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Classical Conditioning theory of
Learning - Ivan Pavlov
Dr. Manju N D
Assistant Professor
SVK National College of Education
Kuvempu University, Shimoga
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936)
• was a Russian physiologist known
primarily for his work in classical
conditioning.
• Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for
Physiology or Medicine in
1904, becoming the first Russian
Nobel laureate.
• He observed and recorded
information about dogs and their
digestive process.
• As part of his work, he began to
study what triggers dogs to salivate.
WHAT IS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ?
• Classical conditioning is a learning process that
occurs through associations between an
environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring
stimulus.
• It had a major influence on behaviorism which is
based on the assumption that learning occurs
through interactions with the environment.
Classical Conditioning Experiment
• As stated above, Pavlov restricted his experimental
studies to the process of secretion of saliva in dogs.
• Food in the mouth of the organism produces the
saliva. When we put food in the mouth of the dog,
the dog salivates.
• This is a natural response. Here the food is termed
as ‘unconditioned stimuli and the salivation by the
dog as ‘unconditioned response’.
• The stimulus of food is called unconditioned
because it means that the response depends upon
no special condition.
• Unconditioned responses are unlearned and imply
no pre condition.
• During his experimentation on dogs, Pavlov
introduced the sound of a bell as a natural stimulus
or conditioned stimulus.
• The bell, for example, was sounded at the time
when food was presented to the dog or just before.
Thus, the sound of the bell was paired with
presentation of the food a few times.
• The dog was found to salivate in response to the
sound of the bell.
• The response which was learned was called by
Pavlov as ‘conditioned reflex’ or ‘conditioned
response’.
Here is an outline of Pavlo’s experiment
PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT
COMPONENTS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
• The Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) :A stimulus that
naturally, and automatically triggers a response.
• The Unconditioned Response(UCR):The unlearned
response that occurs naturally in response to the
unconditioned stimulus.
• The Conditioned Stimulus(CS):A previously neutral
stimulus that when paired with an unconditioned
stimulus triggers a conditioned response.
• The Conditioned Response(CR):Learned response to
the previously neutral stimulus.
Unconditioned
Stimulus
Unconditioned
Response
Neutral
Stimulus
Conditioned
Stimulus
Conditioned
Response
Principles of Classical Conditioning
• The theory generally refers to acquiring of new
behavior via association with various stimuli. By
associating the subject with stimulus subject,
outputs new responses and learns a behavior.
• Based on how the learning method works, there
are five general principles in Classical
Conditioning.
• Each of the principles describes how the classical
conditioning learning occurs. It covers from the
very initial to the last stage of the learning
process.
Acquisition
• Acquisition is the first step to the method. It is the
process by which an organism learns the association
involved in classical conditioning.
• For this process to begin, two different stimuli, CS
(Conditioned Stimuli) and UCS (Unconditioned
Stimuli) must be paired repeatedly before the CS
unfailingly elicits a CR (Conditioned Response). CS
and UCS when paired together extract a certain
response.
• After repeatedly pairing two separate stimuli
together, the conditioned response gets stronger
and stronger.
• This process is called Acquisition. Acquisition of
relationship between two stimuli is absolutely vital
for classical conditioning.
Stimulus Generalization
• After an organism has been conditioned to
respond in a certain way for a particular stimulus
after repeated trials, it shouldn’t be surprising or
uncommon to expect the organism to respond in
the similar way to other similar stimuli or
situations.
• In classical conditioning, generalization is defined
as the process in which a stimulus similar to the
original CS produces similar behavior identical to
the CR.
Stimulus Discrimination
• The process in which an organism learns to
difference between different stimuli in order to
restrict their response to one stimulus in
particular is known as Stimulus Discrimination.
• For instance, the dog in the Pavlov’s experiment
does not salivate when exposed to ‘Light’
instead of the sound of the bell.
Extinction
• The process of undoing the classical conditioning
such that the subject does not produce CR in the
presence of CS is termed as Extinction.
• Extinction is said to have occurred when there is
complete absence of conditioned response,
when the subject is exposed to conditioned
stimulus (absence of UCS).
• Extinction can be produced by ending the
association between conditioned and
unconditioned stimuli.
• For instance, if Pavlov had started to stop
presenting the dog with food following the bell-
sound on numerous occasions, it would
gradually stop salivating in response to the
sound.
• This would not happen out of a sudden;
initially, the dog would continue to salivate but
with due time, it would come to an
understanding that no food is going to be
presented. Hence, there would be no CR.
• This means the lack of reinforcement will break
the link between CS-UCS and CR.
