BEHAVIORISMBy: Micki Lovering, Jennifer Marianas, Sheina Rodriguez Mieles, Rena Perez, and Stephanie Saez
IVAN PAVLOV BORN IN RUSSIA IN 1849 His biggest contribution to the field of psychology is classical conditioning, a theory about how behavior is learned. Pavlov studied reflexes, automatic behavior that is caused by a stimulus from the environment Through his experiments he believed that automatic behavior could be manipulated. Most known for testing his theory of classic conditioning on dogs.
B.F SKINNER BORN MARCH 20, 1904 Most famous for his theories on operant conditioning. He believed behavior could be control depending on the what happens after the response. These outcomes depend on both positive or negative reinforcements Most known for testing his theories of operant conditioning by creating the Skinner Box
ALBERT BANDURA BORN DECEMBER 24, 1925 His theory of Social learning differed from Skinner. He believed that reinforcement could be accounted for all types of learning. His theory of Social Learning states that people learn new behaviors by watching other people. Most known for testing his theory by using the “Bobo doll experiment”.
KEY POINTS TO THEORY Behaviorism is the prediction and It began during a time of control of human behavior in which modernism which is coincided introspection and/or independent from the industrial revolution thinking play no essential part of its period. teaching method. It started school of psychology founded by John B. To a behaviorism, human Watson in 1913 based on the belief learning is purely an objective that behaviors can be and experimental branch of measured, trained, and natural science and has no internal cognitive processing of changed. information. They recognize no dividing line It is the theory between man and animalthat all behaviors because they both learn toare acquired solely through system ofthrough positive and negative rewards.conditioning.
KEY POINTS (CONTINUED) Classic conditioning, developed Social learning, or the Social by Ivan Pavlov, refers to the Cognitive Theory, was natural reflex that occurs in developed by Albert Bandura to response to stimulus. focus on those motivational factors and self-regulatory Operant mechanisms that contribute to a conditioning, developed by B.F. person‟s behavior, rather than Skinner, is learning that is just environmental controlled and results in mechanisms, which shaping behavior through the differentiates his theories from reinforcement of stimulus- Skinner‟s operant conditioning. response patterns. Recently, Bandura‟s studies have focused on self-efficacy which is a personal observation about one‟s perceived ability to feel, think, and motivate oneself to learn. Also, he considered imagery, which is a person‟s ability to retain information through images in the mind.
BEHAVIORISM IN THE CLASSROOM. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) won a Nobel Prize for his work in classic conditioning. He was able to train a dog to salivate when he rang the bell. Teachers are able to use classic conditioning with their students as well. A great example would be saying „clap once if you hear; clap twice if you can hear me‟. When the students hear the clapping they will immediately know its time to quiet down and that the teacher is ready to speak.
BEHAVIORISM IN THE CLASSROOM B.F. Skinner conducted research in operant behavior. These are behaviors that are created or reinforced by stimulus. Teachers are able to use this in various ways. Every time a child does good in the classroom him or her are able to gain a point, this can be done with paper money. Depending on the behavior the child can gain or lose money. By the end of the week the child can trade their money for a toy or a lunch date with the teacher. This allows the child to work for something they want to achieve. Operant conditioning doesn‟t only have to be done with concrete objects and toys with younger children a simple smile or hug when they do something well is a good reward.
BEHAVIORISM IN THE CLASSROOM. Albert Bandura is known for his work in Social Cognitive Theory also known as Social Learning. He believes that children learn from the behaviors of others. A simple way to use Bandura‟s theory in the classroom is to promote a positive learning environment, as an educator you can create cooperative learning groups were the children can divide the work and do different tasks. This allows them to give and receive support from their teammates while being able to acknowledge how self efficient they are, giving themselves good self-esteem.
BEHAVIORISM IN THE CLASSROOM Implementing Behaviorism in the classroom would be for the purpose of motivating the students to reach certain goals. Students need reinforcement to do well on certain things. One way behaviorism could be used in our classrooms is if the class works diligently on their assignment for the first forty minutes they can spend the last ten minutes discussing assignment with classmates.
BEHAVIORISM IN THE CLASSROOM Behaviorism can also be used in ways of punishment. If our classroom does not settle down in the first five minutes and get their Bell work done in the first ten minutes, there will be a pop quiz given at the end of the class period on what was intended on being learned during the class time.
CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS What the students do under this theory Under this theory the students take a second place. The Behaviorism assume that the only things that are real are the things that a person can see and observe. For this reason the students act as a responders with stimuli in the classroom, not like a independent thinking. In this theory only the student acts according to a system of positive and negative rewards.
CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS What the students do under this theory , in the classroom the studentreceives a praise or a positive feedback, ifthe answer is correctly. However, if thestudent does not answer as the teacherexpects, the student will receive a feedbackfrom the teacher that will change the studentresponse in the future and adapt it to adifferent response to the stimulus.
CLASSROOM IMPLICATIONS What the students do under this theoryThe technology programs that students used today are created to help them to learn on the computer. This programs helps the child learn by the drill-and- practice method, which uses the reinforcement, practice and feedback.