A type of learning that occurs when
individuals learn to produce
involuntary emotional or physiological
responses similar to instinctive or
Object or event causing the instinctive or reflexive
physiological or emotional response.
Instinctive or reflexive physiological or emotional
response caused by the unconditioned stimulus.
An object or event that does not initially impact
behaviour one way or the other.
Formerly neutral stimulus that becomes associated
with the unconditioned stimulus.
A learned physiological or emotional response that
is similar to the unconditioned response.
MAIN IDEA FOR CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
The conditioned and unconditioned stimuli must
exist at the same time.
Food Unconditioned Stimulus
(natural, not learned)
Bell Conditioned Stimulus
Salivation Conditioned Response (to bell)
USING CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN THE
Teachers or peers affect how you feel when you
enter the class.
When a teacher creates a friendly environment in
the class, the pupils will generally feel comfortable
entering the class.
Occurs when stimuli is similar- but not identical - to
a conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned
response by themselves (N. Jones, Kemenes, &
OPERANT CONDITIONING LEARNING
In terms of observable responses that change in
frequency or duration as the result of consequences,
events that occur following behaviours. (B.F. Skinner,
In summary, behaviours are largely controlled by
consequences rather that by stimuli preceding the
behaviour. The consequence of an action results in the
The process of applying reinforcers to increase
Process of increasing the frequency or duration of a
behaviour as the result of presenting a reinforcer.
Sometimes, reinforcing of undesirable behaviour
Process of increasing behaviour by avoiding or
removing an aversive stimulus (Baldwin & Baldwin,
2001; B.F. Skinner, 1953)
EXPLANATION OF VIDEO
Pavlov's experiment based on Operant
Negative Reinforcement because it is the
removal of an adverse stimulus which is
‘rewarding’ to the animal. Negative reinforcement
strengthens behaviour because it stops or removes
an unpleasant experience.
Reinforced succecssive approximation of the
desired behaviour through a process called
Use of punishers to weakens behaviour.
Action Behaviour Concept
Type 1 punishment
Type 2 punishment:
Action Behaviour Concept
EXPLANATION OF DIAGRAM
Learning is about the increased probability of a
behaviour based on reinforcement which has taken
place in the past, so that the antecedents of the
new behaviour include the consequences of