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English Language Teaching Methods

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English Language Teaching Methods

  1. 1. English Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches Certificate of Teaching English as a Second Language Module title: Core Issues in ELT Lecture 2
  2. 2. Methodology The study of pedagogical practices in general (including theoretical underpinnings and related research). Whatever considerations are involved in "how to teach" are methodological.
  3. 3. Approach Theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning, and the applicability of both to pedagogical settings.
  4. 4. Curriculum/Syllabus Designs for carrying out a particular language program. Features include a primary concern with the specification of linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials to meet the needs of a designated group of learners in a defined context.
  5. 5. Techniques  Any of a wide variety of exercises, activities, or devices used in the language classroom for realizing lesson objectives.
  6. 6. Pre-20th Century Trends  Latin was used as a lingua franca in western Europe  Main focus was on anaylsis  Development of European vernaculars  Shift back in language study to utility
  7. 7. Jan Comenius  Published his books on teaching techniques between 1631- 1658.  Some of the techniques which he used and espoused were the following:  Use imitation instead of rules to teach a language.  Have your students repeat after you.  Use a limited vocabulary initially.  Help your students practice reading and speaking.  Teach language through pictures to make it meaningful.
  8. 8. Grammar-Translation Method (early 19th century)  Systematic study of the prescribed grammar of classical Latin and classical texts.  Instruction given in mother tongue.  Little use (of language) for communication in target language.  Teacher does not have to be able to speak target language.  Focus on appreciating literature of target language and translation.
  9. 9. SOME PRINCIPLES  Literary languare is superior to spoken language.  If students are able to translate from L2 to L1 they are considered successful language learners.  Ability to communicate in the foreign lanuage is not a goal for teaching.  Reading are writing are the skills developed  Classes are teacher centered
  10. 10. SOME PRINCIPLES  Native language equivalents are found for ALL target words.  Learning is emphasized through similarities between L1and L2.  Studentslearn about the form (grammar )of the target language  Deductive pedagogical technique is applied for grammar rules.  LL provides good mental exercise ( use of memory is promoted)
  11. 11. Direct Approach  1886 Phonetics becomes an issue in language teaching.  First true scientific contributions to language learning begins.  Reaction to the Grammar Translation Method
  12. 12. Direct Approach  Everyday spoken language.  Culture, history, geography, everyday life of Target L anguage speakers.  Associate meaning with TL directly  No use of mother tongue allowed  Lesson begins with dialogues and conversations  Grammar rules learned inductively  Teacher must speak the target language
  13. 13. Reading Approach  Reaction to the Direct Approach  Reading is viewed as the most appropriate skill to have in a foreign language since many people did not travel abroad (from U.S.)  Not enough teachers could speak target language well enough to use it for teaching  Only grammar is useful for teaching reading .  Emphasis on translation
  14. 14. AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH  WWII (1939-1945 )breaks out and U.S. military requires people to speak and understand foreign languages.  The U.S. government hires linguists to help teach and develop materials.
  15. 15. AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH • Linguistic and Psychology.Charles Fries (1945) led the way in applying principles from sturctural linguistics in developing this approach. • In 1957 principles from behavioral psychology (Skinner) were incorporated.
  16. 16. AUDIO- LINGUAL APPROACH • Sentence and sound patterns • Overcoming native language habits; form new target language habits. • Conduct oral/aural drills and pattern practice.
  17. 17. SILENT WAY  1960 Chomsky argued the language acquisition could not take place through habit formation, but rather a rule formation  This method shares certain principles with the Cognitive Approach  Unique since it is the expression of a particular group of people. • Develop inner criteria for corrections by becoming aware of how TL works. • Remain silent in order to subordinate teaching to learning. Focus student attention; provide meaningful practice.
  18. 18. Affective - Humanistic Approach  Language is a process of communication and the factors which influence the linguistic message.  Meaningful texts, vocabulary emphasized. Overcome psychological barriers to learning. Class atmosphere is viewed as more important than materials or methods. Teacher is viewed as counselor or facilitator. Translation may be used in the heavily in the initial stages to help students.
  19. 19. NATURAL APPROACH An outgrowth of second language acquisition research, especially by Krashen (1981) and Terrell(1977). This approach assumes that L2 is very similar to L1. • Listening recognized as a very important skill • Listen and respond non-verbally • Learners should not speak until they feel ready to do so. • Learners progress by being exposed to meaningful input just one step beyond their level of competence
  20. 20. NATURAL APPROACH • Vehicle for communicating meaning; vocabulary emphasized • Listen; associate meaning with target language directly.
  21. 21. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE  In the 60’s and 70’s research gave rise to the hypothesis that language Learning should start first with understanding and later proceed to production. (Winitz 1981)  The oral modality is primary. Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively.  Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized
  22. 22. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE  TPR is usually introduced in the student’s native language.  Meaning is made clear through body movements  Main aim is to reduce the stress.  Students speak when they are ready.
  23. 23. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE  Initially the teacher is the director of all the students behaviour.  In the second phase sts demonstrate they can understand the commands by performing them alone.  After learning to respond to oral commands the sts learn to read and write
  24. 24. Communicative approach This approach grew out of the work anthropological linguists and Firthian linguist who view language first and foremost As a system of communication. • It is assumed that the goal of language teaching is learner ability to communicate in the target language. • It is assumed that the content of a language course will include semantic notions and social functions, not just linguistics structures . • Students regularly work in groups or pairs. • Classroom materials and activities are often authentic to reflect real-life situations and demands. • Skills are integrated • The teacher role is primarily to facilitate communication and secondarily to correct errors. Teachers must be fluent
  25. 25. Communicative Approach 2 • Students regularly work in groups or pairs. • Classroom materials and activities are often authentic to reflect real-life situations and demands. • Skills are integrated • The teacher role is primarily to facilitate communication and secondarily to correct errors. Teachers must be fluent
  26. 26. Syllabus Type 1  Historically an approach or methods also tends to be used in conjunction with a syllabus, which is an inventory of things the learner should master; this inventory is sometimes presented in a recommended sequence and is used to design courses and teaching materials.
  27. 27. Syllabus Type 2  What sort of syllabuses have been used with the approaches discussed above?  Most of the above approaches used –implicitly or explicitly – a structural syllabus which consists of a list of grammatical inflections and constructions that the teacher is expected to teach and the learner is expected to master.
  28. 28. Syllabus Type 3  In contrast to the structural approach syllabus the Reading Approach is text based and this kind of language course is organized around texts and vocabulary items with only minor consideration given to grammar.
  29. 29. Syllabus Type 4  In the Communicative Approach, one type of syllabus is organized around notions (spatial location, age, degree) and functions (social transaction and interactions such as asking for information or complimenting someone). In this syllabus format grammar and vocabulary are quite secondary, being taught not in and for themselves, but only insofar as they help express the notions and functions that are in focus.
  30. 30. Syllabus Type 5  Some adherents of the Communicative Approach, however, reject any sort of atomistic syllabus, whether structural or notional-functional. They advocate instead a communicative syllabus (i.e. a process-based or task- based syllabus) in which real world and materials are used to design language courses.
  31. 31. What to do ?  What is the solution for the ESL/EFL teacher given the abundance of current and future approaches?  Read more, more, more …….
  32. 32. 4 Considerations  1. asses students needs: why should they be learning English? For what purpose?  2. Examine instructional constraints; time (hours per week); class size ( nature of enrolment); materials (set syllabus and text- or completely open to teacher); physical factors ( classroom size)  3. Determine needs, attitudes, and aptitudes of individual students to the extent that this is possible.

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