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Micro Lec 1


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Micro Lec 1

  1. 1. MICROPROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY Assis. Prof. Hossam El-Din Moustafa [email_address]
  2. 2. What is a Microprocessor? <ul><li>Processors are the brains of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Other components allow a computer to store or retrieve data and to input or output data, but the processor performs computations and does something useful with the data . </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Microprocessor? <ul><li>Processors in early computers were created out of many separate components, but as technology improved it became possible to integrate all of the components of a processor onto a single piece, or chip, of silicon. These integrated circuits are called microprocessors. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1971: 4004 Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>The 4004 was Intel's first microprocessor. </li></ul><ul><li>4 bit microprocessor </li></ul>
  5. 5. Microprocessor Evolution Intel 4004
  6. 6. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1972: 8008 Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>The 8008 was twice as powerful as the 4004. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mark-8 is known as one of the first computers for the home </li></ul>
  7. 7. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1974: 8080 Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>8080 became the brains of the first personal computer </li></ul><ul><li>8 bit microprocessor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1978: 8086-8088 Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>16-bit data bus </li></ul><ul><li>20 bit address bus </li></ul><ul><li>The 8088 is a less expensive version with only 8 bit data bus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1982: 80286 Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>24-bit address bus </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced with memory protection capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced protected mode </li></ul><ul><li>Backwards compatible </li></ul>
  10. 10. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1985: Intel386™ Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>275,000 transistors--more than 100 times as many as the original 4004. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi tasking </li></ul><ul><li>First 32-bit processor </li></ul><ul><li>32-bit data bus and 32-bit address bus </li></ul>
  11. 11. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1989: Intel 486™ DX CPU Microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Go from a command-level computer into point-and-click computing. </li></ul><ul><li>A color computer for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>Combined coprocessor functions for performing floating-point arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>Later versions introduced energy savings for laptops </li></ul>
  12. 12. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1993: Intel® Pentium® Processor </li></ul><ul><li>64-bit data bus </li></ul><ul><li>Wider internal data bus 128-and 256-bit wide </li></ul><ul><li>The Intel Pentium® processor allowed computers to more easily incorporate &quot;real world&quot; data such as speech, sound, handwriting and photographic images. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1995: Intel® Pentium® Pro Processor </li></ul><ul><li>36-bit address bus </li></ul><ul><li>Each Intel® Pentium Pro processor is packaged together with a second speed-enhancing cache memory chip. The powerful Pentium® Pro processor boasts 5.5 million transistors. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1997: Intel® Pentium® II Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced multimedia (MMX) instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Doubled on-chip L1 cache </li></ul><ul><li>16 KB data, 16 KB instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced comprehensive power management features; Sleep, Deep sleep </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the L1 cache, has 256 KB L2 cache </li></ul>
  15. 15. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1998: Intel® Pentium II Xeon® Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to meet the performance requirements of mid-range and higher servers and workstations. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1999: Intel® Celeron® Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances the performance of advanced imaging, 3-D, streaming audio, video and speech recognition applications. It was designed to significantly enhance Internet experiences, allowing users to do such things as browse through realistic online museums and stores and download high-quality video. </li></ul><ul><li>The processor incorporates 9.5 million transistors </li></ul>
  17. 17. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>1999: Intel® Pentium® III Xeon® Processor </li></ul><ul><li>The Intel® Pentium III Xeon processor's advance cache technology speeds information from the system bus to the processor, significantly boosting performance. </li></ul><ul><li>It is designed for systems with multi-processor configurations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>2000: Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor </li></ul><ul><li>Users can create professional-quality movies; deliver TV-like video via the Internet; communicate with real-time video and voice; render 3D graphics in real time; quickly encode music for MP3 players; and simultaneously run several multimedia applications while connected to the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>The processor debuted with 42 million transistors </li></ul>
  19. 19. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>2001: Intel® Itanium® Processor </li></ul><ul><li>64-bit processor </li></ul><ul><li>Uses 64-bit address bus </li></ul><ul><li>128-bit data bus </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced several advanced features </li></ul>
  20. 20. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>2003: Intel® Pentium® M Processor </li></ul><ul><li>The Intel® Pentium® M processor, the Intel® 855 chipset family, and the Intel® PRO/Wireless 2100 network connection are the three components of Intel® Centrino® processor technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Centrino processor technology is designed specifically for portable computing, with built-in wireless LAN capability and breakthrough mobile performance. It enables extended battery life and thinner, lighter mobile computers . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Microprocessor Evolution <ul><li>And finally </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Core Technology </li></ul><ul><li>The first microprocessor that uses the 65nm semiconductor technology </li></ul><ul><li>The first to have dual core on a die </li></ul><ul><li>Dual core computing capabilities </li></ul>
  22. 22. Moore’s Law <ul><li>In 1975, Gordon Moore observed that shrinking transistor dimensions were allowing the number of transistors on a die to double roughly every 18 months. </li></ul><ul><li>For microprocessors, the trend has been closer to a doubling every 2 years, but amazingly this exponential increase has continued now for 30 years </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Future of Moore’s Law <ul><li>No exponential trend can continue forever, and this simple fact has led to predictions of the end of Moore’s law for decades. </li></ul><ul><li>There have already been a number of new fabrication technologies proposed or put into use that will help continue Moore’s law through 2015. </li></ul>
  24. 24. References <ul><li>“ The Intel Microprocessors: 8086/8088, 80186/80188, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium, Pentium Pro Processor, Pentium II, Pentium III, and Pentium 4 -Architecture, Programming, and Interfacing”, Sixth Edition, Barry B. Brey, Prentice Hall, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Design&quot;, S. Dandamudi, Springer, 2003. </li></ul>
  25. 25. References <ul><li>Intel Technology Journal, “Intel Centrino Duo Technology”, Vol.10, Issue 2, May 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Microprocessor Design”, Grant McFarland, McGraw-Hill, 2006 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Thank You With all best wishes !!