Chapter three


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Chapter three

  1. 1. Chapter 3Research Method UsedPopulation and Sampling DesignResearch InstrumentData Gathering ProcedureStatistical Treatment
  2. 2. Method of Research historical, descriptive or experimental explained briefly. The procedural part of the method, its appropriateness to the study, and some of its advantages should be given attention and should be well discussed.
  3. 3. Refer to print outWHAT IS A DESCRIPTIVETYPE OF RESEARCH???
  4. 4. Characteristics of Descriptive Research ascertains prevailing conditions of facts in a group study gives either a qualitative or quantitative, or both, description of the general characteristics of the group or case under study What caused the prevailing conditions is not emphasized Study of conditions at different periods of time may be made and the change or progress that took place between the periods may be noted or evaluated for any value it gives. Comparisons of the characteristics of two groups or cases may be made to determine their similarities and differences. The variables or conditions studied in descriptive research are not usually controlled. It studies the different sections belonging to the same group. Studies on prevailing conditions may or can be repeated for the purposes of verification and comparison.
  5. 5. Sample Research MethodUsed
  6. 6. Method of Research The descriptive method of research was used in this study. Descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation of findings. It describes what is. It describes with emphasis what actually exist such as current conditions, practices, situations, or any phenomena. Since the present study or investigation was concerned with the present status of the teaching of science in the high schools of Province A, the descriptive method of research was the most appropriate method to use. (This can be elaborated
  7. 7. Graphic Organizer for RMU Refer to print out
  8. 8. Method used The descriptive method of research was used in this study.Definition Descriptive method of research is a fact- finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation of findings. It describes what is. It describes with emphasis what actually exist such as current conditions, practices, situations, or any phenomena.Appropriateness Since the present study or investigation was concerned with the present status of the teaching of science in the high schools of Province A, the descriptive method of research was the most appropriate method to use.Advantages ?
  9. 9. Value, Importance, and Advantages of Descriptive Research  contributes much to the formulation of principles and generalizations in behavioral sciences.  contributes much to the establishment of standard norms of conduct, behavior, or performance.  Makes possible the prediction of the future on the basis of findings on prevailing conditions  gives a better and deeper understanding of a phenomenon  provides a basis for decision-making  helps fashion many of the tools or instruments for quantitative research
  10. 10. Drafting Time 15 minutes to draft your RMU
  12. 12. Things to include Who are your respondents? Why are they the most appropriate individuals for your research study? What sampling did you use to obtain these respondents?
  13. 13. The Sampling Design What the researcher has to do here is towrite about the complete procedure s/he usedin determining his sample.a. The size of the populationb. The study populationc. The margin of error and the proportion of the study population usedd. The type of technique of sampling usede. The actual computation of the samplef. The sample
  14. 14. General Types of SamplingProbability Sampling. The sample is aproportion of the population (selected bymeans of some systematic way in which everyelement of population has a chance of beingincluded in the sample.)Non-probability Sampling. The sample is nota proportion of the population and there is nosystem in selecting the sample. The selectiondepends on the situation.
  15. 15. Types of Non-Probability SamplingAccidental Sampling. There is no system ofselection but only those whom the researcheror interviewer meet by chance are included inthe sample.Quota Sampling. Specified numbers ofpersons of certain types are included in thesample.Convenience Sampling. A process of pickingout people in the most convenient and fastestway to immediately get their reaction to acertain hot and controversial issue.
  16. 16. Types of Probability SamplingPure Random Sampling. When every one in thepopulation is given an equal chance of beingselected through lottery type of sampling. This maybe used if the population has no differentiatedlevels, sections, or classes.Systematic Sampling. This is used when thesubjects are systematically arranged(alphabetical, residential, geographical). Suppose20% of the population is the sample size. If 100%is divided by 20%, the answer is 5. Hence every 5thname in the list is selected.Stratified Sampling. It is the process of selectingrandomly, samples from the different strata of thepopulation.
  17. 17. Drafting time 10 minutes
  19. 19. Things to include What was the main research instrument used? Describe the research instrument? Were the questions structured or unstructured? Did you use a scale? Were the questions divided into sets? How? If you used a Likert scale, please tells us how the statements were divided?
  20. 20. Things to include What statement numbers correspond to the categories made? Why Likert scale?
  21. 21. Drafting time 10 minutes
  23. 23. Things to include When was it collected? How was it distributed? What kind of method (survey) was used? Why this method? What makes you say that your respondents are qualified to answer your Survey Questionnaire?
  24. 24. Types of survey technique/approach Total population survey. The entire population is involved in the survey. Sample survey. Only a sample or portion of the population is involved in the survey. Social survey. Researches on the attitudes and behavior of different groups of people School survey. Used to gather data for and about schools and to assess educational achievement and education itself Public opinion survey. Used to gauge the reactions of people towards certains issues or persons Poll survey. Regarding voting for a certain candidate Market survey. Finds out the way that people purchase products
  25. 25. Types of survey technique/approach Evaluation survey. Evaluates the results whether they are satisfactory or not, with the end in view of making improvements Comparative survey. The results from two different groups, techniques, or procedures are compared Job Analysis survey. Provides information on the general duties and responsibilities of workers, their education, training experiences, salaries, etc. Community survey. Provides information on the various aspects of the community
  26. 26. Drafting time 10 minutes
  27. 27. Statistical Treatment of Data It helps the researcher in determining the validity and reliability of his research instruments. Statistical manipulations organize raw data systematically to make the latter appropriate for study. It is used to test the hypotheses. Statistical treatments give meaning and interpretation to data. Statistical procedures are indispensable in determining the levels of significance of vital statistical measures.
  28. 28. Statistical Treatment of Data: Guidelines1. What was the formula used?2. Why this formula?3. Show the formula4. How can this be the most appropriate formula for your term paper?5. How was this formula applied in your term paper? Please illustrate
  29. 29. Chapter 4Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
  30. 30. How to Write the Parts? Name the table Make the table Present the data Analyze the data Interpret the data
  31. 31.  Refer to Sample Chapter Four
  32. 32. Table 1Frequency & Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Age Age Frequency Percentage 13 7 24% 14 7 24% 15 11 38% 16 4 14% TOTAL 29 100%
  33. 33. PARAGRAPH SET UP Table 1 tells us that most of the male high schoolPRESENT students in ALXS who play Ragnarok are aged 15, registering a return of 38%. This is followed by ages 13 and 14, registering returns of 24% each. Interestingly, only 14% belong to the 16-year old bracket. This is revealing. There is a steady number of maleANALYZE ALXS high school students who play Ragnarok at ages 13 and 14. Their number increases at age 15. But dramatically drops at age 16. This tells us that the male ALXS high school students areINTERPRET most interested in playing Ragnarok at age 15, but they lose this interest the following year. It may be presumed that at age 16, the male ALXS high school students become more interested in other things such as their studies, high school graduation, and college education.