and raises pigsthough market weight at same location
  121. 121. Feeder Pig Operation - From weaning tofinishing to market. Separate frommother.
  122. 122. Feline - cat
  123. 123. FARROWING CRATE- anFARROWING CRATE- anequipment where a sow is placedequipment where a sow is placedbefore farrowing till weaning tobefore farrowing till weaning toavoid crushing of piglets.avoid crushing of piglets.
  124. 124. FARROWING INTERVAL- periodFARROWING INTERVAL- periodfrom one farrowing to the next.from one farrowing to the next.
  125. 125. FATTENER- a pig raised forFATTENER- a pig raised forpork/meat purpose; usually weightpork/meat purpose; usually weightstarts from 15-20kg.starts from 15-20kg.
  126. 126. FATTENING DAYS- the numberFATTENING DAYS- the numberof days a pig stays on a farm forof days a pig stays on a farm forfattening until marketing; thefattening until marketing; theduration of fattening.duration of fattening.
  127. 127. FECES- dung, stool, manure,FECES- dung, stool, manure,waste.waste.
  128. 128. FEED CONVERSION RATIOFEED CONVERSION RATIO(FCR)- the amount of feed(FCR)- the amount of feedneeded to convert into one kg ofneeded to convert into one kg ofgain in weight.gain in weight.
  129. 129. FEED TROUGH- a constructed orFEED TROUGH- a constructed orfabricated device where feeds arefabricated device where feeds areplaced for pig consumption.placed for pig consumption.
  130. 130. FEEDERS- feed containers.FEEDERS- feed containers.
  131. 131. FEEDS CONSUMED - theFEEDS CONSUMED - theamount of feed consumed by theamount of feed consumed by thepig.pig.
  132. 132. FEEDS GIVEN- theFEEDS GIVEN- theamount/quantity of feed given toamount/quantity of feed given tothe pig.the pig.
  133. 133. FEEDSTUFF- any materialFEEDSTUFF- any materialsuitable for animal feed.suitable for animal feed.
  134. 134. FERTILIZATION- the processFERTILIZATION- the processwherein the sperm cell penetrateswherein the sperm cell penetratesthe ovum. It is the union of thethe ovum. It is the union of themale and female gametes to formmale and female gametes to forma zygote.a zygote.
  135. 135. FETUS- a young organism in theFETUS- a young organism in theuterus from the time the organsuterus from the time the organsand systems develop until birth.and systems develop until birth.
  136. 136. FINISHER FEED- given toFINISHER FEED- given tofattener of 60kg until marketfattener of 60kg until marketweight with 14% Crude Protein.weight with 14% Crude Protein.
  137. 137. FINISHERS- pigs which are 60kgFINISHERS- pigs which are 60kgand above.and above.
  138. 138. FLUSHING- giving of excessFLUSHING- giving of excessamount of feeds to the gilts/sowsamount of feeds to the gilts/sowsprior to breeding; usually lastsprior to breeding; usually lastsfrom 3 to 10 days, or an averagefrom 3 to 10 days, or an averageof one week (7 days).of one week (7 days).
  139. 139. FORMALDEHYDE- type ofFORMALDEHYDE- type ofdisinfectant which is an aqueousdisinfectant which is an aqueoussolution containing about 40%solution containing about 40%formaldehyde gas or formalin.formaldehyde gas or formalin.
  140. 140. GANGRENOUS- decayed fleshGANGRENOUS- decayed fleshbecause blood has stoppedbecause blood has stoppedflowing as a result of illness orflowing as a result of illness orinjury.injury.
  141. 141. GASTROINTESTINAL- pertainingGASTROINTESTINAL- pertainingto the stomach and intestines.to the stomach and intestines.
  142. 142. GENOTYPE- an animal’s trueGENOTYPE- an animal’s true(genetic) make up.(genetic) make up.
  143. 143. GILT - a female pig that has notGILT - a female pig that has notproduced pigs and which has notproduced pigs and which has notreached an evident stage ofreached an evident stage ofpregnancy.pregnancy.
