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2014-15
PRESENTED BY OUR GROUP MEMBERS
KALPANA KHOPKAR
NEHA S. JELLA
POOJA P. CHAVHAN
PALLAVI R. CHAUGULE
IT’S ALL
ABOUT- BLUETOOTH
CONTENTS
Abstract
Objective
Introduction
What is Bluetooth?
Why it is called Bluetooth?
History of Bluetooth
How Bluetooth Technology works?
Why profiles are necessary?
What is Network Topology?
Frequency hopping spread spectrum
Technical specifications
Bluetooth in the market
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Bluetooth
Applications of Bluetooth
How Bluetooth connects to other devices?
Bluetooth Security
Future of Bluetooth technology
Conclusion
Bibliography
ABSTRACT
Bluetooth technology unplugs our digital peripherals and makes a
cable clutter a thing of the past. In short, it is a wireless replacement
for many of the cables we currently use to transmit voice and data
signals. It is the result of the joint achievements of nine leading
companies: 3COM, Lucent Technologies, IBM, Intel, Microsoft,
Motorola, Nokia, Toshiba, and Ericsson, altogether known as the
Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The idea is to create a single
wireless protocol to address the end-user problems arising from
proliferation of various mobile devices.
The Bluetooth specification is ideal for mobile professionals who
need to link notebook computers, mobile phones, PDA’s, PIM’s, digital
cameras, and other hand-held devices to do business at home, on the
road, or in the office. Governments worldwide regulate it, so it is
possible to utilize the same standard wherever one travels. Bluetooth
provides three low power modes to conserve battery life: sniff mode,
hold mode, and park mode. It aims at low power consumption and
provides security for both stationary and mobile devices. A Bluetooth
chip [9mm x 9mm] takes the information normally carried by the cable,
and transmits it at a special frequency to a receiver. Bluetooth radio
modules use Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) for modulation.
Bluetooth employs an FHSS spreading technique, changing frequencies at
a rate of 1600 times per second – 160 times the rate at which a
wireless LAN changes frequencies. This provides a fairly robust
communications link for its intended range. Signals can be transmitted
through walls and briefcases, thus eliminating the need for line-of-
sight. Bluetooth is a standard developed that allows any sort of
electronic equipment – from cellphones to keyboards and headphones- to
make its own connections without direct action from a user.
Bluetooth is primarily a wireless personal area networking
technology.
Complementing other solutions such as the industry-standard IEEE
802.11 and 802.11b based LANs. Bluetooth is emerging as the short-
range connection media of choice amongst mobile devices and electronic
equipment, giving the user, ease of operation. It promises to
significantly change the way we use machines.
OBJECTIVE
The objective of this report is to provide an informative
overview about Bluetooth technology which has in fact already
become a global de facto standard for wireless connectivity. In
this report we are including the fundamentals of Bluetooth, how
it evolved, the working, and the technical specifications.
Moreover, we are penning down a few of its advantages and
disadvantages from a consumer and provider point of view which
further leads on to describing a few of its vast and varied
applications. We are concluding on the note of what Bluetooth
technology presently is and what potential it has in our world and
life. The main objectives of Bluetooth technology can be
described as follows,
 Cable replacement: Getting rid of the various types of
cables and wires required for interconnectivity between
various devices would enable the lay man to use all
electronic devices without wasting time and money.
 Small size: the Bluetooth device is very small so that it can
be attached to any device required like the cell phones
without adding much to the weight of the system.
 Low cost: Bluetooth is aimed to be a low cost device
approximately $5 in the near future.
 Low power: The utilization of power is very less (within 100
mW) as it is short range equipment and so it facilitates the
use of small batteries for its usage.
Besides the characteristics mentioned above, Bluetooth can
imitate a universal bridge to attach the existing data
networks, and also as a mechanism for forming ad-hoc
networks. Designed to operate in noisy frequency
environments, the Bluetooth radio uses a fast
acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make the
link robust.
INTRODUCTION
During the past two decades, the advancement in
microelectronics and VLSI technology dipped down the cost of
many consumer electronic products to a level which was
affordable for the common man. The first quarter of 2001, saw
the vending of about 32.5 million PCs. The sale of cellular
phones is predicted to reach 1 billion in 2005. With increase in
the number of electronic devices, comes in the need of
connecting them together for maximum interoperability and
utilization. These devices connect with each other using a variety
of wires, cables, radio signals and infrared light beams, and an
even greater variety of connectors, plugs and protocols.
Bluetooth is devised to replace these cables.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data
over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in
the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile
devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by
telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a
wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect
several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.
Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest
Group (SIG), which has more than 20,000 member companies in
the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and
consumer electronics. Bluetooth was standardized as IEEE
802.15.1, but the standard is no longer maintained. The SIG
oversees the development of the specification, manages the
qualification program, and protects the trademarks. To be
marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified to
standards defined by the SIG. A network of patents is required
to implement the technology, which is licensed only for that
qualifying device.
WHAT IS BLUETOOTH?
