Concepts:
Information Processing Model
Behavioural Model
Social Model
Personal Model
What is Teaching Model?
A model of teaching is a plan or
pattern that can be used to
shape curriculums (long-term
courses ...
• Aim of TM: To produce effective teaching.

Figure 1.1: Glaser’s Teaching Model
Formulate a
complete &
perfect teaching
scheme.

Function of
Teaching
Model

Provide guidance to
planners & teachers
to en...
MODELS OF TEACHING
SOCIAL

PERSONAL

BEHAVIOUR

INFORMATION
PROCESS
Information
Processing
Model
Types of Information Processing Model

InformationProcessing Model of
Memory

Gagne’s Information
Processing Model

The Ex...
What do OUR MEMORY HAVE?
Sensory Memory
Compartment

Hold a large amount of information
in a duration just enough for a
sm...
Information-Processing Model of Memory

Figure 1.2: Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Model of Memory
Storage (1971)
Information-Processing Model of Memory
Incoming
information
(sensory input)
pass through:
Sensory

Short-term memory

Long...
Gagne’s Information Processing Model

Figure 1.3: Gagne’s Theory of Learning Process
Gagne’s 8 stages of Learning Process
PHASE

ACTION RELATED

Motivation Phase

Expectancy

Apprehension Phase

Observation ...
Important Aspects in Gagne’s 8 Phases
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Learning readiness
Motivation
Perception
Conceptualization
Memorizing...
How it works?
• Process begins from extrinsic @ intrinsic motivation to
perceive stimuli from environment.
• New informati...
Expository Teaching Model
• Referred as explicit explanation in details of certain
facts.
• A way of presentation of infor...
..continue..
• Principle and concept are explained
verbally, as all the facts are written on
the board, showed on the scre...
Inquiry Teaching Model
• Scientific Inquiry Model:
–Used to study principles, phenomena &
characteristics of scientific kn...
• Social Inquiry Model:
– Used to study topics related to social & humanity aspects.
– Based on activities such as observa...
• Juris-prudential Inquiry Model:
– Used to look for reality & accuracy in current issues
(learning science is more useful...
• Suchman’s Inquiry Model:
– Based on assumption that strategies used by scientists can be
used as a teaching model especi...
The Importance of Information
Processing Model
• Students are prepared with better equipments and
information for learning...
Behavioural
Model
Behavioural Model

Direct
Instruction
Model

Mastery
Learning

Programmed
Instruction
Model
Direct Instruction Model
• Demonstration:
– A teaching technique involves the use of a teacher’s skill to
demonstrate @ pe...
Mastery learning
• Refers to a theory & practice of using remedial teaching based on
feedback of pupil’s performance to as...
Programmed Instruction Model
• Computer Assisted Instruction (CIA)
– The application of technology & computer system in
te...
Personal
Model
Personal Model
• Non-directive Teaching Model
• Developing Positive Self-concepts
• Project Model
– Research Project
– Han...
Non-directive Teaching Model
• Based on Carl Rogers’ work, he
believes that positive human
relationships enable people to
...
Phase 1 : Defining the Helping Situation
Teacher encourages free expression of feelings.

Phase 2: Exploring the Problem
S...
The Importance of Non-directive
Teaching Model
•
•
•
•
•

Teacher helps students to explore new ideas.
Students have freed...
Developing Positive Self-concepts
• Appreciate the abilities and talents one
possesses.
• Positive self-concepts evolves w...
The Importance of Positive Self-concepts
• Gain knowledge and experiences by
enhancing their interests in learning
through...
Project Model
• Based on the belief that learning would be
effective if pupils are interested and ready
to carry out learn...
1. Research Project (Principles)
• Teacher determines suitable research
topic in accordance to the pupils’
experience, abi...
Continued…
• Research should be carried out safely
& every pupil should actively involve in
group activities.
• Teacher su...
2. Handicraft Project (Principles)
• Planning of the project is based on pupils’
interest and ability.
• Prepare sufficien...
3. Educational Visit (Principles)
• Before the Visit:
– Identify the place of visit.
– Obtain permission.
– Arrange for tr...
….continued
• During the Visit:
– Divide pupils into several small groups.
– Every pupil should actively involve.
– Watch ...
The Importance of Project Model
• Students able to relate their previous experiences to what
they are studying.
• Able to ...
Social
Model
Social Model

• Model of Group Teaching & Co-operative
Learning
• Simulation Model
–Sociodrama
–Role play
Uses group inquiry and
problem-solving
strategies

SOCIAL MODEL
Encourages assimilation and
understanding of the
learners
...
Ways of Teaching
GROUP TEACHING
AND CO-OPERATIVE
LEARNING