  144. 144. GROWER MASH- feeds given toGROWER MASH- feeds given tofatteners at 30 -35kg up to 60kgfatteners at 30 -35kg up to 60kgwith 16% Crude Protein.with 16% Crude Protein.
  145. 145. GROWERS- pigs from 30 toGROWERS- pigs from 30 to60kg.60kg.
  146. 146. GUTTER – open pipe or channel.GUTTER – open pipe or channel.
  147. 147. HERITABILITY- characteristics ofHERITABILITY- characteristics ofparent stocks which can beparent stocks which can bepassed on to their offspring.passed on to their offspring.
  148. 148. HERNIA- a protrusion of an organHERNIA- a protrusion of an organor tissue out of a body cavity inor tissue out of a body cavity inwhich it normally lies.which it normally lies.
  149. 149. HYBRID- the animals whichHYBRID- the animals whichposses hybrid vigor or heterosisposses hybrid vigor or heterosisresulting from the crossing ofresulting from the crossing ofdifferent breeds. Normally, thesedifferent breeds. Normally, theseanimals perform better than theiranimals perform better than theirparents.parents.
  150. 150. HYBRID VIGOR ORHYBRID VIGOR ORHETEROSIS- the superiorityHETEROSIS- the superiorityexhibited by the crossbredexhibited by the crossbredanimals over the average of theanimals over the average of theparental breeds.parental breeds.
  151. 151. HYDRAULIC- moved or operatedHYDRAULIC- moved or operatedby water pressure.by water pressure.
  152. 152. HYGIENE- the practice orHYGIENE- the practice ormeasures designed to attain andmeasures designed to attain andpreserve health.preserve health.
  153. 153. HYPEREMIA- redness of a part ofHYPEREMIA- redness of a part ofan organ, can be a part of thean organ, can be a part of theskin, liver, etc.skin, liver, etc.
  154. 154. HYPOCALCEMIA- the presenceHYPOCALCEMIA- the presencein the blood of an abnormally lowin the blood of an abnormally lowconcentration of calcium.concentration of calcium.
  155. 155. HYPOGALACTIA- presence ofHYPOGALACTIA- presence oflittle amount of milk.little amount of milk.
  156. 156. HYPOGLYCEMIA- a deficiency ofHYPOGLYCEMIA- a deficiency ofglucose in the bloodstream,glucose in the bloodstream,causing muscular weakness andcausing muscular weakness andincoordination, mental confusionincoordination, mental confusionand sweating.and sweating.
  157. 157. HYSTERECTOMY - surgicalHYSTERECTOMY - surgicalremoval of the womb.removal of the womb.
  158. 158. IMMUNITY- specific resistance ofIMMUNITY- specific resistance ofan animal against a specifican animal against a specificdisease-causing organism.disease-causing organism.
  159. 159. INFANTILE- denoting conditionsINFANTILE- denoting conditionsoccurring in adult animals that areoccurring in adult animals that arerecognizable in young ones;recognizable in young ones;immature/undeveloped.immature/undeveloped.
  160. 160. INFECTION- a disease caused byINFECTION- a disease caused byan organism.an organism.
  161. 161. INFECTIOUS- a disease causedINFECTIOUS- a disease causedby an organism.by an organism.
  162. 162. INFLAMMATION - the reaction ofINFLAMMATION - the reaction oftissue to injury, characterized bytissue to injury, characterized byredness, swelling, pain and heat.redness, swelling, pain and heat.SwellingSwelling
  163. 163. INSEMINATION- the deposition ofINSEMINATION- the deposition ofseminal fluid with in the vagina.seminal fluid with in the vagina.
  164. 164. INVOLUTION- shrinking of theINVOLUTION- shrinking of theuterus to normal size afteruterus to normal size afterfarrowing.farrowing.
  165. 165. IODINE- type of disinfectantIODINE- type of disinfectanttypically used as an antiseptic.typically used as an antiseptic.
  166. 166. ISOLATE- to separate, to removeISOLATE- to separate, to removesick animals from its pen.sick animals from its pen.