Bluetooth is a wireless technology used to transfer data
between different electronic devices. The distance of data
transmission is small in comparison to other modes of
wireless communication. This technology eradicates the use
of cords, cables, adapters and permits the electronic
devices to communicate wirelessly among each other.
--Or--
Bluetooth is a high-speed, low-power microwave wireless
link technology, designed to connect phones, laptops, PDAs
and other portable equipment together with little or no work
by the user.
Bluetooth is a short-range and low power wireless technology
originally developed for exchanging data over short distances
from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks
(PANs).
 Short-range radio frequency technology that operates
at 2.4 GHz on an unlicensed Industrial Scientific
Medical (ISM) band.
 Effective range of Bluetooth devices is 10 meters.
 It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to
data cables.
Bluetooth is a global standard for wireless connectivity.
Bluetooth technology facilitates the replacement of the cables
used to connect one device to another, with one universal short-
range radio link operating in the unlicensed 2.45 GHz ISM band.
WHY IT IS CALLED BLUETOOTH?
The word "Bluetooth" is an anglicized version of the
Scandinavian Blåtand/ Blåtann, (Old Norse blátǫnn)
the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth who
united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom and,
according to legend, introduced Christianity as well. The idea of
this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach who developed a
system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with
computers. At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G.
Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and
King Harald Bluetooth. The implication is that Bluetooth does
the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one
universal standard.
The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger
Futhark runes (Hagall) (ᚼ) and (Bjarkan) (ᛒ), Harald's initials.
FORMATION OF LOGO
HISTORY OF BLUETOOTH
In 1994, Ericsson in Sweden launched an initiative to study a
low-power, low-cost radio interface between mobile phones and
their accessories. After three years, in 1997, Ericsson
approached various manufacturers of mobile electronic devices
to discuss the development and promotion of this short range
wireless radio link as alone this phenomenon could not be
implemented.
Thus in 1998, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and
NOKIA formed the Special Interest Group (SIG) for the
promotion and development of BLUETOOTH technology. The
first Bluetooth silicon was also ready in 1998. As we can see
that the SIG included two market leaders in mobile telephony,
two in laptop computing and one in digital signal processing
technology. The biggies being in the game gave an impetus to
thousands of companies to join hands with the SIG for the
endorsement and expansion of this technology.
One would wonder how Bluetooth got its name. It has
an interesting heritage. Bluetooth is named after the 10th
century Viking King Harald Blatand (Blatand meaning Bluetooth).
He was instrumental in uniting the
countries in the Baltic region like
Sweden, Denmark, Norway and
thus emerging as a powerful force.
Bluetooth aims at uniting the
computing and telecommunication
world and so achieving the same
greatness.
HOW BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY WORK?
Basically, Bluetooth is the term used to describe the
protocol of a short range (10 meter) frequency-hopping radio
link between devices. These devices implementing the Bluetooth
technology are termed Bluetooth - enabled. Documentation on
Bluetooth is divided into two sections, the Bluetooth
Specification and Bluetooth Profiles.
 The Specification describes how the technology works (i.e.
the Bluetooth protocol architecture),
 The Profiles describe how the technology is used (i.e. how
different parts of the specification can be used to fulfill a
desired function for a Bluetooth device).
BLUETOOTH PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE:
As the report is designed mainly for the spread spectrum
techniques course, the protocols in the lower level are
described more extensively and the upper layer protocols are
just mentioned with a very brief description.
Moreover, one should note that the upper layer protocols
are totally dependent on the lower level protocols whereas the
lower level protocols can function independently even with a
totally different set of upper protocols.
Bluetooth Radio:
The Bluetooth Radio (layer) is the lowest defined layer of the
Bluetooth specification. It defines the requirements of the
Bluetooth transceiver device operating in the 2.4GHz ISM band.
The Bluetooth air interface is based on three power classes,
 Power Class 1: designed for long range (~100m), max
output power of 20 dBm,
 Power Class 2: ordinary range devices (~10m), max output
power of 4 dBm,
 Power Class 3 short range devices (~10cm), with a max
output power of 0 dBm.
The radio uses Frequency Hopping to spread the energy
across the ISM spectrum in 79 hops displaced by 1MHz,
starting at 2.402GHz and stopping at 2.480GHz.Some countries
use the 79 RF channels whereas countries like Japan use 23
channels. Currently, the SIG is working to harmonize this 79-
channel radio to work globally and has instigated changes within
Japan, Spain, and other countries. Also, the Bluetooth radio
module uses GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying) where a
binary one is represented by a positive frequency deviation and
a binary zero by a negative frequency deviation. BT is set to 0.5
and the modulation index must be between 0.28 and 0.35. The
receiver must have a sensitivity level for which the bit error
rate (BER) 0.1% is met. For Bluetooth this means an actual
sensitivity level of -70dBm or better.
Baseband:
The Baseband is the physical layer of the Bluetooth. It manages
physical channels and links apart from other services like error
correction, data whitening, hop selection and Bluetooth security.
As mentioned previously, the basic radio is a hybrid spread
spectrum radio. Typically, the radio operates in a frequency-
hopping manner in which the 2.4GHz ISM band is broken into 79
1MHz channels that the radio randomly hops through while
transmitting and receiving data. A piconet is formed when one
Bluetooth radio connects to another Bluetooth radio.