Spontaneous Recovery
• Sometimes, the CR suddenly reappears even
after then link between CS and UCS has been
broken down, or to put in another words, the
organism has stopped eliciting CR in response to
CS. In Pavlov’s experiment, when the dog had
completely stopped eliciting CR (Saliva) in
response to CS (bell sound), the dog still
responded with saliva at the sound of the bell.
• This sudden reappearance of saliva (CR) was
referred as ‘spontaneous recovery’ by Pavlov.
• This principle can be used to explain why
“cured” alcohol and drug addicts again
“relapse to addiction”.
• When the cured addicts confront with the
substance, the irresistible urge to use the
substance again may resurface because of the
strong connection to the drug previously.
• This can be termed as Spontaneous Recovery.
Educational Implications of Classical
Conditioning theory:
• Pavlov brought a revolution in the field of
psychology.
• He explained learning in terms of physiological
changes by adopting an objective method of study.
• Conditioning was accepted as theoretical
framework and practical technique of solving a
variety of applied problems.
• According to Pavlov, all learning is conditioning
or de conditioning. The motor driver stops his
vehicle at red light and starts at green light. This
is not his natural response.
• He had to become conditioned so that he might
put the brakes upon his vehicle as soon as he
saw the red signal, without any prior thought.
He knows that the failure to do this is sure to be
followed by punishment. The child also learns
things in this way. As soon as the teacher steps
into the classroom, the child has to stand up.
Such conditioning is a must in learning.
• Classical conditioning does not have direct
application to classroom learning. But the
principles of classical conditioning can be such
as cleanliness, respect for elders, punctuality
etc. Similarly, it can be used for de-
conditioning anxiety and fear in the
maladjusted children. Classical conditioning
can be used to develop a favourable or
unfavourable attitude on the part of the
learner towards learning, the teacher and the
school.
• The theory believed that one must be able to
practice and master a task effectively before
embarking on another one. This means that a
student needs to be able to respond to a
particular stimulus (information) before
he/she can be associated with a new one.
• Teachers should know how to motivate their
students to learn. They should be versatile
with various strategies that can enhance
effective participation of the students in the
teaching- learning activities.
• Most of the emotional responses can be
learned through classical conditioning. A
negative or positive response comes through
the stimulus being paired with. For example,
providing the necessary school material for
primary school pupils will develop good
feelings about school and learning in them,
while, punishment will discourage them from
attending the school.
Exercise
• Close your eyes and start thinking about your
favorite food… !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
IS YOUR MOUTH WATERING??
If yes, it’s because you are conditioned.!!!!

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Classical conditioning theory

  • 1. Classical Conditioning theory of Learning - Ivan Pavlov Dr. Manju N D Assistant Professor SVK National College of Education Kuvempu University, Shimoga
  • 2. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) • was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning. • Pavlov won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904, becoming the first Russian Nobel laureate. • He observed and recorded information about dogs and their digestive process. • As part of his work, he began to study what triggers dogs to salivate.
  • 3. WHAT IS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING ? • Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. • It had a major influence on behaviorism which is based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment.
  • 4. Classical Conditioning Experiment • As stated above, Pavlov restricted his experimental studies to the process of secretion of saliva in dogs. • Food in the mouth of the organism produces the saliva. When we put food in the mouth of the dog, the dog salivates. • This is a natural response. Here the food is termed as ‘unconditioned stimuli and the salivation by the dog as ‘unconditioned response’. • The stimulus of food is called unconditioned because it means that the response depends upon no special condition.
  • 5. • Unconditioned responses are unlearned and imply no pre condition. • During his experimentation on dogs, Pavlov introduced the sound of a bell as a natural stimulus or conditioned stimulus. • The bell, for example, was sounded at the time when food was presented to the dog or just before. Thus, the sound of the bell was paired with presentation of the food a few times. • The dog was found to salivate in response to the sound of the bell. • The response which was learned was called by Pavlov as ‘conditioned reflex’ or ‘conditioned response’.
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  • 9. Here is an outline of Pavlo’s experiment
  • 11. COMPONENTS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING • The Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) :A stimulus that naturally, and automatically triggers a response. • The Unconditioned Response(UCR):The unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus. • The Conditioned Stimulus(CS):A previously neutral stimulus that when paired with an unconditioned stimulus triggers a conditioned response. • The Conditioned Response(CR):Learned response to the previously neutral stimulus.