SIMULATION

INFORMAL
LEARNING
GROUP

ROLE-PLAY

FORMAL
LEARNING...
ROLE-PLAY

 Emphasize the social
nature of learning

 stimulate students both
socially and intellectually

Role-playing ...
ROLE-PLAY
FOUR STAGES

1. Preparation and explanation of the activity by the teacher

2. Student preparation of the activi...
SOCIODRAMA

More like an acting activity
Based on a story which reflects a certain situation
involving conflicting issue, ...
ADVANTAGES

Helps them to become aware of the typical ways
they solve problems
Increases both social and personal awarenes...
Informal learning group

Basically
temporary within a
single class
session
Formal learning group
Being formed to complete
a specific tasks, such as
to carry a project,
performing a lab
experiment, ...
Study Teams

Long-term
groups with a
stable
membership
ELEMENTS
Face-to-face
Interaction

Positive
Interdependence

Individual & Group
Accountability

Group Processing

Interper...
Emphasize the worth of
cooperative learning

The Importance of Social Model

Incorporate the
collective energy of the
grou...
Teaching
Approaches
Approaches

Inductive

Deductive
Inductive Approach
Collecting

Conclusion

Analysing

Interpreting

Concept

Making
generalisation
Example of Inductive Approach
Deductive Approach
General Rule

Specific
Example

Practice
Examples of Deductive Approach
Any
questions?

Presented by:
Aileen
Yohanieca
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Models of teaching

