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Small data big impact

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Data mining and analysis has been dominated by the big looking at the small. Businesses, institutions and governments examine our habits with an eye to commercial opportunities, welfare, and security.  However, big data is migrating analysis into the arena of networking and association to enhance services: advertising, ‘pre-selling,’ healthcare, security and tax avoidance reduction. But this leaves the critical arena of Small Data unaddressed - the small looking at the small - individuals and things examining and exploiting their own data.

Here we consider a future of ubiquitous tagging, sensors, measuring and networked monitoring powered by the IoT. Key conclusions see many devices talking to each other at close range with little (or no) need of internet connection, and more network connections generated between things than those on the net.

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Small data big impact

  1. 1. cochrane.org.uk Peter Cochrane BIG S m a l l D a t a I M P A C T Ahmed Elmagarmid  Mourad Ouzzani Stochastic complexity on a massive scale exhibiting fractal behaviours from a local to a national, international and global scale
  2. 2. ManAgement Struggle Generally confounded by complexity Instinct and experience increasingly dangerous Knee jerk management is always dangerous Dynamic connectivity and multi-species non-linearity
  3. 3. L i m i t e d : - A s s u m p t i o n s - M e a s u r e s - T h i n k i n g - M o d e l s - D a t a E v o l v e d f o r a n s l o w c h a n g i n g a n a l o g u e w o r l d - l i n e a r i t y r u l e d & o u r m a t h w o r k e d - b u t i t a l l c r a s h e s a b o v e o r d e r ( 5 ) - c o m p l e x i t y n o w r u l e s w i t h 1 0 s t o 1 0 0 0 s o f v a r i a b l e s - a n d p e r h a p s w o r s e w e c o p e w i t h < 5 - 7 s i m u l t a n e o u s i d e a s “There are lots of simple solutions to complex problems and they are all wrong” tyranny of THE SIMPLE We are linear thinkers but the world is complex
  4. 4. p o l i t i c s M a n a g e r s E C O N O M I CS “People love simple - it is so obvious and doesn’t involve thinking”
  5. 5. Technology Ecology d e p e n d e n cy J I GS AW Economics Society Industry Care Markets Trade Education Policing Defence Commerce Security Logistics Finance Government Companies W e h a v e n o m o d e l o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g “Sometimes WE might observe or infer some limited relationships along with typical characteristics - however, AI can produce a more comprehensive analysis and a much fuller picture” The BIG DATA DOMAIN links everything and records relationships and patterns of behaviour - in doing so it creates vast amounts of data vital to the modelling of the real world… Law & Order Defence Education Health Institutions
  6. 6. A X I O M S Ve r y o b v i o u s ?
  7. 7. A X I O M S Ve r y o b v i o u s ? I n c re a s e d e f f i c i e n c y l e a d s t o i n c re a s e d b r i t t l e n e s s a n d m o re f a i l u re s … . …more data is a must for a c c u ra t e b u s i n e s s m o d e l s a n d wa r g a m e s … ….BIG and small DATA are key to a more predictable t h e f u t u re Stop Over Optim ising if you wa nt your c o m p a n y t o s u r v i ve a n d p ro s p e r Avoid erroneous KPIs a n d b o n u s d r i ve n c u l t u re s Embrace a da ta an d business model driven a p p ro a c h
  8. 8. B I G D A T A M A Y N O T B E E N O U G H
  9. 9. - P o l i s h i n g w h a t w e h a v e w i l l n o t r e a l i s e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y - N e w m a t e r i a l s & m a n u f a c t u r i n g m e t h o d s a r e r e q u i r e d - N e w d i s t r i b u t i o n , s u p p o r t a n d m a i n t e n a n c e r e g i m e s - E n e r g y a n d m a t e r i a l u s a g e h a s t o b e m i n i m i s e d - R e u s i n g , R e p u r p o s i n g , R e c y c l i n g , h a s t o b e r e a l - E c o n o m i c s y s t e m s h a v e t o b e f i t f o r p u r p o s e A X I O M S Not so obvious?
  10. 10. “ To b u i l d a n e r v o u s s y s t e m f o r t h e p l a n e t w i t h m o s t p e o p l e a n d t h i n g s c o n n e c t i n g ( a t w i l l ) w i t h d i s t r i b u t e d s t o r a g e o f d a t a a n d i n f o r m a t i o n ” MISSION or evolution ? “ To s t o p p r o d u c i n g m o r e a n d m o r e f o r t h e f e w a n d s t a r t p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e m a n y ”
  11. 11. DATA Big & SMALL Small Data Focussed Detail Big Data Macro-View Relationships Limited C o n t a i n e d C o n s t r a i n e d Expanding Te n d i n g t o The Infinite Both important & dynamic
