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Introduction to Structured Computer Organization

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Introduction to Structured Computer Organization with clear explain

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Introduction to Structured Computer Organization

  1. 1. Introduction Chapter 1
  2. 2. Languages, Levels, Virtual Machines <ul><li>A multilevel machine </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contemporary Multilevel Machines <ul><li>A six-level computer. </li></ul><ul><li>The support method for each level is indicated below it . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution of Multilevel Machines <ul><li>Invention of microprogramming </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Migration of functionality to microcode </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of microprogramming </li></ul>
  5. 5. Operating System Tasks <ul><li>A sample job for the FMS operating system </li></ul>
  6. 6. Milestones in Computer Architecture (1) <ul><li>Some milestones in the development of the modern digital computer. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Milestones in Computer Architecture (2) <ul><li>Some milestones in the development of the modern digital computer. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Computer Generations <ul><li>Zeroth Generation Mechanical Computers (1642 – 1945) </li></ul><ul><li>First Generation Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1955) </li></ul><ul><li>Second Generation Transistors (1955 – 1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation Integrated Circuits (1965 – 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Generation Very Large Scale Integration (1980 – ?) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Von Neumann Machine <ul><li>The original Von Neumann machine. </li></ul>
  10. 10. PDP-8 Innovation – Single Bus <ul><li>The PDP-8 omnibus </li></ul>
  11. 11. IBM 360 <ul><li>The initial offering of the IBM product line. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Technological and Economic Forces <ul><li>Moore’s law predicts a 60-percent annual increase in the </li></ul><ul><li>number of transistors that can be put on a chip. </li></ul><ul><li>The data points given in this figure are memory sizes, in bits. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Computer Spectrum <ul><li>The current spectrum of computers available. The prices should be taken with a grain (or better yet, a metric ton) of salt. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Personal Computer <ul><ul><li>A printed circuit board is at the heart of every personal computer. This figure is a photograph of the Intel D875PBZ board. The photograph is copyrighted by the Intel Corporation, 2003 and is used by permission. </li></ul></ul>1. Pentium 4 socket 2. 875P Support chip 3. Memory sockets 4. AGP connector 5. Disk interface 6. Gigabit Ethernet 7. Five PCI slots 8. USB 2.0 ports 9. Cooling technology 10. BIOS
  15. 15. Example Computer Families <ul><li>Pentium 4 by Intel </li></ul><ul><li>UltraSPARC III by Sun Microsystems </li></ul><ul><li>The 8051 chip by Intel, used for embedded systems </li></ul>
  16. 16. Intel Computer Family (1) <ul><li>The Intel CPU family. Clock speeds are measured in MHz (megahertz) where 1 MHZ is 1 million cycles/sec. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Intel Computer Family (2) <ul><li>The Pentium 4 chip. The photograph is copyrighted by the Intel Corporation, 2003 and is used by permission. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Intel Computer Family (3) <ul><li>Moore’s law for (Intel) CPU chips. </li></ul>
  19. 19. MCS-51 Family <ul><li>Members of the MCS-51 family. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Metric Units <ul><li>The principal metric prefixes. </li></ul>
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Introduction to Structured Computer Organization with clear explain

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