A Wireless Future - Making Waves

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Suppose for a moment that we had arrived at this digital epoch, but had only just discovered wireless. Would we start by designing and building the wireless systems we now take for granted? I think not! The reality is; today’s wireless thinking is largely set by developments stretching back well over 100 years, and constrained by the limited physical models and mathematical ability of that time. Concepts such as LF, HF, VHF, UHF, SHF - Long, Medium and Short Waves - and dedicated channels are a result. So deep is all this that some actually think the ‘frequency domain’ is real as opposed to an abstract engineering convenience.

Every aspect of wireless communication we enjoy today stems from old analogue thinking and there is very little in this digital era that we could truly consider to be radically new. In truth, our digital radios are really analogue at their core, and so is the very way we think.

So a manifest for change might include:

No more bands or channels
No government regulation or control
The EM spectrum used as a continuum
Communication @ minimal energy
Operating below the thermal floor
Orthogonality through coding
Massive spread factors
Micro networking

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A Wireless Future - Making Waves

  1. 1. A Wireless Future M a k i n g W a v e s Peter Cochrane cochrane.org.uk ca-global.org COCHRANE a s s o c i a t e s
  2. 2. T h e r e i s n o d i g i t a l wireless…only analogue systems we have bent to our digital bidding….
  3. 3. Suppose for the sake of argument we had derived all our technologies without discovering or the need for wireless technology… ! …but this morning we stumbled across EM waves and the possibility… ! …would we go along the same development path of our forbears and go for bands and channels ??? Impossible I know but please,just humour me
  4. 4. Would we be thinking: ! - 2.5/3.0kHz for voice telephony ? - 9/10kHz or AM Broadcast Radio ? - 200/700kHz for FM Stereo Music ? - 6/8MHz for NTSC/SECAM/PAL TV ? - 20/36MHz for satellite transponders ? ! ! ! ! ! - LW, MW, SW,VHF, UHF, SHF +++ ? - Channels per each user/application ? - Bands for groups of similar users ? ! - OFCOM, FCC, Government ?
  5. 5. Would we be thinking: ! - 2.5/3.0kHz for voice telephony ? - 9/10kHz or AM Broadcast Radio ? - 200/700kHz for FM Stereo Music ? - 6/8MHz for NTSC/SECAM/PAL TV ? - 20/36MHz for satellite transponders ? ! ! ! ! ! - LW, MW, SW,VHF, UHF, SHF +++ ? - Channels per each user/application ? - Bands for groups of similar users ? ! - OFCOM, FCC, Government ? I think not !
  6. 6. Would we delude ourselves with the distorted view presented by band plans like this ?
  7. 7. Or would we give all this deep thought and come up with a succinct set of objectives : “The maximal exploitation of the EM Spectrum to the advantage of Man and Machine for the purposes of communication, sensing, manipulation, and processing”! ! ! ! ! ! ! “And we should exploit the ‘spectrum space’ to best advantage including performance, sustainability and longevity”
  8. 8. How didwegethere?
  9. 9. With coils, capacitors, resistors, tubes/valves - analogue was the best you could do - digital was all but impossible …you could only exploit the signal selectivity by resonance, high and low pass filters, use amplifiers, oscillators and modulators…
  10. 10. Because of this our wireless history is ‘fork lift’, with radio receivers & transmitters that were big, very big, consuming vast amounts of energy and raw materials - weighing tons and eating kW of power to serve/reach vast regions of countries/ the planet
  11. 11. And a trend that has not improved a lot at the head end over the decades ! however distances are now shorter
  12. 12. These created the opportunity for fundamental change…. !11
  13. 13. Without the transistor, integrated circuit, pcb, surface mount components, and the possibility of digital formats, there was no place to go other than making it smaller, cheaper and prettier, but that is all we have done since and it really is time to move on & think anew
  14. 14. Without the transistor, integrated circuit, pcb, surface mount components, and the possibility of digital formats, there was no place to go other than making it smaller, cheaper and prettier, but that is all we have done since and it really is time to move on and think anew It really is time to move our thinking on beyond this past era
  15. 15. From this… To this…everyone and every thing on line ~ 9Bn people + >50Bn things…we need bandwidth and connectivity
  16. 16. ks Bns Sensors RFID Mobiles 3/4/5G Tns Ms WiFi/Max100ks
  17. 17. ks Bns Sensors RFID NumberTx of devicesMW mW Distance & Power Mobiles 3/4/5G Tns Ms WiFi/Max100ks
  18. 18. ks Bns Sensors RFID NumberTx of devicesMW mW Distance & Power Mobiles 3/4/5G Tns Ms WiFi/Max100ks 100% The need for regulation and control ~ 0%
  19. 19. Personal Space Bluetooth UWB RFID LAN MAN WANPAN City Community WMAN WiMAX Beam Forming Cellular/Satellites International HSDPA WCDMA UMTS WLAN 802.11X WiFi Campus, Office, Airport, Home The dream….…seamless access! 3m 30m 3km Ubiquitous