  12. 12. THE AUDIT TRAIL Raw materials to roll out to user Raw material extraction, refinement Raw material recover from scrap Shipping logistics & supply chain Processing: forming, machining Testing and Q A assessment Assembly machine & people Software loading & test Assembly testing Packaging Shipping Supply Sale Seller testing Sale process/prep Ownership Registration User habits & maintenance User feedback to design team Onward sale (repeat all above) Disposal - cannibalisation for parts Recycling/recovery of raw materials
  13. 13. H EA LT H P ro g n os is Hospital Prime Centre of Expertise & Capability Medical Centre Prime Point of Local Capability Home Based Measurements Monitoring Medication Technology Push - Patient Pull M i g r a t i n g c e n t r e o f g r a v i t y
  14. 14. D e v i c e to d e v i c e Monitoring the in:out & effect give a complete picture Self contained home net with no internet connection - or an aggregated and sporadic net connect
  15. 15. M y to ot h b r u s h Will not want to connect to the internet ….nor will it use 5G !!
  16. 16. The coffee machine ANECDOTE Purchased Failed in month 12 Repaired under warranty Returned with a user report 8000 coffees consumed in one year 8200 hours in one year ~ 1 coffee an hour Health implications Product implications
  17. 17. The coffee machine ANECDOTE Purchased Failed in month 12 Repaired under warranty Returned with a user report 8000 coffees consumed in one year 8200 hours in one year ~ 1 coffee an hour Health implications Product implications What will our appliances have to tell us ?? Fridge Freezer Microwave Dishwasher Washing Machine Tumbler dryer Oven/Hob Security Air-Con Shower +++Designer Feedback
  18. 18. Forward looking radar and car-to-car comms Rearward looking radar and car-to-car comms 3,4,5G Network Connection WiFi and WiMax Net Connection to Gas Station, Repair Shop for OS, APP, Info upgrades, failure reporting and real time remote diagnostics Self contained data storage and analysis Small Data Domain VEHICLE to vehicle Comms
  19. 19. VEHICLE Comms Networks without infrastructure BIG DATA = Vehicle type, location, speed, owner, insurance, taxation… small DATA = Production and repair history, performance data, driver habits, apps,… 3,4,5G nets cannot support the demands of future traffic and logistic networks… but vehicle to vehicle systems can…by providing the most efficient and relevant linking of users reporting their status and sharing local/pertinent information
  20. 20. distribution Automated & intelligent
  21. 21. BIG DATA Where has the package come from and where is it going ? Where is it now and what does it contain ? small DATA The detailed product history of how it was created; where it has been s t o re d a n d d e t a i l e d handling history including humidity, temperature, G- force, damage +++ Item Box Pallet Warehouse Container Supplier Customer
  22. 22. Ship to shore Container to Ship H I D D E N V A L U E In every container operation globally BIG DATA = Where is my container, schedule and contents ? Small DATA = What is the condition of the container contents ?
  23. 23. No single solution can deal with all forms of attack.... Security N o o n e s o l u t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t : t h e re a re n o g o l d e n b u l l e t s … I o T a n d D a t a B I G & s m a l l DATA re q u i re d t o m o d e l & s y n t h e s i s e re a c t i v e a n t i d o t e s a n d a n t i c i p a t o r y p ro t e c t i o n … a n a u t o i m m u n e s y s t e m i s re q u i re d t o c o p e w i t h t h e I o T a n d s t o c h a s t i c c o m p l e x i t y / a t t a c k s !
  24. 24. N E E D T O S H A R E T R U M P S N E E D T O K N O W
  25. 25. We m i g h t s u p p o s e t h a t t h i s wo u l d t a ke p l a c e i n s e c o n d s o r m i n u t e s a n d n o t h o u r s a n d d a y s …
  26. 26. How Many Devices ? I m p l a n t e d , w o r n , c a r r i e d b y p e o p l e To d a y I w e a r a n d c a r r y 6 s m a r t c o m m u n i c a t i n g t h i n g s … b u t i n t h e f u t u r e i t i s l i k e l y t o b e > > 1 0 ! ! H o w m a n y h a v e y o u g o t … . ? ? T h e y a r e a l l a p a r t o f t h e I o T - a n d m a y / c a n / d o c r e a t e B I G a n d s m a l l d a t a …
  27. 27. Forbes Projection Based on an Industry Average
  28. 28. Forbes Projection Based on an Industry Average A N I o T O F 5 0 B n T H I N G S I S C O N S E R V A T I V E !
  29. 29. Stored information growth 1986 I can’t draw a dot small enough!! . 1996 0.001ZB 2006 0.13ZB 2016 13ZB IoT will accelerate this trend to promote ever more on device storage ZetaByte = 1021 ExaB = 1018 PetaB = 1015 TeraB = 1012 Prognosis: IoT small data distributed storage may exceed the internet
  30. 30. 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2 6 10 14 16 18 20 22 % Data Stored on Things Year Projection Actual Data extracted from numerous reports, papers & presentations by IDC, EMC, ICS, Stored ON THINGS
  31. 31. Thank You cochrane.org.uk ca-global.org

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