Both radios then hop together through the 79 channels. The
Bluetooth radio system supports a large number of piconets by
providing each piconet with its own set of random hopping
patterns. Occasionally, piconets will end up on the same channel.
When this occurs, the radios will hop to a free channel and the
data are retransmitted (if lost). The Bluetooth frame consists
of a transmit packet followed by a receive packet. Each packet
can be composed of multiple slots (1, 3, or 5) of 625us. A single
slot frame typically hops at 1,600 hops/ second. Multi-slot
frames allow higher data rates because of the elimination of
the turn-around time between packets and the reduction in
header overhead.
LMP:
The Link Manager Protocol is used by the Link Managers (on
either side) for link set-up and control.
HCI:
The Host Controller Interface provides a command interface to
the Baseband Link Controller and Link Manager, and access to
hardware status and control registers.
L2CAP:
Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol supports higher
level protocol multiplexing, packet segmentation and
reassembly, and the conveying of quality of service information.
RFCOMM:
The RFCOMM protocol provides emulation of serial ports over
the L2CAPprotocol. The protocol is based on the ETSI standard
TS 07.10.
SDP:
The Service Discovery Protocol provides a means for
applications to discover which services are provided by or
available through a Bluetooth device. It also allows applications
to determine the characteristics of those available services.
WHY PROFILES ARE NECESSARY?
The profiles have been developed in order to portray
how implementations of user models are to be
accomplished. The user models describe a number of
user scenarios where Bluetooth performs the radio
transmission. A profile can be described as a vertical
slice through the protocol stack. It defines options in
each protocol that are compulsory for the profile. It
also defines parameter ranges for each protocol. The
profile concept is used to decrease the risk of
interoperability problems between different
manufacturers' products. For example: The Headset
profile defines the requirements for Bluetooth devices
necessary to support the Headset use case. The Fax
profile defines to support the Fax use case. There are
as many profiles as applications which are growing every
day.
WHAT IS NETWORK TOPOLOGY?
The Bluetooth system supports both point to point and
point to multipoint connections.
PICONETS:
Bluetooth radios connect to each other in piconets, which are
formed by a master radio simultaneously connecting up to seven
active slave radios [3 bit address] in an Ad-hoc manner. There
can be up to 256 parked slaves [8 bit address] which like the
active members are synchronized to the master clock. Each
piconet has a unique
hopping sequence. To
form a piconet, the
Bluetooth radio
needs to understand
two parameters: the
hopping pattern of
the radio it wishes to
connect to and the
phase within that
pattern. In forming
a piconet, the master
radio shares it’s
Global ID with the
other radios, which
then become slaves and provide all the radios with the correct
hopping pattern. The master also shares its clock offset
(represented by the clock dial) with the slaves in the piconet,
providing the offset into the hopping pattern. This information
can easily be exchanged via the FHS packet.
SCATTERNETS:
Two or more
piconets with overlapping
coverage areas form the
scatternet. Slaves in one
piconet can be master or slave in the other piconet [Achieved
by TDM].Up to 10 fully loaded piconets can coexist in a
scatternet. Any devices in multiple piconets employ TDM. The
two types of links that can be establishes between the master
and slaves are named
SCO:
Synchronous Connection Oriented and
ACL:
Asynchronous Connection Less link
The communication protocol is described by the following state
diagram. Standby is
the default state.
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
(FHSS)
Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum (FHSS) is a
spread spectrum modulation scheme that uses a narrowband
carrier that varies frequency in a pseudo random pattern
known to both transmitter and receiver. To an unintended
receiver, FHSS appears to be a short-duration impulse
noise. Only transmitters and receivers that are
synchronized on the same hop frequency pattern will have
access to the transmitted data. The transmitter switches
hop frequencies 1,600 times per second to assure a high
degree of data security. Also compared to DSSS, FHSS is
simpler to build with higher
noise immunity.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS
Frequency band 2.4 GHz ISM band
Modulation Gaussian shaped BFSK
Range 10 -100 m
Physical layer FHSS
Coverage Omni-directional. Non line of sight transmission
Data rate 1 Mbps/723 Kbps
Hopping rate 1600 hops/sec at 1 hop/packet
Channels 79/23 channels
Channel length 625 microseconds long
Data packet Up to 2,745 bits in length
Reliable and secure Good. Link layer authentication and encryption
Cost $ 20 aims at $5 endpoint
Power 0.1 W (Active)
Acceptance SIG have about 2500 member companies
Data / Voice support One asynchronous data channel (732.2 kbps and
reverse 57.6 kbps) OR Three simultaneous
synchronous voice channels (64 kbps) OR
Simultaneous asynchronous and synchronous
channels.
Piconet 1 master and 7 slaves
Scatternet Up to 10 piconets in a scatternet
Links SCO and ACL links
BLUETOOTH IN THE MARKET
PC cards, Cell phones, Head sets, Chip sets,
etc.
ADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH
 Low Power Consumption
 Works in noisy environments
 No line of sight restriction
 Reliable and secure
 The 2.45 GHz ensures universal compatibility. Also
complies with airline regulations
 The qualification and logo program ensure higher quality
 Very Robust as the radio hops faster and uses shorter
packets
DISADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH
 Too many unfeasible applications so do we really need it?
 No handoff / handover capability
 Initial stages so it needs to prove its worth
 Few analog or FH cordless phones have designed to
operate at the 2.4GHz band. Certainly interference exists
in between, but more serious effects would be exerted on
analog 2.4GHz cordless phone
 802.11 Bluetooth
Represents Internet Represents faux internet
Already proved it Still to prove
Widespread connectivity Connect at close proximity
APPLICATIONS OF BLUETOOTH
Bluetooth has a varied number of applications. Each
application has a corresponding profile. Some of them
are named as follows:
 A Bluetooth-mouse could be used at a further
distance from a monitor, and while moving about in
the room.
 A Bluetooth-keyboard could be used further away
from the monitor. This would reduce eye-strain for
persons who are long-sighted. Increasing the
distance would also reduce exposure to
electromagnetic radiation from the monitor.
 A Bluetooth-keyboard could also be used to address
more than one computer, in a dynamic, switchless
manner.
 Use e-mail while your portable PC is still in the
briefcase! When your portable PC receives an e-
mail, you'll get an alert on your mobile phone. You
can also browse all incoming e-mails and read those
you select in the mobile phone's display.
 A travelling businessman could ask his laptop
computer to locate a suitable printer as soon as he
enters a hotel lobby, and send a printout to that
printer when it has been found, and replied in a
positive manner.
 Cable-less connection to printers and faxes.
 Cable-less connection to digital cameras and video
projectors.
 Cordless connection from cell phone to hands free
headset.
 Bluetooth interface to office PBX.
 Dial-up networking and automatic e-mail.
 Use cell phone as office cordless phone.
 Use of PC or PDA as handsfree phone.
 Automatic exchange of files, electronic business
cards, calendars etc.
HOW BLUETOOTH CONNECTS TO OTHER
DEVICES?
1.) Inquiry: A device in a new environment will
automatically initiate an inquiry to discover what access
points are within its range. This will result in the following
events:
i.) All nearby access points respond with their addresses.
ii.) The device picks one out the responding devices.
2.) Paging: a baseband procedure invoked by a device which
results in synchronization of the device with the access
point, in terms of its clock offset and phase in the
frequency hop, among other required initializations.
3.) Link establishment: The LMP will now establish a link
with the access point. If there is Link Level Security, then
Pairing begins at this layer.
4.) Service Discovery: The LMP will use the SDP (Service
Discovery Protocol) to discover what services are available.
5.) L2CAP channel created: With information obtained
from SDP, a L2CAP channel is created. This may be directly
used by the application or by another protocol (e.g.
RFCOMM)
6.) Pairing begins here if in Service Security Level.
BLUETOOTH SECURITY
The basic Bluetooth security configuration is done by the user
who decides how a Bluetooth device will implement it’s connect
ability and discoverability options. The different combinations
of connect ability and discoverability capabilities can be divided
into three categories, or security levels:
1. Silent: The device will never accept any connections. It simply
monitors Bluetooth traffic.
2. Private: The device cannot be discovered, i.e., it is a so-called
non-discoverable device. Connections will be accepted only if the
Bluetooth Device Address (BD_ADDR) is known to the
prospective master. A 48-bit BD_ADDR is normally unique and
refers globally to only one individual Bluetooth device.
3. Public: The device can be both discovered and connected to.
It is therefore called a discoverable device.
There are also four different security modes that a device can
implement. In Bluetooth technology, a device can be in only one
of the following security modes at a time:
1. Non-secure: The Bluetooth device does not initiate any
security measures.
2. Service-level enforced security mode: Two Bluetooth devices
can establish a non-secure ACL link. Security procedures,
namely authentication, authorization, and optional encryption,
are initiated when a Logical Link Control and Adaptation
Protocol (L2CAP) Connection-Oriented (CO) or an L2CAP
Connection-Less (CL) channel request is made.
3. Link-level enforced security mode: Security procedures are
initiated when an ACL link is established.
4. Service-level enforced security mode: This mode is similar to
mode 2, except that only Bluetooth devices using SSP can use it,
i.e., only Bluetooth 2.1+EDR or later devices can use this
security mode.
 3 Levels of Service Access
o Require Authorization and Authentication
o Require Authentication Only
o Default Security for Legacy Applications
Bluetooth security architecture
FUTURE OF BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY
 Bluetooth has a good future ahead because it meets a
basic need of connectivity.
 Currently a protocol is being researched that would
support large ad hoc networks.
 Latest versions of Bluetooth are improving both its
security and capabilities.
 Ultra wide band has been chosen by the Bluetooth
Special Interest Group as the future of Bluetooth
Technology.
 New versions of Bluetooth technology will meet the
high-speed and large range.
 Many companies are designing impressive Bluetooth
applications in demand.
CONCLUSION
Bluetooth technology is a short-range wireless
specification aimed at simplifying communications among
Internet devices and between devices and the Internet.