  20. 20. Personal Space Bluetooth UWB RFID LAN MAN WANPAN City Community WMAN WiMAX Beam Forming Cellular/Satellites International HSDPA WCDMA UMTS WLAN 802.11X WiFi Campus, Office, Airport, Home The dream….…seamless access! 3m 30m 3km Ubiquitous Cameras -VOIP - Sensors - Positioning +++
  21. 21. Thin bandwidth over 1 - 10km You can’t beat the laws of physics Big bandwidth over 1 - 10m
  22. 22. The spectrum myth… …it is in short supply!
  23. 23. The spectrum myth… …it is in short supply! Actually it is m ostly unused!
  24. 24. The spectrum myth… …it is in short supply! Actually it is m ostly unused! City of Chicago study <17% of commercial spectrum used
  25. 25. Not a lot of occupancy here and this is a wifi band in London…and the rest of the planet is the same !
  26. 26. The distorted perception of a logarithmic scale All human created wireless energy is currently concentrated here But there is 30x more unused space here
  27. 27. We have devices & processing power to do & access more than ever before…>30GHz…
  28. 28. FM We have devices & processing power to do & access more than ever before…>30GHz…
  29. 29. FM TV We have devices & processing power to do & access more than ever before…>30GHz…
  30. 30. FM TV Mobile We have devices & processing power to do & access more than ever before…>30GHz…
  31. 31. FM TV Optical Mobile We have devices & processing power to do & access more than ever before…>30GHz…
  32. 32. FM TV Optical Mobile WiFi We have devices & processing power to do & access more than ever before…>30GHz…
  33. 33. FM TV Optical Mobile WiFi We have devices & processing power to do & access more than ever before…>30GHz… Opportunity
  34. 34. We now have the technology to deliver an infinity of wireless bandwidth to almost any location...all the old limiters have gone!
  35. 35. Sheer computing power (will just about) solve all the old propagation problems…
 • Signal processing allows (extreme) spread spectrum modes • Auto power, channel and mode control made it all black boxes • Spatial processing mitigates self/others interference • Smarts negate need for regulation, band structures, frequency allocations Adaptive Antenna Base Station
  36. 36. S/N dB BW Hz Duration T seconds Back to Basics: Information transmitted over a channel expressed as a volumetric function of S/N, BW and Time - aka Claude Shannon 1945/46 C = B.T log2(1 + k.S/N) C ~ B.T.K.S/NdB vv
  37. 37. S/N dB BW Hz Duration T seconds B a c k t o B a s i c s : T h e s a m e information transmitted over a channel in three different modes using S/N, BW and T as variable factors - aka Claude Shannon 1945/46
  38. 38. Today and The Past: The outmoded and largely dying past of analogue transmission in distinct and defended bands
  39. 39. Today and The Past: The outmoded and largely dying past of analogue transmission in distinct and defended bands Today’s digital systems look very similar with bands and channels - QUAM, QPSK et al are wider, suffer the loss of guard bands, plus interference and intermodulation +++
  40. 40. 300Hz 3500Hz Uncoded Baseband Speech Parsed and Ordered Baseband Parsed and Randomised Baseband A Bit Of History: WWII Speech coding using channel frequency parsing, random sideband inversion and re- arrangement
  41. 41. The Cold War: Frequency hopping spread spectrum - ‘catch me if you can’ S f Hz time
  42. 42. Dwell Time The Even Colder War: Frequency hopping variable dwell and hop time SSBSC spread spectrum S f Hz time Hop Time
  43. 43. Subversive Communication: Frequency spreading analogue SS f f f t t t X Modulator/ Multiplier Analogue Input Analogue Output Spreading Sequence 2.5kHz of speech spread over 2.5, 25 or 250MHz hidden by the thermal noise - undetected and unheard
  44. 44. All Digital Future: How a digital future without bands employing Sequence Spreading might look
  45. 45. Get in The Noise: An interfering DSBSC signal creating a minimal interference threat and vice versa DSBSC Signal well above the noise Thermal & Cosmic Background Noise Spread Spectrum Signal well under the noise Frequency and amplitude axis not to scale EG: Speech/Music BW = 12kHz BW = 2GHz
  46. 46. Big Challenges: ! Antennas spanning very wide bands are non-trivial…and any form of beam steering forms an even bigger challenge
  47. 47. Big Challenges: ! Devices providing the necessary performance might be demanding but there is a lot on the market if we think and innovate…
  48. 48. Big Challenges: ! Signalling & Sync at speed will demand original thinking and development as the protocols do not exist…
  49. 49. Supporters: ! Very encouraging and keen to see the UK t a k e a l e a d i n g position in this line of work…organising a series of industry days..and wish to see universities in the play
  50. 50. Supporters: ! A very small % of the HAM radio fraternity are interested and looking to this to revitalise a dying hobby
  51. 51. The Next End Game ?
  52. 52. More Data Carried: Telegraph >> Messenger Telephone >> Telegraph Mobile >> Telephone WiFi >> Mobile Internet >> All Above Clouds ofThings >> Internet The Internet will not scale functionally or economically, but Clouds will - and ‘thing-to-thing’ communication will eclipse all before
  53. 53. Thank You ca-global.org
 cochrane.org.uk COCHRANE a s s o c i a t e s

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