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Bilingual and ESL Models
Teaching in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Environments
Mónica P. Coto
Texas Woman’s University
“Most language minority students receive some level
of service to help them learn English, although it is still the
case that in too many classrooms, children are left to ‘sink or
swim’ if they don’t speak English.” (Nieto & Bode, 2012,
p.234)
There is a wide variety of programs to serve English
language learners (ELLs). The type of program implemented
depends on Federal & State policies, availability of resources
and teachers, and number of ELLs registered in the school
district.
Bilingual & ESL Models
 ESL programs are still the prevalent approach to
attend to the needs of ELLs.
 Most authors agree that there are at least three
different types of ESL programs:
 ESL Pull-Out
 Sheltered Instruction (Specially Designed Academic
Instruction in English S.D.A.I.E., Structured Immersion,
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol S.I.O.P.)
 Newcomers programs
English as a Second Language (ESL)
Programs
 This is a program where ELLs are pulled out of their mainstream
classroom for a portion of each day to receive English instruction.
 The goal is to gain fluency in English to understand content
subjects.
 It is a very popular program because a few ESL certified teachers
can reach a high volume of students.
 Many times, students are pulled from specialized classes (art,
music, electives, etc.) where they could playfully practice their
language acquisition.
 Students’ background, culture and language are not seeing as
determining factors for success.
ESL Pull-Out
 The most popular of the sheltered instruction programs is
Structured English Immersion (SEI)
 In this program a group of language-minority students from
different language backgrounds are together in a class where the
teacher (using ESL strategies or not), adapts the language to the
proficiency level of the students.
 The goal is to gain fluency in English and learn curriculum content
simultaneously until students are proficient enough to be
“mainstreamed” to a regular classroom.
 By separating ELLs from the rest of the students, this program
might be promoting segregation.
 Students’ background, culture and language are not seeing as
determining factors for success.
Sheltered Instruction
 This is a program for ELLs who just moved to the United
States. Usually used in Middle and High Schools.
 ELLs go to “Newcomers class” for a block or two a day to
learn the basics of the English language, usually for a year.
Then, they advance to ESL classes.
 The goal is to introduce ELLs to basic English and to the
American culture as fast as possible so they can start learning
content and earn the necessary credits for graduation.
 Students’ background, culture and language are not seeing as
determining factors for success.
Newcomers Programs
 By definition, Bilingual Programs involve the use of two
languages of instruction, mostly the ELLs’ home
language and English.
 In the U.S., the main goal of the Bilingual Programs is to
develop proficiency and literacy in English.
 There are many types of Bilingual Programs:
 Transitional Early exit
 Transitional Late Exit
 Dual Language One-Way
 Dual Language Two-Way or Dual Language Immersion
Bilingual Programs
 These programs provide some initial instruction in the ELLs
first language – primarily for reading –, but also for
clarification.
 Instruction in the first language is phased out rapidly, with
most students mainstreamed by the end of first or second
grade.
 The goal is to quickly help children transition from their first
language to English so they can succeed in an English-only
classroom.
 This can be the only bilingual program available when districts
have a limited number of bilingual teachers.
Transitional Early Exit
 Under this plan, ELLs remain in the program throughout
elementary school and continue to receive 40% or more of
their instruction in their first language (L1), even when they
have been reclassified as fluent-English-proficient.
 The goal is to support English language and content
knowledge acquisition by maintaining the first language
through elementary school.
 Although this program gets closer to promoting bilinguism, it
might be difficult for ELLs to transition to middle school
without the support of their L1.
Transitional Late Exit
 In this program, ELLs are taught 50% of the school day
in their L1 and 50% in English.
 The goal is to promote bilinguism and biliteracy, at
least through the elementary school years.
 Most of these programs only exist in elementary,
therefore, it might be difficult for ELLs to transition to
middle school without the support of their L1.
Dual Language One-Way
 Also called Two-Way Immersion (TWI).
 A group of ELLs with a single language background is in the
same classroom with a group of native English-speaking
students. The usual ratio is 50-50.
 Instruction is provided in both English and the minority language
in a proportion of 50-50.
 In some programs, the languages are used on alternating days.
Others may alternate morning and afternoon, or they may divide
the use of the two languages by academic subject.
 The goal is “to develop bilingual proficiency, academic
achievement, and positive cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors
among all students.” (Nieto & Bode, 2012, p.235)
 Many of these programs are being offered K-12 grade.
Dual Language Two-Way
Bilingual Education has proved to be the best approach to
help ELLs succeed in school (Nieto & Bode, 2012). In the long term,
not only bilingual students have higher academic indicators than
those from ESL programs, but other indicators such as drop out
rates are lower in ELLs from bilingual programs as well.
Among the bilingual programs, the One-Way and Two-Way
Dual programs are the only ones promoting true bilingualism and
validating ELLs’ cultural and linguistic identities.
The Two-Way Dual program is proof that the American
society is moving to a more pluralistic one, by demystifying
prejudices against bilinguism in the United States.
Conclusion
 Nieto, S., & Bode, P. (2012). Affirming diversity: The
sociopolitical context of multicultural education
(6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
 Center for Applied Linguistics (1993) ESL and Bilingual
Program Models. Retrieved from
http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/rennie01.html
 Bilingual Teacher (n.d.) Dual Language Immersion Schools.
