Robert Gagne- Learning and Instruction By: Miranda E.
Robert Gagne 1916-2002 • Born in North Andover, Massachusetts •Co-developer of “Instructional Systems Design” • Wrote The Conditions of Learning, 1965 • Co-wrote Principles of Instructional Design
• Gagne is considered to be an experimental psychologist who is concerned with learning and instruction.• He’s known for the skills hierarchy which present simple skills and builds to complex ones• His learning theory is summarized as The Gagne Assumption which consists of five types of learning and nine events of instruction.
Categories of Learning Outcomes1) Verbal information- Learner can state what has been learned2) Intellectual skills- composed of concrete and defined concepts- leaner can discriminate between facts, can identify colors, and can follow directions3) Cognitive Strategies- Learner reads books4) Motor Skills- Learner can use a mouse or joystick5) Attitudes- Learner prefers reading to watching TV
Gagne developed three principles that hefelt was integral for successful instruction1. Providing instruction on the set of component tasks that build toward a final task2. Ensuring that each component task is mastered3. Sequencing the component tasks to ensure optimal transfer to the final task
Nine Events of Instruction1. Gaining Attention- Pique the learners interest2. Informing learners of objectives- discuss what will be taught3. Stimulating recall of prior learning- ask questions to call upon what they already know4. Presenting the stimulus- teach the lesson5. Providing learning guidance- allow teacher facilitated student practice6. Eliciting performance- have learner complete a task on what was taught7. Providing feedback- let learner know how they did on a task8. Assessing performance- evaluate learner on their knowledge of what was taught9. Enhancing retention and transfer- provide activity to help learners remember what was taught
Eight Conditions of Learning1. Signal learning- the learner makes a general response to a signal2. Stimulus- response learning- the learner makes a precise response to a signal3. Chaining- the connection of a set of individual stimulus and responses in a sequence4. Verbal association- the learner makes associations using verbal connections5. Discrimination learning- the learner makes different responses to different stimuli that are somewhat alike6. Concept learning- the learner develops the ability to make a generalized response based on a class of stimuli7. Rule learning- a rule is a chain of concepts linked to a demonstrated behavior8. Problem solving- the learner discovers a combination of previously learned rules and applies them to solve a novel situation
Classroom Implications and Personal Feedback• Under Gagne’s theory, the teachers need to observe and relate lessons to students interests so it is easier for the students to understand. Teachers then need to gain attention and this can be done by showing PowerPoints, diagrams, videos, etc. to help inform the students of what they will be learning. The teacher will then present the stimulus and this can be done by demonstrating how to perform the task(example: how to create a diagram). The teacher will be there for guidance and then will assess the performance of the students.• The students will be active listeners and will learn how to perform various tasks. The student will have established an interest and will use their prior knowledge to perform a new task. The students will complete the task and then give feedback as to what they have learned. The students will then be able to apply their new acquired skills into their everyday lives.• I really like this theory although I feel like he could have put all his sections of the theory into one because they all seem to come together. And it will therefore be less lengthy. I would definitely incorporate his theory into my teaching because I think it is important to relate the lessons to the students interests and to make them motivated and able to perform independent tasks with having the students actually learn and be able to give feedback. I also think it is very important to actually teach the students how to do various tasks and then let them do it on their own so they can actually have a learning experience.