In conclusion it can be said that Bluetooth refers not
only to a technology but also to a standard and a
specification. The take off that Bluetooth has taken is
remarkable, capturing
the attention and money
of major corporations
throughout the world. If
it can live up to its
expectations and satiate
the needs of a global
market in an easy and
inexpensive way, it
promises to become a
uniting force in the wireless world and endow us with the
freedom of mobility like never before. It is a rapid
growing technology that makes man easy to transfer his
electronic equipments from one place to another. It is a
technology that not yet completely developed. Hope this
will be achieved very soon.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 www.erricson.com
 www.howstuffworks.com
 www.intel.com
 www.bluetooth.com

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Bluetooth- A wireless technology

  • 1. 2014-15 PRESENTED BY OUR GROUP MEMBERS KALPANA KHOPKAR NEHA S. JELLA POOJA P. CHAVHAN PALLAVI R. CHAUGULE IT’S ALL ABOUT- BLUETOOTH
  • 2. CONTENTS Abstract Objective Introduction What is Bluetooth? Why it is called Bluetooth? History of Bluetooth How Bluetooth Technology works? Why profiles are necessary? What is Network Topology? Frequency hopping spread spectrum Technical specifications Bluetooth in the market Advantages and Disadvantages of Bluetooth Applications of Bluetooth How Bluetooth connects to other devices? Bluetooth Security Future of Bluetooth technology Conclusion Bibliography
  • 3. ABSTRACT Bluetooth technology unplugs our digital peripherals and makes a cable clutter a thing of the past. In short, it is a wireless replacement for many of the cables we currently use to transmit voice and data signals. It is the result of the joint achievements of nine leading companies: 3COM, Lucent Technologies, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, Toshiba, and Ericsson, altogether known as the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The idea is to create a single wireless protocol to address the end-user problems arising from proliferation of various mobile devices. The Bluetooth specification is ideal for mobile professionals who need to link notebook computers, mobile phones, PDA’s, PIM’s, digital cameras, and other hand-held devices to do business at home, on the road, or in the office. Governments worldwide regulate it, so it is possible to utilize the same standard wherever one travels. Bluetooth provides three low power modes to conserve battery life: sniff mode, hold mode, and park mode. It aims at low power consumption and provides security for both stationary and mobile devices. A Bluetooth chip [9mm x 9mm] takes the information normally carried by the cable, and transmits it at a special frequency to a receiver. Bluetooth radio modules use Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) for modulation. Bluetooth employs an FHSS spreading technique, changing frequencies at a rate of 1600 times per second – 160 times the rate at which a wireless LAN changes frequencies. This provides a fairly robust communications link for its intended range. Signals can be transmitted through walls and briefcases, thus eliminating the need for line-of- sight. Bluetooth is a standard developed that allows any sort of electronic equipment – from cellphones to keyboards and headphones- to make its own connections without direct action from a user. Bluetooth is primarily a wireless personal area networking technology. Complementing other solutions such as the industry-standard IEEE 802.11 and 802.11b based LANs. Bluetooth is emerging as the short- range connection media of choice amongst mobile devices and electronic equipment, giving the user, ease of operation. It promises to significantly change the way we use machines.
  • 4. OBJECTIVE The objective of this report is to provide an informative overview about Bluetooth technology which has in fact already become a global de facto standard for wireless connectivity. In this report we are including the fundamentals of Bluetooth, how it evolved, the working, and the technical specifications. Moreover, we are penning down a few of its advantages and disadvantages from a consumer and provider point of view which further leads on to describing a few of its vast and varied applications. We are concluding on the note of what Bluetooth technology presently is and what potential it has in our world and life. The main objectives of Bluetooth technology can be described as follows,  Cable replacement: Getting rid of the various types of cables and wires required for interconnectivity between various devices would enable the lay man to use all electronic devices without wasting time and money.  Small size: the Bluetooth device is very small so that it can be attached to any device required like the cell phones without adding much to the weight of the system.  Low cost: Bluetooth is aimed to be a low cost device approximately $5 in the near future.  Low power: The utilization of power is very less (within 100 mW) as it is short range equipment and so it facilitates the use of small batteries for its usage. Besides the characteristics mentioned above, Bluetooth can imitate a universal bridge to attach the existing data networks, and also as a mechanism for forming ad-hoc networks. Designed to operate in noisy frequency environments, the Bluetooth radio uses a fast acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make the link robust.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION During the past two decades, the advancement in microelectronics and VLSI technology dipped down the cost of many consumer electronic products to a level which was affordable for the common man. The first quarter of 2001, saw the vending of about 32.5 million PCs. The sale of cellular phones is predicted to reach 1 billion in 2005. With increase in the number of electronic devices, comes in the need of connecting them together for maximum interoperability and utilization. These devices connect with each other using a variety of wires, cables, radio signals and infrared light beams, and an even greater variety of connectors, plugs and protocols. Bluetooth is devised to replace these cables. Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which has more than 20,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. Bluetooth was standardized as IEEE 802.15.1, but the standard is no longer maintained. The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified to standards defined by the SIG. A network of patents is required to implement the technology, which is licensed only for that qualifying device.