  167. 167. LACTATION PERIOD- the periodLACTATION PERIOD- the periodfrom farrowing until weaning;from farrowing until weaning;period when the sow is nursingperiod when the sow is nursingthe piglets.the piglets.
  168. 168. LACTATION- production of milk.LACTATION- production of milk.LAMENESS- limping.LAMENESS- limping.
  169. 169. LARDINESS- presence of whiteLARDINESS- presence of whitefat in pigs for cooking.fat in pigs for cooking.
  170. 170. LATERAL RECUMBENCY- theLATERAL RECUMBENCY- theanimal lies on its side.animal lies on its side.
  171. 171. LEPTOSPIROSIS- an infectiousLEPTOSPIROSIS- an infectiousdisease which begins with a feverdisease which begins with a feverand may affect the liver (causingand may affect the liver (causingjaundice) or meninges (resultingjaundice) or meninges (resultingin meningitis).in meningitis).
  172. 172. LESIONS- disruptive changes in aLESIONS- disruptive changes in acell, tissue or organ.cell, tissue or organ.
  173. 173. LIBIDO- sex drive (desire toLIBIDO- sex drive (desire tomount and mate).mount and mate).
  174. 174. LITTER INDEX- the number ofLITTER INDEX- the number offarrowing of one sow per year;farrowing of one sow per year;also called farrowing index or litteralso called farrowing index or litter/sow/year./sow/year.
  175. 175. LITTER NUMBER- number ofLITTER NUMBER- number offarrowing/ parity.farrowing/ parity.
  176. 176. LITTER SIZE- the number of allLITTER SIZE- the number of allpiglets born in one farrowing.piglets born in one farrowing.
  177. 177. LIVE WEIGHT- the weight of allLIVE WEIGHT- the weight of alllive pigs.live pigs.
  178. 178. LOCOMOTOR - the act of movingLOCOMOTOR - the act of movingfrom one place to another.from one place to another.
  179. 179. LOST DAYS- the number of daysLOST DAYS- the number of daysa sow is neither pregnant nora sow is neither pregnant norlactating nor dry; ideal lost days inlactating nor dry; ideal lost days inabout seven (7 ) days.about seven (7 ) days.
  180. 180. LYING AREA- where pigsLYING AREA- where pigssleep/rest.sleep/rest.
  181. 181. MANGE- parasite.MANGE- parasite.
  182. 182. MARKET WEIGHT- the finalMARKET WEIGHT- the finalweight of a pig forweight of a pig forslaughtering/marketing; also endslaughtering/marketing; also endweight.weight.
  183. 183. MASTITIS - inflammation ofMASTITIS - inflammation ofbreast or mammary gland.breast or mammary gland.
  184. 184. MAXILLARY- relating to theMAXILLARY- relating to thebones forming the upper jaw.bones forming the upper jaw.
  185. 185. METRITIS - inflammation of theMETRITIS - inflammation of theuterus.uterus.
  186. 186. MORBIDITY - number of animalsMORBIDITY - number of animalsaffected by a certain disease.affected by a certain disease.
  187. 187. MORPHOLOGY- structure of anMORPHOLOGY- structure of anobject.object.
  188. 188. MORTALITY- the number of deadMORTALITY- the number of deadpig(s).pig(s).MOTILITY- movement.MOTILITY- movement.
  189. 189. MUCOUS- a viscous fluidMUCOUS- a viscous fluidsecreted by the mucoussecreted by the mucousmembranes in many parts of themembranes in many parts of thebody, including the mouth,body, including the mouth,bronchial passages and gut;bronchial passages and gut;mucous acts as protectivemucous acts as protectivebarriers over surfaces of thebarriers over surfaces of themembranes.membranes.
  190. 190. NASAL CAVITY- referring to theNASAL CAVITY- referring to thenose, snout on pigs.nose, snout on pigs.
  191. 191. NECROPSY - an examination ofNECROPSY - an examination ofthe internal organs of a deadthe internal organs of a deadanimal to determine the apparentanimal to determine the apparentcause of death.cause of death.
  192. 192. NECROSIS- death of tissue.NECROSIS- death of tissue.
