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Microprocessor Trends.pptx

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Microprocessor Trends.pptx

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Expectations for additional advancements are emphasized as expectations for current developments in silicon technology, processor architecture and implementation, system organization, buses, greater degrees of integration, self-testing, caches, and coprocessors are reviewed.

Expectations for additional advancements are emphasized as expectations for current developments in silicon technology, processor architecture and implementation, system organization, buses, greater degrees of integration, self-testing, caches, and coprocessors are reviewed.

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Microprocessor Trends.pptx

  1. 1. Microprocessor Trends
  2. 2. Chapters Chapter one Introduction of Microprocessor Chapter two Microprocessor Trends( 1971 to 2022 ) Chapter three Microprocessor Comparison Chapter four Conclusion of Microprocessor 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 2
  3. 3. Chapter One Introduction of Microprocessor
  4. 4. Computer A computer is a programmable electronic device that accepts input, performs mathematical and logical processes as directed quickly, and displays the outcomes. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 4
  5. 5. Main components for Computer : 1.Input Unit 2.Output Unit 3.Memory Unit 4.Control Unit 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 5
  6. 6. Input device An input device is a piece of equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system, 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 6
  7. 7. Output Devices An output device is any hardware device used to send data from a computer to another device or user. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 7
  8. 8. Memory unite A memory unit is the amount of data that the memory can hold 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 8
  9. 9. Control unite • A control unit, or CU, is circuitry within a computer's processor that directs operations. • It instructs the memory, logic unit, and both output and input devices of the computer on how to respond to the program's instructions. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 9
  10. 10. Microprocessor 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 10
  11. 11. Microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing , logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit . The microprocessor contains the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to perform the functions of a computer's central processing unit. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 11
  12. 12. Example of Microprocessor • Intel 386, • Intel 486 • Pentium • Pentium Pro • Pentium II, 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 12
  13. 13. Microprocessor types 1. RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer 2. CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 13
  14. 14. RISC ( Reduced Instruction Set Computer ) To execute an instruction, a number of steps are required. By the control unit of the processor, a number of control signals are generated for each step. To execute each instruction, this approach of the design of the control section of the processor is called RISC . Examples of RISC processors are: •DEC's Alpha 21064, 21164 and 21264 processors; •SUN's SPARC and ULTRA SPARC; •PowerPC processors etc. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 14
  15. 15. CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer ) If the control unit contains a number of micro electronic circuitry to generate a set of control signals and each micro circuitry is activated by a microcode, this design approach is called CISC design.. Examples of CISC processors are: •Intel 386, 486; •Pentium Pro, Pentium, Pentium II, Pentium III, Pentium 4; •Motorola's 68000, 68020, 68030, 68040, etc. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 15
  16. 16. Difference between RISC and CISC 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 16
  17. 17. Chapter Two Microprocessor Trends ( 1971 to 2022 )
  18. 18. The first microprocessor invent • It was invented at March 1971 • Intel® 4004 became the first general-purpose programmable processor • Made with cutting-edge silicon-gate technology 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 18
  19. 19. Intel® 4004  The 4-bit Microprocessor  invented in the year 1971 by Stanley Mazor & Ted Hoff.  clock speed of this microprocessor is 740 KHz.  microprocessor is 2,300 and instruction per second is 60K  The number of pins of this microprocessor is 16. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 19
  20. 20. Generations of microprocessors: First-generation – From 1971 to 1972 the era of the first generation came which brought microprocessors like INTEL 4004 Rockwell international PPS-4 INTEL 8008 etc. Second generation – The second generation marked the development of 8-bit microprocessors from 1973 to 1978. Processors like INTEL 8085 Motorola 6800 and 6801 etc came into existence. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 20
  21. 21. Generations of microprocessors: Third generation – The third generation brought forward the 16-bit processors like INTEL 8086/80186/80286 Motorola 68000 68010 etc. From 1979 to 1980 this generation used the HMOs technology. Fourth generation – The fourth generation came into existence from 1981 to 1995. The 32-bit processors using HMOS fabrication came into existence. INTEL 80386 and Motorola 68020 are some of the popular processors of this generation. Fifth-generation – From 1995 till now we are in the fifth generation. 64-bit processors like PENTIUM, Celeron, and dual, quad and octa-core processors came into existence. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 21
  22. 22. Evolution of Microprocessors Table Name Year of Invention Clock speed Number of transistors Inst. per sec INTEL 4004/4040 1971 by Ted Hoff and Stanley Mazor 740 kHz 2300 60,000 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 22 4 bit