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Models of teaching

  1. 1. Concepts: Information Processing Model Behavioural Model Social Model Personal Model
  2. 2. What is Teaching Model? A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculums (long-term courses of studies), to design instructional materials, and to guide instruction in the classroom and other settings based on Joyce and Weil (1980).
  3. 3. • Aim of TM: To produce effective teaching. Figure 1.1: Glaser’s Teaching Model
  4. 4. Formulate a complete & perfect teaching scheme. Function of Teaching Model Provide guidance to planners & teachers to enable them to plan & carry out the teaching process effectively. As basic guidance for teachers for reflection during feedback session. Enable teachers to analyse & evaluate its strengths & weaknesses so as to plan & implement appropriate follow-up actions
  5. 5. MODELS OF TEACHING SOCIAL PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR INFORMATION PROCESS
  6. 6. Information Processing Model
  7. 7. Types of Information Processing Model InformationProcessing Model of Memory Gagne’s Information Processing Model The Expository Teaching Model Scientific Inquiry Model Social Inquiry Model Juris-Prudential Inquiry Model Suchman’s Inquiry Model Inquiry Teaching Model
  8. 8. What do OUR MEMORY HAVE? Sensory Memory Compartment Hold a large amount of information in a duration just enough for a small portion to be selected for longer storage. Short-term Memory Capacity is limited. Storage duration is brief (unless assisted with rehearsal) Long-term Memory A very large storage capacity (unlimited). Stored longer.
  9. 9. Information-Processing Model of Memory Figure 1.2: Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Model of Memory Storage (1971)
  10. 10. Information-Processing Model of Memory Incoming information (sensory input) pass through: Sensory Short-term memory Long-term memory Sensory memory Short-term Retains information for only a fraction of a second but enough to select the portion of information that arrests one’s attention. (The information that caught one’s attention is selected for longer storage) Can hold unrehearsed information for about 20 – 30 seconds. Information can be stored longer if it is engaged under rehearsal. (Repetition of memorizing). Long-term Information encoded may last for weeks, months or even years.
  11. 11. Gagne’s Information Processing Model Figure 1.3: Gagne’s Theory of Learning Process
  12. 12. Gagne’s 8 stages of Learning Process PHASE ACTION RELATED Motivation Phase Expectancy Apprehension Phase Observation – Perception Selection Acquisition Phase Encoding – Prestoring Retention Phase Memory Retention Recall Phase Recall – searching Generalisation Phase Transfer Performance Phase Response Feedback Phase Reinforcement
  13. 13. Important Aspects in Gagne’s 8 Phases • • • • • • • Learning readiness Motivation Perception Conceptualization Memorizing Forgetting Learning transfer
  14. 14. How it works? • Process begins from extrinsic @ intrinsic motivation to perceive stimuli from environment. • New information recorded in short-term memory. • Information will be processed by relating stored information in long-term memory. • New information is reinforced, retained & applied when required.
  15. 15. Expository Teaching Model • Referred as explicit explanation in details of certain facts. • A way of presentation of information @ learning contents to pupils directly. • Presenting learning materials by explanation, narration or demonstration. • Suitably use to teach certain concept and skill during the beginning of the lesson.
  16. 16. ..continue.. • Principle and concept are explained verbally, as all the facts are written on the board, showed on the screen. • Time saving: Enables teacher to finish all related concepts in a shorter period & pupils merely listen quietly. • More to a lecturing method. (Less effective for primary schools).
  17. 17. Inquiry Teaching Model • Scientific Inquiry Model: –Used to study principles, phenomena & characteristics of scientific knowledge. –Research process based on 5 stages: • Identify the problem. • Ascertain relevant information. • Determine hypothesis. • Testing hypothesis. • Evaluate, interpret, infer & conclude.
  18. 18. • Social Inquiry Model: – Used to study topics related to social & humanity aspects. – Based on activities such as observation, interview, @ questionnaire. – Emphasizes on social interaction process. – 6 steps: • • • • • • Formulation of problem by teacher. Formulation of hypothesis by pupils. Define hypothesis. Discuss & confirm validity of the hypothesis. Collect & analyse evidences for the hypothesis. Interpret & derive inference @ conclusion.
  19. 19. • Juris-prudential Inquiry Model: – Used to look for reality & accuracy in current issues (learning science is more useful than learning arts). – Concerns with science & philosophy of human law. – Based on activities, discussions and debates. – Two types: • Guided inquiry: Teacher guides pupils to carry out the whole discussion process. • Open Inquiry: No guidelines given. Students have to do the discussion themselves.
  20. 20. • Suchman’s Inquiry Model: – Based on assumption that strategies used by scientists can be used as a teaching model especially in the study of science. – Procedures: • Teacher determines & indicates the problem. • Teacher explains the inquiry process to solve the previous problem. • Students are guided to form hypothesis, follows by the collection of relevant data. • Students use collected data to test hypothesis, aim to formulate theorem, law, principle or theory. • Discussion & making inferences. • Teacher & students discuss together and analyse.
  21. 21. The Importance of Information Processing Model • Students are prepared with better equipments and information for learning. • Students are enforced with good mental exercises through different methods and approaches. • Students are informed of the objectives and learning outcomes that should be achieved. • Help students to remember the information for a longer period of time.
  22. 22. Behavioural Model
  23. 23. Behavioural Model Direct Instruction Model Mastery Learning Programmed Instruction Model
  24. 24. Direct Instruction Model • Demonstration: – A teaching technique involves the use of a teacher’s skill to demonstrate @ perform a certain activity in the class. – Teacher has a strong control over what is learnt in the classroom, provides feedback, monitoring students, grading work and strict classroom rules & regulations. (Teachercentered).
  25. 25. Mastery learning • Refers to a theory & practice of using remedial teaching based on feedback of pupil’s performance to assist them to achieve the learning objectives. • Procedures: – Determine learning outcomes by planning explicit learning objective (based on students’ performance). – Teach pupils with effective teaching method & technique (use of suitable learning materials to suit different learning styles) – Evaluate learning result by diagnostic test & summative test (level of mastering & achievement) – Carry out remedial activities for pupils who have not fully mastered certain skills & provide enrichment activities for pupils who have mastered the lesson.