  193. 193. NUTRIENTS- the chemicalNUTRIENTS- the chemicalsubstance found in feed materialssubstance found in feed materialsthat can be used, and are necessarythat can be used, and are necessaryfor the maintenance, production, andfor the maintenance, production, andhealth of animals; the chief classes ofhealth of animals; the chief classes ofnutrients are carbohydrates, fats,nutrients are carbohydrates, fats,proteins, vitamins, minerals andproteins, vitamins, minerals andwater.water.
  194. 194. NYMPHS- late larval stage.NYMPHS- late larval stage.
  195. 195. OBESITY- over fatness;OBESITY- over fatness;excessive body condition.excessive body condition.
  196. 196. OCCLUSION- closing of a hollowOCCLUSION- closing of a holloworgan or part.organ or part.
  197. 197. OCCUPANCY- the number ofOCCUPANCY- the number ofdays an animal stay in a pen.days an animal stay in a pen.
  198. 198. OLFACTORY- connected with theOLFACTORY- connected with thesense of smell.sense of smell.
  199. 199. OPISTHOTONOS- a titanicOPISTHOTONOS- a titanicspasm in which the spine andspasm in which the spine andextremities are bent withextremities are bent withconvexity forward, the bodyconvexity forward, the bodyresting on the head and the heels,resting on the head and the heels,sometimes with bulging of thesometimes with bulging of theeyes.eyes.
  200. 200. OVER-FEEDING- giving of feedsOVER-FEEDING- giving of feedsor ration more than theor ration more than therequirement, may be quantitativerequirement, may be quantitativeor qualitative.or qualitative.
  201. 201. OVULATION- the process ofOVULATION- the process ofreleasing the ova from each ripereleasing the ova from each ripefollicle inside the ovary.follicle inside the ovary.
  202. 202. PARALYSIS- loss of power ofPARALYSIS- loss of power ofvoluntary movement in a musclevoluntary movement in a musclethrough injury or disease of itsthrough injury or disease of itsnerve supply.nerve supply.
  203. 203. PARITIES- farrowing.PARITIES- farrowing.
  204. 204. PASTERN- the narrow upper part,PASTERN- the narrow upper part,just above the hoof of the pig.just above the hoof of the pig.
  205. 205. PATHOGENIC- disease-causing.PATHOGENIC- disease-causing.
  206. 206. PATHOGENS- disease-causingPATHOGENS- disease-causingorganisms.organisms.
  207. 207. PENILE INJURIES- injuriesPENILE INJURIES- injuriesaffecting the penis (penile-affecting the penis (penile-adjective form of penis).adjective form of penis).
  208. 208. PERMEABILITY- allowing water,PERMEABILITY- allowing water,gas, etc. to pass through it.gas, etc. to pass through it.pH- symbol for the logarithm ofpH- symbol for the logarithm ofthe reciprocal of the (H) ionthe reciprocal of the (H) ionconcentration; a solution with pHconcentration; a solution with pH7.00 is neutral, one with a pH of7.00 is neutral, one with a pH ofmore than 7.00 is alkaline, onemore than 7.00 is alkaline, onewith pH lower that 7.00 is acidic.with pH lower that 7.00 is acidic.
  209. 209. PHENOTYPE- the observablePHENOTYPE- the observablecharacteristics of an animal thatcharacteristics of an animal thatcan be seen and/or measured.can be seen and/or measured.
  210. 210. PIGLETS BORN ALIVE PERPIGLETS BORN ALIVE PERLITTER- the number of pigletsLITTER- the number of pigletsborn alive in one farrowing.born alive in one farrowing.
  211. 211. PLACENTA- the organ ofPLACENTA- the organ ofmetabolic interchange betweenmetabolic interchange betweenthe fetuses and the sow.the fetuses and the sow.
  212. 212. PLAQUES- scab.PLAQUES- scab.
  213. 213. PLEURITIS- inflammation of thePLEURITIS- inflammation of thepleura or membranous coveringpleura or membranous coveringof the lungs.of the lungs.
  214. 214. PNEUMONIA- inflammation of thePNEUMONIA- inflammation of thelungs; usually manifested bylungs; usually manifested bycoughing.coughing.