  • 13. Principles of Classical Conditioning • The theory generally refers to acquiring of new behavior via association with various stimuli. By associating the subject with stimulus subject, outputs new responses and learns a behavior. • Based on how the learning method works, there are five general principles in Classical Conditioning. • Each of the principles describes how the classical conditioning learning occurs. It covers from the very initial to the last stage of the learning process.
  • 14. Acquisition • Acquisition is the first step to the method. It is the process by which an organism learns the association involved in classical conditioning. • For this process to begin, two different stimuli, CS (Conditioned Stimuli) and UCS (Unconditioned Stimuli) must be paired repeatedly before the CS unfailingly elicits a CR (Conditioned Response). CS and UCS when paired together extract a certain response. • After repeatedly pairing two separate stimuli together, the conditioned response gets stronger and stronger. • This process is called Acquisition. Acquisition of relationship between two stimuli is absolutely vital for classical conditioning.
  • 15. Stimulus Generalization • After an organism has been conditioned to respond in a certain way for a particular stimulus after repeated trials, it shouldn’t be surprising or uncommon to expect the organism to respond in the similar way to other similar stimuli or situations. • In classical conditioning, generalization is defined as the process in which a stimulus similar to the original CS produces similar behavior identical to the CR.
  • 16. Stimulus Discrimination • The process in which an organism learns to difference between different stimuli in order to restrict their response to one stimulus in particular is known as Stimulus Discrimination. • For instance, the dog in the Pavlov’s experiment does not salivate when exposed to ‘Light’ instead of the sound of the bell.
  • 17. Extinction • The process of undoing the classical conditioning such that the subject does not produce CR in the presence of CS is termed as Extinction. • Extinction is said to have occurred when there is complete absence of conditioned response, when the subject is exposed to conditioned stimulus (absence of UCS). • Extinction can be produced by ending the association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
  • 18. • For instance, if Pavlov had started to stop presenting the dog with food following the bell- sound on numerous occasions, it would gradually stop salivating in response to the sound. • This would not happen out of a sudden; initially, the dog would continue to salivate but with due time, it would come to an understanding that no food is going to be presented. Hence, there would be no CR. • This means the lack of reinforcement will break the link between CS-UCS and CR.
  • 19. Spontaneous Recovery • Sometimes, the CR suddenly reappears even after then link between CS and UCS has been broken down, or to put in another words, the organism has stopped eliciting CR in response to CS. In Pavlov’s experiment, when the dog had completely stopped eliciting CR (Saliva) in response to CS (bell sound), the dog still responded with saliva at the sound of the bell. • This sudden reappearance of saliva (CR) was referred as ‘spontaneous recovery’ by Pavlov.
  • 20. • This principle can be used to explain why “cured” alcohol and drug addicts again “relapse to addiction”. • When the cured addicts confront with the substance, the irresistible urge to use the substance again may resurface because of the strong connection to the drug previously. • This can be termed as Spontaneous Recovery.
  • 21. Educational Implications of Classical Conditioning theory: • Pavlov brought a revolution in the field of psychology. • He explained learning in terms of physiological changes by adopting an objective method of study. • Conditioning was accepted as theoretical framework and practical technique of solving a variety of applied problems.
  • 22. • According to Pavlov, all learning is conditioning or de conditioning. The motor driver stops his vehicle at red light and starts at green light. This is not his natural response. • He had to become conditioned so that he might put the brakes upon his vehicle as soon as he saw the red signal, without any prior thought. He knows that the failure to do this is sure to be followed by punishment. The child also learns things in this way. As soon as the teacher steps into the classroom, the child has to stand up. Such conditioning is a must in learning.
  • 23. • Classical conditioning does not have direct application to classroom learning. But the principles of classical conditioning can be such as cleanliness, respect for elders, punctuality etc. Similarly, it can be used for de- conditioning anxiety and fear in the maladjusted children. Classical conditioning can be used to develop a favourable or unfavourable attitude on the part of the learner towards learning, the teacher and the school.
  • 24. • The theory believed that one must be able to practice and master a task effectively before embarking on another one. This means that a student needs to be able to respond to a particular stimulus (information) before he/she can be associated with a new one. • Teachers should know how to motivate their students to learn. They should be versatile with various strategies that can enhance effective participation of the students in the teaching- learning activities.
  • 25. • Most of the emotional responses can be learned through classical conditioning. A negative or positive response comes through the stimulus being paired with. For example, providing the necessary school material for primary school pupils will develop good feelings about school and learning in them, while, punishment will discourage them from attending the school.
  • 26. Exercise • Close your eyes and start thinking about your favorite food… !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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  • 30. IS YOUR MOUTH WATERING?? If yes, it’s because you are conditioned.!!!!