  26. 26. Programmed Instruction Model • Computer Assisted Instruction (CIA) – The application of technology & computer system in teaching. – Pupils follow designed learning materials in software without teacher’s help. – Teacher has to facilitate the pupils to have interest in manipulating computer.
  27. 27. Personal Model
  28. 28. Personal Model • Non-directive Teaching Model • Developing Positive Self-concepts • Project Model – Research Project – Handicraft Project – Educational Visit
  29. 29. Non-directive Teaching Model • Based on Carl Rogers’ work, he believes that positive human relationships enable people to grow. • Therefore instruction should be based on concepts of human relations.
  30. 30. Phase 1 : Defining the Helping Situation Teacher encourages free expression of feelings. Phase 2: Exploring the Problem Student is encouraged to define problem. Teacher accepts and clarifies feelings. Phase 3: Developing Insight Student discusses problem. Teacher supports student. Phase 4: Planning and Decision Making Student plans initial decision making. Teacher clarifies possible decision. Phase 5: Integration Student gains further insight and develops more positive actions. Teacher is supportive. Action Outside the Interview Student initiates positive actions. Phases in Non-directive Model
  31. 31. The Importance of Non-directive Teaching Model • • • • • Teacher helps students to explore new ideas. Students have freedom to making decisions and choices. Teacher and students are partners in learning. Nurtures and moulds students to be the way they are. Encourages students to think and reflect their uncertain feelings and become better and be positive.
  32. 32. Developing Positive Self-concepts • Appreciate the abilities and talents one possesses. • Positive self-concepts evolves with the moral values that should be emphasised among students. • Activities that help: Group/Individual Presentation, musical performances, stage performances.
  33. 33. The Importance of Positive Self-concepts • Gain knowledge and experiences by enhancing their interests in learning through self-concepts. • Teacher shows positive approaches and optimistic reinforcements. • Boost their confidence. • Provide opportunities for students to express their ideas and listen to other’s opinions.
  34. 34. Project Model • Based on the belief that learning would be effective if pupils are interested and ready to carry out learning activities. • Examples of Project Model: – Research Project. – Handicraft Project. – Educational Visit.
  35. 35. 1. Research Project (Principles) • Teacher determines suitable research topic in accordance to the pupils’ experience, ability and interest. • Aims and procedures must be determined first and pupils are informed about this. • Teacher prepares relevant materials (check list, questions to be answered, etc.) to facilitate pupils.
  36. 36. Continued… • Research should be carried out safely & every pupil should actively involve in group activities. • Teacher supervises and provides guidance to pupils. • Teacher discusses the outcomes of research & evaluation should be conducted after research is completed.
  37. 37. 2. Handicraft Project (Principles) • Planning of the project is based on pupils’ interest and ability. • Prepare sufficient materials. • Explain procedure precisely. • Show examples of correct ways to do the project. • Time period is required! • Discussion is carried out to assess the work when it is done. • Display good quality work to the other students.
  38. 38. 3. Educational Visit (Principles) • Before the Visit: – Identify the place of visit. – Obtain permission. – Arrange for transport. – Conduct briefing session regarding safety, precautions, behaviours, aims of visit and regulations. – Prepare sufficient equipments.
  39. 39. ….continued • During the Visit: – Divide pupils into several small groups. – Every pupil should actively involve. – Watch out for pupils’ safety. – Give appropriate response to pupils’ inquiry. • After the Visit: – Hold discussion session with pupils regarding their observations. – Plan follow-up activity (making model, draw plan or model, display things)
  40. 40. The Importance of Project Model • Students able to relate their previous experiences to what they are studying. • Able to understand objectives of the projects before and after lesson. • Fun activities that attract students’ interests in learning more & apply what they have learnt. • Moral values are applied. • Theories, facts & hypotheses are brought into practices (I do, I remember & understand). • Co-operations among students. • Direct experiences & additional knowledge.
  41. 41. Social Model
  42. 42. Social Model • Model of Group Teaching & Co-operative Learning • Simulation Model –Sociodrama –Role play
  43. 43. Uses group inquiry and problem-solving strategies SOCIAL MODEL Encourages assimilation and understanding of the learners Relies on the students’ personal and social values
  44. 44. Ways of Teaching GROUP TEACHING AND CO-OPERATIVE LEARNING SIMULATION INFORMAL LEARNING GROUP ROLE-PLAY FORMAL LEARNING GROUP STUDY TEAMS SOCIODRAMA
  45. 45. ROLE-PLAY  Emphasize the social nature of learning  stimulate students both socially and intellectually Role-playing is a teaching strategy that fits within the social family models -Joyce and Weil, 2000-  Improves interpersonal skills and enhances communication
  46. 46. ROLE-PLAY FOUR STAGES 1. Preparation and explanation of the activity by the teacher 2. Student preparation of the activity 3. The role-playing 4. The discussion after the role-playing activities
  47. 47. SOCIODRAMA More like an acting activity Based on a story which reflects a certain situation involving conflicting issue, for example, Hang Tuah and Hang Jebat Script should be prepared earlier Next
  48. 48. ADVANTAGES Helps them to become aware of the typical ways they solve problems Increases both social and personal awareness Promote acceptance, cooperation in classroom Back
  49. 49. Informal learning group Basically temporary within a single class session
  50. 50. Formal learning group Being formed to complete a specific tasks, such as to carry a project, performing a lab experiment, etc
  51. 51. Study Teams Long-term groups with a stable membership
  52. 52. ELEMENTS Face-to-face Interaction Positive Interdependence Individual & Group Accountability Group Processing Interpersonal & Smallgroup Skills
  53. 53. Emphasize the worth of cooperative learning The Importance of Social Model Incorporate the collective energy of the group Promote social skills including self-discipline, negotiation, democracy, etc.
  54. 54. Teaching Approaches
  55. 55. Approaches Inductive Deductive
  56. 56. Inductive Approach Collecting Conclusion Analysing Interpreting Concept Making generalisation
  57. 57. Example of Inductive Approach
  58. 58. Deductive Approach General Rule Specific Example Practice
  59. 59. Examples of Deductive Approach
  60. 60. Any questions? Presented by: Aileen Yohanieca

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