  215. 215. PREGNANCY- the period fromPREGNANCY- the period fromfertilization to farrowing time; alsofertilization to farrowing time; alsoknown as gestation.known as gestation.
  216. 216. PRE-STERTER FEED- Given toPRE-STERTER FEED- Given topiglets at 14 to 21 days old withpiglets at 14 to 21 days old withCP 20%CP 20%
  217. 217. PROCEEDS- money obtainedPROCEEDS- money obtainedfrom sales.from sales.
  218. 218. PRODUCTION CYCLE - thePRODUCTION CYCLE - theperiod from pregnancy to another.period from pregnancy to another.
  219. 219. PROLAPSE - abnormal protrusionPROLAPSE - abnormal protrusionof a part of organ.of a part of organ.
  220. 220. PROGENY (IES) - offspring(s).PROGENY (IES) - offspring(s).
  221. 221. PRURITUS- ItchingPRURITUS- Itching
  222. 222. PSEUDOPREGNANCY- falsePSEUDOPREGNANCY- falsepregnancy.pregnancy.
  223. 223. PUBERTY- the age at which thePUBERTY- the age at which thereproductive organs becomereproductive organs becomefunctionally operative; sexualfunctionally operative; sexualmaturity.maturity.
  224. 224. QUARANTINE- placing all animalsQUARANTINE- placing all animalsthat have been bought in isolation forthat have been bought in isolation fora certain period of time; compulsorya certain period of time; compulsorysegregation of exposed susceptiblesegregation of exposed susceptibleanimals for a period of time equal toanimals for a period of time equal tothe longest usual incubation period ofthe longest usual incubation period ofthe disease to which they have beenthe disease to which they have beenexposed.exposed.
  225. 225. REARED PIGLETS PER SOWREARED PIGLETS PER SOWPER YEAR- the number of pigletsPER YEAR- the number of pigletsreared.reared.
  226. 226. REARINGREARINGBOARS/REPLACEMENTBOARS/REPLACEMENTBOARS- male pigs primarilyBOARS- male pigs primarilyraised for breeding purposes.raised for breeding purposes.
  227. 227. REARINGREARINGGILTS/REPLACEMENT GILTS-GILTS/REPLACEMENT GILTS-female pigs primarily raised forfemale pigs primarily raised forbreeding purposes.breeding purposes.
  228. 228. RECESSIVE GENE- of aRECESSIVE GENE- of acharacter possessed by onecharacter possessed by oneparent in which in a hybrid isparent in which in a hybrid ismasked by the correspondingmasked by the correspondingalternative or dominant characteralternative or dominant characterderived from the other parent.derived from the other parent.
  229. 229. RECUMBENT- not able to stand;RECUMBENT- not able to stand;too weak to stand.too weak to stand.
  230. 230. RECURRENT- happening orRECURRENT- happening orappearing repeatedly.appearing repeatedly.
  231. 231. REPEATERS- served/ bred sowsREPEATERS- served/ bred sowscoming back into heat after failingcoming back into heat after failingto conceive.to conceive.
  232. 232. REPRODUCTION- the totalREPRODUCTION- the totalprocess by which pigs produce offprocess by which pigs produce offsprings.springs.
  233. 233. RETARDATION- slowing up of aRETARDATION- slowing up of aprocess.process.
  234. 234. RHINITIS - inflammation of theRHINITIS - inflammation of theturbinate.turbinate.
  235. 235. RUDIMENTARY- simple.RUDIMENTARY- simple.
  236. 236. RUNT- a piglet of small sizeRUNT- a piglet of small sizecompared to its littermates.compared to its littermates.
  237. 237. SALMONELLA- pathogenic,SALMONELLA- pathogenic,diarrhea- producing organisms ofdiarrhea- producing organisms ofwhich there are over 100 knownwhich there are over 100 knownstrains, sometimes present instrains, sometimes present incontaminated feeds.contaminated feeds.
  238. 238. SANITATION - provisions ofSANITATION - provisions ofmeans whereby health ismeans whereby health isprotected or arrangements forprotected or arrangements fordisposal of manure/ waste.disposal of manure/ waste.