  • 6. WHAT IS BLUETOOTH? Bluetooth is a wireless technology used to transfer data between different electronic devices. The distance of data transmission is small in comparison to other modes of wireless communication. This technology eradicates the use of cords, cables, adapters and permits the electronic devices to communicate wirelessly among each other. --Or-- Bluetooth is a high-speed, low-power microwave wireless link technology, designed to connect phones, laptops, PDAs and other portable equipment together with little or no work by the user. Bluetooth is a short-range and low power wireless technology originally developed for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs).  Short-range radio frequency technology that operates at 2.4 GHz on an unlicensed Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band.  Effective range of Bluetooth devices is 10 meters.  It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to data cables. Bluetooth is a global standard for wireless connectivity. Bluetooth technology facilitates the replacement of the cables used to connect one device to another, with one universal short- range radio link operating in the unlicensed 2.45 GHz ISM band.
  • 7. WHY IT IS CALLED BLUETOOTH? The word "Bluetooth" is an anglicized version of the Scandinavian Blåtand/ Blåtann, (Old Norse blátǫnn) the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom and, according to legend, introduced Christianity as well. The idea of this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers. At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G. Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and King Harald Bluetooth. The implication is that Bluetooth does the same with communications protocols, uniting them into one universal standard. The Bluetooth logo is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes (Hagall) (ᚼ) and (Bjarkan) (ᛒ), Harald's initials. FORMATION OF LOGO
  • 8. HISTORY OF BLUETOOTH In 1994, Ericsson in Sweden launched an initiative to study a low-power, low-cost radio interface between mobile phones and their accessories. After three years, in 1997, Ericsson approached various manufacturers of mobile electronic devices to discuss the development and promotion of this short range wireless radio link as alone this phenomenon could not be implemented. Thus in 1998, Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Toshiba and NOKIA formed the Special Interest Group (SIG) for the promotion and development of BLUETOOTH technology. The first Bluetooth silicon was also ready in 1998. As we can see that the SIG included two market leaders in mobile telephony, two in laptop computing and one in digital signal processing technology. The biggies being in the game gave an impetus to thousands of companies to join hands with the SIG for the endorsement and expansion of this technology. One would wonder how Bluetooth got its name. It has an interesting heritage. Bluetooth is named after the 10th century Viking King Harald Blatand (Blatand meaning Bluetooth). He was instrumental in uniting the countries in the Baltic region like Sweden, Denmark, Norway and thus emerging as a powerful force. Bluetooth aims at uniting the computing and telecommunication world and so achieving the same greatness.
  • 9. HOW BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY WORK? Basically, Bluetooth is the term used to describe the protocol of a short range (10 meter) frequency-hopping radio link between devices. These devices implementing the Bluetooth technology are termed Bluetooth - enabled. Documentation on Bluetooth is divided into two sections, the Bluetooth Specification and Bluetooth Profiles.  The Specification describes how the technology works (i.e. the Bluetooth protocol architecture),  The Profiles describe how the technology is used (i.e. how different parts of the specification can be used to fulfill a desired function for a Bluetooth device). BLUETOOTH PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE:
  • 10. As the report is designed mainly for the spread spectrum techniques course, the protocols in the lower level are described more extensively and the upper layer protocols are just mentioned with a very brief description. Moreover, one should note that the upper layer protocols are totally dependent on the lower level protocols whereas the lower level protocols can function independently even with a totally different set of upper protocols. Bluetooth Radio: The Bluetooth Radio (layer) is the lowest defined layer of the Bluetooth specification. It defines the requirements of the Bluetooth transceiver device operating in the 2.4GHz ISM band. The Bluetooth air interface is based on three power classes,  Power Class 1: designed for long range (~100m), max output power of 20 dBm,  Power Class 2: ordinary range devices (~10m), max output power of 4 dBm,  Power Class 3 short range devices (~10cm), with a max output power of 0 dBm. The radio uses Frequency Hopping to spread the energy across the ISM spectrum in 79 hops displaced by 1MHz, starting at 2.402GHz and stopping at 2.480GHz.Some countries use the 79 RF channels whereas countries like Japan use 23 channels. Currently, the SIG is working to harmonize this 79- channel radio to work globally and has instigated changes within Japan, Spain, and other countries. Also, the Bluetooth radio module uses GFSK (Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying) where a binary one is represented by a positive frequency deviation and
  • 11. a binary zero by a negative frequency deviation. BT is set to 0.5 and the modulation index must be between 0.28 and 0.35. The receiver must have a sensitivity level for which the bit error rate (BER) 0.1% is met. For Bluetooth this means an actual sensitivity level of -70dBm or better. Baseband: The Baseband is the physical layer of the Bluetooth. It manages physical channels and links apart from other services like error correction, data whitening, hop selection and Bluetooth security. As mentioned previously, the basic radio is a hybrid spread spectrum radio. Typically, the radio operates in a frequency- hopping manner in which the 2.4GHz ISM band is broken into 79 1MHz channels that the radio randomly hops through while transmitting and receiving data. A piconet is formed when one Bluetooth radio connects to another Bluetooth radio. Both radios then hop together through the 79 channels. The Bluetooth radio system supports a large number of piconets by providing each piconet with its own set of random hopping patterns. Occasionally, piconets will end up on the same channel. When this occurs, the radios will hop to a free channel and the data are retransmitted (if lost). The Bluetooth frame consists of a transmit packet followed by a receive packet. Each packet can be composed of multiple slots (1, 3, or 5) of 625us. A single slot frame typically hops at 1,600 hops/ second. Multi-slot frames allow higher data rates because of the elimination of the turn-around time between packets and the reduction in header overhead.
