Unfreezing- ready to consider changes and behavior. Problem diagnosis- forces supporting changes, andworking against the changed needs are identifiedand presented. Goal setting- desired change are stated specifically. New behavior- individual learn and practiceknowledge and skills newly acquired which isdesirable. Refreezing- newly learned found to be beneficialand assimilated to individuals ongoing framework ofknowledge and skills, attitude and behavior.
Classroom applicationAttending to the characteristics of the skills and matching these toones abilities facilities the learning of such skillsObserving and imitating a model make learning easyGuide the individual verbally and physically in the initial stages oflearningProvide more practiceProvide feedbacks about ach performanceEncourage learner to evaluate own performance
Learning is developmental-› As individual develop and grows he acquiresvarious skills and knowledge essential to hissuccess in his adjustment during different stagesof development. Learning is interactive- only when learninginteract to the stimuli. Learning is basic- is fundamentally a kind ofrelationship between S-R. and can beassociate with constant practice and if somake a habit.
1. Learning is an ongoing process. We have to give variedactivities to our students for hands on minds on learning—Learning by doing2. The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and thebetter the learning. Use or maximize the use of differentlearning style of the students. Visual, auditory and bodilykinesthetic. Used multi-sensory instructional materials.3. A non –threatening atmosphere enhances learning.1. Physical include classroom structure, ventilation, andscleanliness.2. Psychological attitude of the student and the teacher himself.3. Respect.4. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning.5. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to student priorknowledge.
6. Good teaching goes beyondrecall of information.7. Good teaching considers learnersvaried learning styles. Multipleintelligences by Howard Gardner
Method – devices or materials used. Teachingaids or tool to facilitate instruction maketeaching clearer and more meaningful,interesting. (telling method to tell a story)Devices – pictures, flash cards, andobjects.(pictures to present a story)Technique – art or skills in performance. (highpitch, action gestures, changing facialexpression and varying timbre)
Methods of teachingTwo types of teaching approach•Deductive•Lecture•Expository•demonstrationDirect (DLED)• Inductive• Discovery• Reflective• Problem-solving• Project• Laboratory• Inquiry• Meta cognitionExperiential/Indirect(RID2PLIM)
Strategy of presenting materials tobe learned step by step.Programmed instructional materialsare usually self- instructional or inthe form of modules. Uses in mathand English.
• a discovery method. One may arrive at a fact,principle, truth, or generalization. This is a study ofspecific cases and ends up with a generalization. It isa process of reasoning from the particular to generalInductive•Preparation•Recall•Motivation•Presentation•Cases are presented•Comparison and Abstraction•Common element deduce•Generalization•Fact from no. 3 is stated as generalization•Application•Test child understandingStepsI2PCGA
• lesson start with generalization, process ofreasoning from given facts to particular. It beginswith law, then cases are studied to verifygeneralizationDeductive• Presentation• Generalization, rule, definition, orprinciples is presented• Verification• Trying out generalization• Application• exercisesStepsPVA
• Significant practice, practical unit of activity ofproblematic nature, planned and carried tocompletion involving the use of physical material.Project• Purposing• Goal of project aredetermined• Planning• Student and teacheractivity• Executing• Carrying out theactivity as planned bythe class• Evaluating• Finished products aredisplayed and judgeby both student andteacherSteps2P2ETypes of project methodConstruction project- to dosomethingEnjoyment project- activityaccompanied byenjoymentProblem project- mastersome intellectual difficultyLearning project-acquisition of a skill orsome knowledge
•apperceptionHerbatian(herbart)• Preparation• Presentation• Comparison and abstraction• Generalization• Fixing skillsStepsPPCGF
•A week lesson plan used forsibika and hekasi social studiesMorrisonian(morison)•Exploration•Presentation•Assimilation•Organization•EvaluationStepsEPAOE
•Teaching procedure dealing with first hand experiencesregarding materials or facts obtained from investigation orexperimentation. It is experimentation, observation, orapplication by experimental method.Laboratory• Introductory step• a. Orientation- determination of work to be done.Nature and purpose of work are carefully explained.Teacher gives necessary direction through guidesheet and laboratory manual• b. motivation- teacher sets the mind of the studentfor discussion• Work period – supervised work period• Culminating Activities- it can be reporting, explaining,presenting illustrative materials or exhibition of work.StepsIWC
• Teacher does theexperiment before the class.Demonstration•Preparation•Motivation•Statement of the problem•Hypothesis•Demonstration•ConclusionStepsPSHDC
• Explaining or interpreting. It is used whenthere is much need for explaining. Goodfor difficult subject and topics.Expository• Approach/ orientation- mind setting byrecalling past experiences related to newlesson.• Presentation- devices maybe use such asanalogies, stories models charts diagram.• Application- show whether the studentunderstood the explanation or not.StepsA/oPA
•Teaching procedure for clarifying a major idea cast in the form ofquestion and answer•a. Use for college•b. Seminar•c. SymposiumLecture•Introduction to the lecture- idea of what thelecture is all about. Attention devices maybe use•Presentation of the body of the lecture-important point should be presented. Lessimportant come later•Conclusion, closure, completion, culmination-summary and reorganization has been said atthe end of the lectureStepsIPC
•Used when thought are put to perceivesomething that the learner has not knownbefore and gets directly involved in learningDiscovery•Similar toinductive methodSteps
• An ongoing process that enables the learners tocontinuously learn from their own experiencesthrough thoughtful analysis of their own actions,decisions, and beliefs.Reflective• Used when students are confrontedwith puzzling situation and the studentsare led to investigate the problemInquiry•Statement of the problem•Investigation•conclusionSteps(StInCon)
• Used when student are trained tobecome sensitive in the learningprocedures.Meta-Cognition• Planning• Deciding• Monitoring• Evaluating• TerminatingStepsPDMET
•Is used when a problem is felt in a situation thatneeds to removed by careful deliberation andstudy of analyzing the problem.ProblemSolving•Raising the problem•Formulating hypothesis•Planning situation•Gathering data•Organizing, summarizing and interpreting data.•Testing and judging hypothesis•Formulating generalization•EvaluationStepsRFPGOTFE
a. 1. low –level questioning – emphasizesmemory and recall of informatonb. 2. high –level questioning- deal withcomplex and abstractiona. 1 convergent- one best answerb. 2. divergent- open- ended HOTS