The use of two languages in school by students or byteachers. “It refers to approaches in the classroom that use thenative languages of English language learners (ELLs)for instruction” (NABE, 2009). Goals include teaching English, acculturatingimmigrants to a new society, etc.
An English-only program where instruction isprovided exclusively in English. Children with low English proficiency getautomatically put into ESL classes. There are two different types of immersion programs:“submersion” and “structure”. Submersion program is also known as “sink or swim”due to the lack of aid for children learning English. Structure programs are better because it focuses inhelping kids develop strong vocabularies.
“Bilingual approaches to education were more effectivethan English only immersion programs” (Williams,2010). Research has found that those programs that teachingreading in the student’s native language and teachEnglish at the same time are the most effective. Stephen Krashen and Jim Cummings both agree thatwhen material is presented to student in their nativelanguage, they will learn faster .
Those who oppose bilingual education believe that thebest way for ELL students to succeed is to completelyimmersing them in the English language. Bilingual education is expensive. Bilingual education leads to the segregation of nonEnglish speakers. In some areas of the country, the bilingual programs isunpractical due to the number of different nativelanguages the students may speak.
Allows ESL students to learn the English languagefaster, because they will be completely immerse in it. Observing students will learn faster from theirteachers looking at their speaking styles and bodylanguage during core subjects lessons Children learn more efficiently when exposed to otherEnglish speaking students, rather than only Englishspeaking authorities.
Students may not understand other native speakers inclasses, making him hard to socialize. Students who doesn’t understand the English languagemay have problems with the subjects exams andexercises in classes. English submersion poses the risk of a student“sinking” rather than “learning to swim”.
Total immersion: programs on which all subjects inthe lower grades are taught in the target language.Initial literacy is provided in the target language. Partial Immersion: program in which about 50% ofthe subjects is taught in the target language. Initialliteracy may be provided in the target language,English or both simultaneously. Two-way immersion: Use both English and anotherlanguage for instruction.
Sink or swim vs. being taught on native language Total immersion on the English language vs. slow butsteady teaching from bilingual education. Learning the proper way or not at all vs. havingteachers with low standards (ESL). Having kids with low English proficiency with Englishonly students vs. segregating ELL students. Integrating an English only lesson plan vs. adhering tothe students native tongues.
CAL. (2007). Foreign Language Immersion ProgramsFeatures and Trends over 35 years.http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/flimmersion.htmlChen, G. (2008). Full Language Immersion Programs inPublic Schools.http://www.publicschoolreview.com/articles/25Echevarria, J. & Graves, A. (2011). Sheltered contentinstruction: Teaching English learners with diverse abilities(4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.NABE. (2009). Bilingual Education.http://www.nabe.org/BilingualEducation