  • 12. LMP: The Link Manager Protocol is used by the Link Managers (on either side) for link set-up and control. HCI: The Host Controller Interface provides a command interface to the Baseband Link Controller and Link Manager, and access to hardware status and control registers. L2CAP: Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol supports higher level protocol multiplexing, packet segmentation and reassembly, and the conveying of quality of service information. RFCOMM: The RFCOMM protocol provides emulation of serial ports over the L2CAPprotocol. The protocol is based on the ETSI standard TS 07.10. SDP: The Service Discovery Protocol provides a means for applications to discover which services are provided by or available through a Bluetooth device. It also allows applications to determine the characteristics of those available services.
  • 13. WHY PROFILES ARE NECESSARY? The profiles have been developed in order to portray how implementations of user models are to be accomplished. The user models describe a number of user scenarios where Bluetooth performs the radio transmission. A profile can be described as a vertical slice through the protocol stack. It defines options in each protocol that are compulsory for the profile. It also defines parameter ranges for each protocol. The profile concept is used to decrease the risk of interoperability problems between different manufacturers' products. For example: The Headset profile defines the requirements for Bluetooth devices necessary to support the Headset use case. The Fax profile defines to support the Fax use case. There are as many profiles as applications which are growing every day.
  • 14. WHAT IS NETWORK TOPOLOGY? The Bluetooth system supports both point to point and point to multipoint connections. PICONETS: Bluetooth radios connect to each other in piconets, which are formed by a master radio simultaneously connecting up to seven active slave radios [3 bit address] in an Ad-hoc manner. There can be up to 256 parked slaves [8 bit address] which like the active members are synchronized to the master clock. Each piconet has a unique hopping sequence. To form a piconet, the Bluetooth radio needs to understand two parameters: the hopping pattern of the radio it wishes to connect to and the phase within that pattern. In forming a piconet, the master radio shares it’s Global ID with the other radios, which then become slaves and provide all the radios with the correct hopping pattern. The master also shares its clock offset (represented by the clock dial) with the slaves in the piconet, providing the offset into the hopping pattern. This information can easily be exchanged via the FHS packet.
  • 15. SCATTERNETS: Two or more piconets with overlapping coverage areas form the scatternet. Slaves in one piconet can be master or slave in the other piconet [Achieved by TDM].Up to 10 fully loaded piconets can coexist in a scatternet. Any devices in multiple piconets employ TDM. The two types of links that can be establishes between the master and slaves are named SCO: Synchronous Connection Oriented and ACL: Asynchronous Connection Less link The communication protocol is described by the following state diagram. Standby is the default state.
  • 16. Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum (FHSS) is a spread spectrum modulation scheme that uses a narrowband carrier that varies frequency in a pseudo random pattern known to both transmitter and receiver. To an unintended receiver, FHSS appears to be a short-duration impulse noise. Only transmitters and receivers that are synchronized on the same hop frequency pattern will have access to the transmitted data. The transmitter switches hop frequencies 1,600 times per second to assure a high degree of data security. Also compared to DSSS, FHSS is simpler to build with higher noise immunity.
  • 17. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS SPECIFICATIONS Frequency band 2.4 GHz ISM band Modulation Gaussian shaped BFSK Range 10 -100 m Physical layer FHSS Coverage Omni-directional. Non line of sight transmission Data rate 1 Mbps/723 Kbps Hopping rate 1600 hops/sec at 1 hop/packet Channels 79/23 channels Channel length 625 microseconds long Data packet Up to 2,745 bits in length Reliable and secure Good. Link layer authentication and encryption Cost $ 20 aims at $5 endpoint Power 0.1 W (Active) Acceptance SIG have about 2500 member companies Data / Voice support One asynchronous data channel (732.2 kbps and reverse 57.6 kbps) OR Three simultaneous synchronous voice channels (64 kbps) OR Simultaneous asynchronous and synchronous channels. Piconet 1 master and 7 slaves Scatternet Up to 10 piconets in a scatternet Links SCO and ACL links
  • 18. BLUETOOTH IN THE MARKET PC cards, Cell phones, Head sets, Chip sets, etc.