  239. 239. SCOUR- fecal looseness;SCOUR- fecal looseness;diarrheadiarrhea
  240. 240. SELECTION CRITERIA- standardSELECTION CRITERIA- standardparameters to be seen in futureparameters to be seen in futurebreeders (physical andbreeders (physical andreproductive traits orreproductive traits orcharacteristics) that should becharacteristics) that should bemet.met.
  241. 241. SELF-FEEDER - feeding deviceSELF-FEEDER - feeding deviceused for ad-libitum feedingused for ad-libitum feedingpractice.practice.
  242. 242. SEROLOGY- a term used inSEROLOGY- a term used inlaboratory diagnosis where serumlaboratory diagnosis where serumis checked for the presence ofis checked for the presence ofantibodies, antigens, which wouldantibodies, antigens, which wouldindicate presence of a specificindicate presence of a specificdisease.disease.
  243. 243. SERUM - the colorless fluidSERUM - the colorless fluidportion of the blood remainingportion of the blood remainingafter clotting and removal ofafter clotting and removal ofcorpuscles. It differs from plasmacorpuscles. It differs from plasmain that, the fibrinogen has beenin that, the fibrinogen has beenremoved.removed.
  244. 244. SERVICE- the act of breeding.SERVICE- the act of breeding.
  245. 245. SHEDDING- the passing off, orSHEDDING- the passing off, oremission of organisms from theemission of organisms from theanimals.animals.
  246. 246. SHRINKAGE - weight loss.SHRINKAGE - weight loss.
  247. 247. SLAT- a thin or narrow piece ofSLAT- a thin or narrow piece ofwood, metal, iron, etc. used forwood, metal, iron, etc. used forflooring in the pens.flooring in the pens.
  248. 248. SNOUT- long nose of the pig.SNOUT- long nose of the pig.
  249. 249. SOW- a mature female pig whichSOW- a mature female pig whichhave been served; served femalehave been served; served femalepigs, bred to produce piglets.pigs, bred to produce piglets.
  250. 250. SPASM- an involuntary muscularSPASM- an involuntary muscularcontraction; if painful, usuallycontraction; if painful, usuallyreferred to as a cramp, if violent, areferred to as a cramp, if violent, aconvulsion.convulsion.
  251. 251. SPASTICITY - muscle tremor orSPASTICITY - muscle tremor orspasm.spasm.
  252. 252. STALE - not fresh.STALE - not fresh.
  253. 253. STARTER FEED- given to pigletsSTARTER FEED- given to pigletsand weaners; usually at 45 daysand weaners; usually at 45 days(10kg) to 100 days old (30-35kg)(10kg) to 100 days old (30-35kg)with 18% Crude Protein.with 18% Crude Protein.
  254. 254. STARTERS- pigs from 15- to 30STARTERS- pigs from 15- to 30kg.kg.
  255. 255. STARTING WEIGHT- initialSTARTING WEIGHT- initialweight.weight.
  256. 256. STERILITY- incapacity or inabilitySTERILITY- incapacity or inabilityto reproduce.to reproduce.
  257. 257. STERNAL RECUMBENCY- theSTERNAL RECUMBENCY- theanimal lies on its chest.animal lies on its chest.
  258. 258. STERNAL- referring to theSTERNAL- referring to thesternum or chest area.sternum or chest area.
  259. 259. STILL BORN- a fully developedSTILL BORN- a fully developedpiglet which was born dead; stillpiglet which was born dead; stillbirth.birth.
  260. 260. STOCK PROJECTION SHEET-STOCK PROJECTION SHEET-worksheet which allows a pigworksheet which allows a pigraiser to program and plan theraiser to program and plan thenumber of gilts and boars to benumber of gilts and boars to bepurchased and mated at anypurchased and mated at anygiven time in order to achieve thegiven time in order to achieve thetargeted population in a pig with atargeted population in a pig with aspecified level of production.specified level of production.
  261. 261. STRAINS - a group of organismsSTRAINS - a group of organismshaving special propertieshaving special propertiesdistinguishing them from the otherdistinguishing them from the othermembers of the same species.members of the same species.
