WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?• Philosophy deals withthose fundamental questions that underlieeveryday notions or lay ground forscientific concepts. Examples: Who am I?Where I am coming from? What is themeaning of life? Does the history ofmankind lead somewhere (or anywhere)?What is time?
• Way of life• The glamour of knowing• Man is a questioning being. But ourquestions could be of very different kinds.Some are simple and casual, some verydifficult and complex, some mindbogglingor even obscure.• it is virtually impossible to give oneuniversally accepted definition ofphilosophy----intellect.
• All philosophers will not agree even uponsome general formal characteristics, forinstance that philosophy is a discursiveactivity• philosophy is a unique discipline. No othersubject in the curriculum has to agonizewith a similar problem of an elusive self-definition.
• The very meaning of theword philosophy (derived from the Greek compound philo + sophia) pointsat once to a special attitude of aphilosopher and her/his objective.• According to this etymology, "philosophy"is "a love of wisdom", which means that itcombines both cognitive and emotionaldimension of our mind.
REMEMBERWe need the passion of love to start andkeep questioning the things that are eithertoo familiar or too removed from everydayconcerns. The continuation of this strivingpoints to the essence of wisdom. Itsposture is a passionate search forwisdom, not the possession of it.
The Meaning of Modernity• Moderna” means “new” and “now”.Modern is a temporal orientation to ‘hereand now’ [not ‘there and past” of themedieval mentality]• The term relates to the concept of time:linear progress [contrary to cyclicalconcept of time]• Key concepts of the modernity:“technological progress”, “revolution”,“economic growth”
Modern Philosophy is aphilosophy of the subject• As a whole we can view the modernwestern philosophy as a researchprogram on the epistemological andmetaphysical problems ofconsciousness as such [the subject orsubjectum]. So Habermas mentions itThe philosophy of Subject [dieSubjektphilosophie]
• The origin of consciousness (e.g.Descartes and Locke)• The Development of consciousness(e.g. Hegel, Kierkegaard, Comte)• The Collapse of consciousness (e.g.Schopenhauer, Nietzsche)
The Humanists• The spirit of modern philosophy was builtin the age of Renaissance.• The rebirth of the Greek and Romancivilization in Italy during 16thCenturyreflected in many cultural aspects such asliterature, architecture, philosophy, art etc.• The humanists taught eloquence, history,poetry, moral (comparable to the sophistsin ancient Greece)
Three Characteristics ofModern Philosophy• 1.Centers on the problem ofconsciousness or subjectivity [contrary totheocentrism]• 2. Radicalization of the epistemologicalconcept of critique [contrary to dogmatism]• 3. Teleological Concept of historicalprogress of mankind [contrary to statusquo]
Man as Natural Being• Renaissance culture viewed man asnatural being. He doesn’t come fromheaven, but grows from earth and isprovided with natural talents and vitality.So, the naked figures in the renaissance’sgallery glorified the natural beauty of man.
Man as Individual• The individual (not the collective) was acentral theme of art and literature in theculture of renaissance. In the westernphilosophy the paradigm-shift occurredduring the renaissance, i.e. fromtheocentrism of medieval thought toanthropocentrism of modern thought.
• English Philosopher• Inspired by the Glorious Revolution & English BOR• 1690 – published Two Treatises on Government• People shaped by their experiences not natural violent• All people had 3 natural rights – life, liberty, & property• People are born with a “tabula rasa” or clean slate.• Purpose of gov’t = serve the people – people have theright to overthrow the gov’t if it is not serving itspurpose• Social Contract – agreement b/w ruler & people• Influenced Thomas Jefferson, Declar. Of Indep., &Rousseau
• English Philosopher• Influenced by the English Civil War & Charles IExecution• 1651 – Published Leviathan (Sea Monster)• Argued that natural law made absolute monarchy thebest form of gov’t• Humans were natural selfish and violent• People couldn’t make their own decisions• If they did life would be “nasty, brutish, and short”• Only a strong ruler (Leviathan) could give peopledirection
• Inspired by the Glorious Revolution & John Locke,Greek Philosophers• French Philosophe• 1748 – published – Spirit of Laws• Separation of Power – equal divide power among the3 Branches of gov’t• Executive (Monarch) enforce laws, Legislative(Parliament) makes laws, Judicial (Courts) interpretlaws• By separating these powers, gov’t could not becometoo powerful – checks and balances
• French Philosopher• 1762 – published Social Contract• Gov’t should be based on a Social Contract• Everyone must agree to be governed by the generalwill – whats good for the ppl (foundation for totalitariangov’t)• Humans being were naturally good but corrupted bysociety• Importance on Education and Civic Virtue – train pplhow to be good citizens.• People should pay more attention to emotions &feelings instead of new ideas –seek a balance –
• Francois-Marie Arouet – known asVoltaire• French Philosophe• Wrote many novels, plays, letters, &essays that brought him fame• Strong dislike of Catholic Church• Blame the church for keepingknowledge from people to keep itspower• Freedom of Religion• Natural Law runs the world
• References• . F. Budi Hardiman, Sejarah Filsafat BaratModern dari Machiavelli sampaiNietzsche, Gramedia, Jakarta, 2004
THOUGHT TO PONDEREducating the mind withouteducating the heart is noeducation at all ~Aristotle ♥THANK YOU! Have a