  • 19. ADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH  Low Power Consumption  Works in noisy environments  No line of sight restriction  Reliable and secure  The 2.45 GHz ensures universal compatibility. Also complies with airline regulations  The qualification and logo program ensure higher quality  Very Robust as the radio hops faster and uses shorter packets DISADVANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH  Too many unfeasible applications so do we really need it?  No handoff / handover capability  Initial stages so it needs to prove its worth  Few analog or FH cordless phones have designed to operate at the 2.4GHz band. Certainly interference exists in between, but more serious effects would be exerted on analog 2.4GHz cordless phone  802.11 Bluetooth Represents Internet Represents faux internet Already proved it Still to prove Widespread connectivity Connect at close proximity
  • 20. APPLICATIONS OF BLUETOOTH Bluetooth has a varied number of applications. Each application has a corresponding profile. Some of them are named as follows:  A Bluetooth-mouse could be used at a further distance from a monitor, and while moving about in the room.  A Bluetooth-keyboard could be used further away from the monitor. This would reduce eye-strain for persons who are long-sighted. Increasing the distance would also reduce exposure to electromagnetic radiation from the monitor.  A Bluetooth-keyboard could also be used to address more than one computer, in a dynamic, switchless manner.  Use e-mail while your portable PC is still in the briefcase! When your portable PC receives an e- mail, you'll get an alert on your mobile phone. You can also browse all incoming e-mails and read those you select in the mobile phone's display.  A travelling businessman could ask his laptop computer to locate a suitable printer as soon as he enters a hotel lobby, and send a printout to that
  • 21. printer when it has been found, and replied in a positive manner.  Cable-less connection to printers and faxes.  Cable-less connection to digital cameras and video projectors.  Cordless connection from cell phone to hands free headset.  Bluetooth interface to office PBX.  Dial-up networking and automatic e-mail.  Use cell phone as office cordless phone.  Use of PC or PDA as handsfree phone.  Automatic exchange of files, electronic business cards, calendars etc.
  • 22. HOW BLUETOOTH CONNECTS TO OTHER DEVICES? 1.) Inquiry: A device in a new environment will automatically initiate an inquiry to discover what access points are within its range. This will result in the following events: i.) All nearby access points respond with their addresses. ii.) The device picks one out the responding devices. 2.) Paging: a baseband procedure invoked by a device which results in synchronization of the device with the access point, in terms of its clock offset and phase in the frequency hop, among other required initializations. 3.) Link establishment: The LMP will now establish a link with the access point. If there is Link Level Security, then Pairing begins at this layer. 4.) Service Discovery: The LMP will use the SDP (Service Discovery Protocol) to discover what services are available. 5.) L2CAP channel created: With information obtained from SDP, a L2CAP channel is created. This may be directly used by the application or by another protocol (e.g. RFCOMM) 6.) Pairing begins here if in Service Security Level.
  • 23. BLUETOOTH SECURITY The basic Bluetooth security configuration is done by the user who decides how a Bluetooth device will implement it’s connect ability and discoverability options. The different combinations of connect ability and discoverability capabilities can be divided into three categories, or security levels: 1. Silent: The device will never accept any connections. It simply monitors Bluetooth traffic. 2. Private: The device cannot be discovered, i.e., it is a so-called non-discoverable device. Connections will be accepted only if the Bluetooth Device Address (BD_ADDR) is known to the prospective master. A 48-bit BD_ADDR is normally unique and refers globally to only one individual Bluetooth device. 3. Public: The device can be both discovered and connected to. It is therefore called a discoverable device. There are also four different security modes that a device can implement. In Bluetooth technology, a device can be in only one of the following security modes at a time: 1. Non-secure: The Bluetooth device does not initiate any security measures. 2. Service-level enforced security mode: Two Bluetooth devices can establish a non-secure ACL link. Security procedures, namely authentication, authorization, and optional encryption, are initiated when a Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Connection-Oriented (CO) or an L2CAP Connection-Less (CL) channel request is made.
  • 24. 3. Link-level enforced security mode: Security procedures are initiated when an ACL link is established. 4. Service-level enforced security mode: This mode is similar to mode 2, except that only Bluetooth devices using SSP can use it, i.e., only Bluetooth 2.1+EDR or later devices can use this security mode.  3 Levels of Service Access o Require Authorization and Authentication o Require Authentication Only o Default Security for Legacy Applications Bluetooth security architecture
  • 25. FUTURE OF BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY  Bluetooth has a good future ahead because it meets a basic need of connectivity.  Currently a protocol is being researched that would support large ad hoc networks.  Latest versions of Bluetooth are improving both its security and capabilities.  Ultra wide band has been chosen by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group as the future of Bluetooth Technology.  New versions of Bluetooth technology will meet the high-speed and large range.  Many companies are designing impressive Bluetooth applications in demand.
  • 26. CONCLUSION Bluetooth technology is a short-range wireless specification aimed at simplifying communications among Internet devices and between devices and the Internet. In conclusion it can be said that Bluetooth refers not only to a technology but also to a standard and a specification. The take off that Bluetooth has taken is remarkable, capturing the attention and money of major corporations throughout the world. If it can live up to its expectations and satiate the needs of a global market in an easy and inexpensive way, it promises to become a uniting force in the wireless world and endow us with the freedom of mobility like never before. It is a rapid growing technology that makes man easy to transfer his electronic equipments from one place to another. It is a technology that not yet completely developed. Hope this will be achieved very soon.