  262. 262. STRAY- to leave the place.STRAY- to leave the place.
  263. 263. SYSTEMIC- affecting the body asSYSTEMIC- affecting the body asa whole rather than individuala whole rather than individualparts/ organ.parts/ organ.
  264. 264. TECHNICAL PARAMETERS-TECHNICAL PARAMETERS-monitoring data which will enablemonitoring data which will enablethe pig raiser to have a clearthe pig raiser to have a clearunderstanding on the farm resultsunderstanding on the farm resultsand the status of the farmand the status of the farmperformance.performance.
  265. 265. TEMPERAMENT - disposition.TEMPERAMENT - disposition.
  266. 266. TETANY - spasm and twisting ofTETANY - spasm and twisting ofthe muscles, particularly those ofthe muscles, particularly those ofthe face, hand and feet.the face, hand and feet.
  267. 267. TETHERED- tied to a post or tree.TETHERED- tied to a post or tree.
  268. 268. TOXEMIA - a condition whereTOXEMIA - a condition whereblood contains poisonousblood contains poisonousproducts produced by the bodyproducts produced by the bodycells from microorganisms.cells from microorganisms.
  269. 269. TOXIN - poison.TOXIN - poison.
  270. 270. UDDER- composed of the teatsUDDER- composed of the teatsand mammary glands.and mammary glands.
  271. 271. ULCERS- wound in the stomachULCERS- wound in the stomachor any hallowed organs.or any hallowed organs.
  272. 272. URINE- a fluid form in the kidneysURINE- a fluid form in the kidneysand excreted through the urinaryand excreted through the urinaryglands.glands.
  273. 273. UTERUS- the part of the femaleUTERUS- the part of the femalereproductive tract where thereproductive tract where theembryo is implanted to become aembryo is implanted to become afully mature piglet ready forfully mature piglet ready forexpulsion.expulsion.
  274. 274. VACCINATION- an injection ofVACCINATION- an injection ofvaccine, bacterin, antiserum orvaccine, bacterin, antiserum orantitoxin to produce immunity orantitoxin to produce immunity ortolerance to disease.tolerance to disease.
  275. 275. VACCINE- a suspension of killedVACCINE- a suspension of killedmicroorganisms (bacteria,microorganisms (bacteria,viruses) administered for theviruses) administered for theprevention of infectious diseases.prevention of infectious diseases.
  276. 276. VENTILATION - system ofVENTILATION - system ofensuring fresh air inside theensuring fresh air inside thebuilding.building.
  277. 277. VERMIN- small animals or kindsVERMIN- small animals or kindsthat destroy crops, feeds, etc. andthat destroy crops, feeds, etc. andare difficult to control.are difficult to control.
  278. 278. VIREMIA - presence of virus inVIREMIA - presence of virus inthe blood.the blood.
  279. 279. VIRUS – one of a group of minuteVIRUS – one of a group of minuteinfectious agents.infectious agents.
  280. 280. VULVA- the external genitalia ofVULVA- the external genitalia ofthe female.the female.
  281. 281. WATERERS - drinkers.WATERERS - drinkers.
  282. 282. WEANED PIGLETS PER SOWWEANED PIGLETS PER SOWPER YEAR – the average numberPER YEAR – the average numberof piglets weaned from the oneof piglets weaned from the onesow for one year.sow for one year.
  283. 283. WEANER- a pig which has beenWEANER- a pig which has beenseparated from its mother toseparated from its mother tobecome a fully mature piglet.become a fully mature piglet.
  284. 284. WEIGHT GAIN- the added weightWEIGHT GAIN- the added weightof a fattener from one period toof a fattener from one period toanother.another.
  285. 285. WITHERS- the highest part of theWITHERS- the highest part of thepig’s back, above its shoulders.pig’s back, above its shoulders.
  286. 286. ZOONOTIC DISEASES -ZOONOTIC DISEASES -diseases and infections that arediseases and infections that arenaturally transmitted from animalnaturally transmitted from animalto man.to man.