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Infinite bandwidth iot wireless

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Incremental wireless developments have seen a string of progressively more complex analogue modulation schemes, but no digital systems. Our old analogue technologies are merely interfaced with complex digital modems and we have failed to escape the constraints of bands and channels. But our world has moved on from big towers, high energy, and long distance communication to one dominated by very short range, mW, µW and nW transmissions. Even the mobile device world is migrating to smaller and smaller cells, whilst the IoT may predominately by-pass all our conventional networks by employing mesh nets and/or opportunistic store and forward.

“A world of 250Bn fixed and mobile ‘Things‘ is entirely different to one of 7Bn Mobiles”

In this new paradigm the apparent shortages of wireless bandwidth and capacity are more a manifestation of wrong thinking than actual constraints of a well trodden analogue past. The reality is; we have an infinity of bandwidth and there are no physical or otherwise limitations to wireless communications for short distance applications provided we think and design digitally to exploit all the degrees of freedom to hand. In the extreme, we can operate under the thermal noise to become invisible and beyond regulation and control.

“The IoT will see more things connecting and communicating off the net than on”

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Infinite bandwidth iot wireless

  1. 1. Infinite IoT WirElesS Sans channels, bands & regulation Peter Cochrane www.cochrane.org.uk “We have no digital wireless, only old analogue technologies using complex digital modems”
  2. 2. GENESIS Fork lift radio - analogue - long distances - lots of power CW, AM, FM, SSB+++ P2P Fixed, Broadcast+++ LW, MW, SW, VHF, UHF+++ Terrestrial, Maritime, Airborne+++ ~30Bn fixed and mobile broadcast radio & TV receivers dominate followed by simplex voice transceivers
  3. 3. Big cells and n x1000s of towers MOBILE ~7Bn live devices on 3/4G connected to a global net of duplex voice & data comms • Digital modes only • Personal mixed use and traffic • Static base stations dominate • Terrestrial concentration • Large cells <20km
  4. 4. slow forward Small cells and Nx1000s of masts ~7Bn live devices on 3/4G connected to a global net of duplex voice & data comms • Exponential traffic growth • Concentrated communities • Death of the fixed line phone • Users demand more bandwidth • Cells <1km
  5. 5. Now 1 D I Y c e l l s P l u g a n d p l a y n o e x p e r t i s e re q u i re d ! • Personal and up close • 100% contiguous coverage • Goodbye to fixed line phone • Cells <100m Office, home, providing new services including virtual pbx
  6. 6. Now 2 DIY WiFi P l u g a n d p l a y n o e x p e r t i s e re q u i re d ! WiFi ~ 55% Copper/FTTP ~ 45% 3 + 5G ~5% Internet Traffic
  7. 7. Observations It is a miracle it all works Protocols very inefficient We avoid interference by dynamic juggling! The spectrum shortage is an illusion We seldom use more than 20% of the available space 5G unlikely to be a big player It cannot fully service the IoT We need more than incrementalism More bands, channels, modulation and coding schemes are not enough
  8. 8. Does everything, but badly THE BIG FIX ? 5g • Replaces optical fibre • Outguns 3 & 4G • Gbit/s everywhere • Will dominate the IoT • +++++ • Cooks a chicken • Improves your sex life….
  9. 9. n e w d i r e c t i o n S From connected people to connected things People ~10Bns Traffic ~1 Bn Goods ~100Bns Components ~1 Tn IoT
  10. 10. E n e r g y l i m i t a t i o n S We cannot realise such a future using our current approach Internet and connected devices ~ 10% of all energy generated What would 50, 250 or 1000Bn IoT devices demand ? We have to get down from mW to µW, nW and pW This demands ‘simplicity’ of processing and communications
  11. 11. N e w M o d e s More things linking off net than on Most THINGS will never connect to the internet THINGS will want to network and connect with other THINGS The IoT is entirely evolutionary and not just revolutionary New sporadic networks and associations will occur
  12. 12. one size fits all - not! We are going to need a multiplicity of technologies Cost Per Unit ~ 0 - 20 £, $, € Size of Units ~ 1 - 50 mm3 Power Used ~ pW - mW Single Chips Rule
  13. 13. C o n t i n u e t W e a k i n g ? This heritage/thinking cannot possible get us there
  14. 14. The Illusion of scarcity Why do we do this - it is largely legacy thinking Actually the spectrum is m ostly unused!
  15. 15. A dense london location ~50k WiFi nodes within a 1km radius of Liverpool St Very low RF Signal occupancy typical of most modern cities & rural locations
  16. 16. adopting reverse gear? Status Quo New Track ? Analogue pretending to be digital High energy & complex Pure digital Low energy & simple Conserving bandwidth for medium /long distance mobile communication Wasting bandwidth for ultra-short IoT distances
  17. 17. OpportunitY Space High loss is a short distance/reuse +++ God Given Spatial Filters Status Quo Leave well alone New Territory and new opportunities Continues untouched All modulation schemes from the past +new New modulation schemes & modes including hyper Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
  18. 18. The Illusion of scarcity Why do we do this - it is largely legacy thinking far too complex & expensive Unfit for the IoT purpose - especially at 30 - 300 GHz
  19. 19. N e w O p p o rt u n i t i es High loss ideal for short distance/reuse +++ Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum HYPER Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
  20. 20. S/N dB BW Hz Duration T seconds Volumetric representation of S/N, BW and Time Claude Shannon 1945/46 I = B.T log2(1 + k.S/N) I ~ B.T.K.S/NdB vv Back to basics k.S/N >> 1 With a little engineering licence
  21. 21. The same information transmitted in 3 different modes exploiting S/N, BW and T S/N dB BW Hz Duration T seconds degrees of freedom Hugely simplified for the purposes of explanation and clarity
  22. 22. S/N dB BW Hz Duration T seconds In the Extreme ‘Waste Bandwidth’ to push the Signal Below the Noise Filters Coding Modulation Timing Recovery Amplifiers & Mixers Jitter Phase Noise Doppler Shift Frequency Stability Multi-Path Propagation Negated
  23. 23. BW ~ 500MHz All digital no analogue elements - mixers, amplifies, filters UWB ON AFTERBURNERS From UWB To HWB Hyper Wide Band BW ~ 50GHz SIGNAL CODING/Error Correction => Bit Counting/Averaging 1bit/Hz 0.01bit/Hz
  24. 24. 5GHz 55GHz DSS VariAnts Thermal Noise Sans pulse and absorption effects Simple spectral replication reduces the processing demand of TX and RX units
  25. 25. Huge amounts of electronic complexity along with: Jitter Filters Coding Modulation Phase Noise Doppler Shift Timing Recovery Frequency Stability Multi-Path Propagation W E J U S T N E G A T E D
  26. 26. Antennas spanning huge frequency ranges are a non-trivial … and whilst fractal antennas may be the ‘theoretical the holy grail’, no one has yet succeeded in realising fully workable designs MAJOR Challenge 1
  27. 27. Status Quo Vested Interests Limited Thinking Unwillingness to Change MAJOR Challenge 2
  28. 28. ca-global.org
 cochrane.org.uk Can governments; FCC, OFCOM et al let go?? After >100 years of trying to be bandwidth efficient can we bring ourselves to waste bandwidth to achieve energy, size, material and operational efficiencies across > 100, 000,000,000 things ?? Thank You

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