Retrieved from
http://sites.uci.edu/bilingualteacher/dual-immersion-schools/
References

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Bilingual esl models_coto

  • 1. Bilingual and ESL Models Teaching in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Environments Mónica P. Coto Texas Woman’s University
  • 2. “Most language minority students receive some level of service to help them learn English, although it is still the case that in too many classrooms, children are left to ‘sink or swim’ if they don’t speak English.” (Nieto & Bode, 2012, p.234) There is a wide variety of programs to serve English language learners (ELLs). The type of program implemented depends on Federal & State policies, availability of resources and teachers, and number of ELLs registered in the school district. Bilingual & ESL Models
  • 3.  ESL programs are still the prevalent approach to attend to the needs of ELLs.  Most authors agree that there are at least three different types of ESL programs:  ESL Pull-Out  Sheltered Instruction (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English S.D.A.I.E., Structured Immersion, Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol S.I.O.P.)  Newcomers programs English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs
  • 4.  This is a program where ELLs are pulled out of their mainstream classroom for a portion of each day to receive English instruction.  The goal is to gain fluency in English to understand content subjects.  It is a very popular program because a few ESL certified teachers can reach a high volume of students.  Many times, students are pulled from specialized classes (art, music, electives, etc.) where they could playfully practice their language acquisition.  Students’ background, culture and language are not seeing as determining factors for success. ESL Pull-Out
  • 5.  The most popular of the sheltered instruction programs is Structured English Immersion (SEI)  In this program a group of language-minority students from different language backgrounds are together in a class where the teacher (using ESL strategies or not), adapts the language to the proficiency level of the students.  The goal is to gain fluency in English and learn curriculum content simultaneously until students are proficient enough to be “mainstreamed” to a regular classroom.  By separating ELLs from the rest of the students, this program might be promoting segregation.  Students’ background, culture and language are not seeing as determining factors for success. Sheltered Instruction
  • 6.  This is a program for ELLs who just moved to the United States. Usually used in Middle and High Schools.  ELLs go to “Newcomers class” for a block or two a day to learn the basics of the English language, usually for a year. Then, they advance to ESL classes.  The goal is to introduce ELLs to basic English and to the American culture as fast as possible so they can start learning content and earn the necessary credits for graduation.  Students’ background, culture and language are not seeing as determining factors for success. Newcomers Programs
  • 7.  By definition, Bilingual Programs involve the use of two languages of instruction, mostly the ELLs’ home language and English.  In the U.S., the main goal of the Bilingual Programs is to develop proficiency and literacy in English.  There are many types of Bilingual Programs:  Transitional Early exit  Transitional Late Exit  Dual Language One-Way  Dual Language Two-Way or Dual Language Immersion Bilingual Programs
  • 8.  These programs provide some initial instruction in the ELLs first language – primarily for reading –, but also for clarification.  Instruction in the first language is phased out rapidly, with most students mainstreamed by the end of first or second grade.  The goal is to quickly help children transition from their first language to English so they can succeed in an English-only classroom.  This can be the only bilingual program available when districts have a limited number of bilingual teachers. Transitional Early Exit
  • 9.  Under this plan, ELLs remain in the program throughout elementary school and continue to receive 40% or more of their instruction in their first language (L1), even when they have been reclassified as fluent-English-proficient.  The goal is to support English language and content knowledge acquisition by maintaining the first language through elementary school.  Although this program gets closer to promoting bilinguism, it might be difficult for ELLs to transition to middle school without the support of their L1. Transitional Late Exit
  • 10.  In this program, ELLs are taught 50% of the school day in their L1 and 50% in English.  The goal is to promote bilinguism and biliteracy, at least through the elementary school years.  Most of these programs only exist in elementary, therefore, it might be difficult for ELLs to transition to middle school without the support of their L1. Dual Language One-Way
  • 11.  Also called Two-Way Immersion (TWI).  A group of ELLs with a single language background is in the same classroom with a group of native English-speaking students. The usual ratio is 50-50.  Instruction is provided in both English and the minority language in a proportion of 50-50.  In some programs, the languages are used on alternating days. Others may alternate morning and afternoon, or they may divide the use of the two languages by academic subject.  The goal is “to develop bilingual proficiency, academic achievement, and positive cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors among all students.” (Nieto & Bode, 2012, p.235)  Many of these programs are being offered K-12 grade. Dual Language Two-Way
  • 12. Bilingual Education has proved to be the best approach to help ELLs succeed in school (Nieto & Bode, 2012). In the long term, not only bilingual students have higher academic indicators than those from ESL programs, but other indicators such as drop out rates are lower in ELLs from bilingual programs as well. Among the bilingual programs, the One-Way and Two-Way Dual programs are the only ones promoting true bilingualism and validating ELLs’ cultural and linguistic identities. The Two-Way Dual program is proof that the American society is moving to a more pluralistic one, by demystifying prejudices against bilinguism in the United States. Conclusion
  • 13.  Nieto, S., & Bode, P. (2012). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.  Center for Applied Linguistics (1993) ESL and Bilingual Program Models. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/rennie01.html  Bilingual Teacher (n.d.) Dual Language Immersion Schools. Retrieved from http://sites.uci.edu/bilingualteacher/dual-immersion-schools/ References