  23. 23. Evolution of Microprocessors Table Name Year Clock speed Number of transistors Inst. per sec 8008 1972 500 kHz 3500 50,000 8080 1974 2 MHz 6000 10 times faster than 8008 8085 1976 (16-bit address bus) 3 MHz 6500 769230 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 23 8 bit
  24. 24. Evolution of Microprocessors Table 8086 1978 (multiply and divide instruction, 16-bit data bus and 20- bit address bus) 4.77 MHz, 8 MHz, 10 MHz 29000 2.5 Million 8088 1979 (cheaper version of 8086 and 8-bit external bus) 2.5 Million 80186/80188 1982 (80188 cheaper version of 80186, and additional components like interrupt controller, clock generator, local bus controller, counters) 6 MHz 80286 1982 (data bus 16bit and address bus 24 bit) 8 MHz 134000 4 Million 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 24 16 bit Year Name Clock speed Number of transistors
  25. 25. Evolution of Microprocessors Table INTEL 80386 1986 (other versions 80386DX, 80386SX, 80386SL , and data bus 32-bit address bus 32 bit) 16 MHz – 33 MHz 275000 INTEL 80486 1986 (other versions 80486DX, 80486SX, 80486DX2, 80486DX4) 16 MHz – 100 MHz 1.2 Million transistors 8 KB of cache memory PENTIUM 1993 66 MHz Cache memory 8 bit for instructions 8 bit for data 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 25 32 bit Year Name Clock speed Number of transistors
  26. 26. Evolution of Microprocessors Table INTEL core 2 2006 (other versions core2 duo, core2 quad, core2 extreme) 1.2 GHz to 3 GHz 291 Million transistors 64 KB of L1 cache per core 4 MB of L2 cache I N T E L c o r e 2 i3, i5, i7 2007, 2009, 2010 2.2GHz – 3.3GHz, 2.4GHz – 3.6GHz, 2.93GHz – 3.33GHz i 3 , i 5 , i 7 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 26 64 bit Year Name Clock speed Number of transistors
  27. 27. Last release processor Intel Core i9-13900K Release date :march 2022 Cores: 16 Threads: 32 Base clock: 4.5GHz Boost clock: 5.7GHz L3 cache: 80MB TDP: 170W 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 27
  28. 28. 40 years of microprocessor trend data 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 28
  29. 29. Chapter Three Microprocessor Comparison
  30. 30. Compare microprocessors  Microprocessors are generally compared in terms of Power, Performance and Area.  The comparison should only be done in respective design segments. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 30
  31. 31. Compare several CPUs in the proper manner.  Clock speed and cores are the most heavily advertised aspects of processors.  Check Single-Threaded Performance  Cache Performance  Integrated Graphics 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 31
  32. 32. Comparing two Microprocessor 1. Intel Core i7 13700K 2. AMD Ryzen 7 7800X 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 32
  33. 33. General Compare Vendor Intel AMD Released September 27, 2022 January 10, 2023 Type Desktop Desktop instruction set x86-64 x86-64 Codename Raptor Lake-S Raphael Model number i7-13700K - Socket LGA-1700 AM5 Integrated GPU UHD Graphics 770 Radeon Graphics 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 33
  34. 34. Performance compare Cores 16 10 Threads 24 20 Base Frequency 3.4 GHz 4.5 GHz Turbo Boost Frequency 5.3 GHz 5.4 GHz Bus frequency 100 MHz 100 MHz Multiplier 34x 45x L1 Cache 80K (per core) - L2 Cache 2MB (per core) 1MB (per core) L3 Cache 30MB (shared) 40MB (shared) Unlocked Multiplier Yes Yes 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 34 Intel AMD
  35. 35. Fabrication process 10 nm 5 nm TDP 125 W 105 W Max. temperatur e 100°C 95°C 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 35 Memory types DDR5-5600, DDR4-3200 DDR5-5200 Memory Size 128 GB 128 GB Max. Memory Channels 2 2 Max. Memory Bandwidth 89.6 GB/s - ECC Support Yes Power Memory support Intel AMD Intel AMD
  36. 36. Benchmarks 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 36
  37. 37. Review 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 37
  38. 38. Key Differences Advantages of Intel Core i7 13700K •Has 6 more physical cores Advantages of AMD Ryzen 7 7800X •More modern manufacturing process – 5 versus 10 nanometers •Has 10 MB larger L3 cache size •Consumes up to 16% less energy than the Core i7 13700K – 105 vs 125 Watt •2% higher Turbo Boost frequency (5.4 GHz vs 5.3 GHz) 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 38
  39. 39. Chapter Four Conclusion of Microprocessor
  40. 40. Benefits of a Microprocessor  Don't cost a lot :Microprocessors don't cost much to produce.  Fast: operate at incredibly high speeds--today's microprocessors can execute millions of instructions per second.  consume little power: Don’t consume a lot of power  Versatile: chip can be used for numerous applications as long as the programming is changed, making it incredibly versatile. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 40
  41. 41. The future of Microprocessors  Multiple cores and customization will be the major drivers for future microprocessor performance (total chip performance).  Multiple cores can increase computational throughput (such as a 1x4x increase could result from four cores), and customization can reduce execution latency. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 41
  42. 42. Intel performance over time 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 42
  43. 43. Intel power over time 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 43  1980 processors need no heat sinks for cooling .  Today big heat sinks, often with one or more dedicated fans needed for increase airflow over the processor.
  44. 44. Intel power over time 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 44
  45. 45. HARDWARE ADVANTAGES will get in future.  A more powerful input-output device can be connected.  Can get more advantage of RAM.  Data can retrieve faster.  Graphics cards can give their 100 percent output. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 45
  46. 46. Summary Microprocessor reduces cost of processing power,increases reliability focuses on real time applications and it is faster in speed also.It is used in smallest embedded system to largest main frames and super computers. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 46
  47. 47. References 1.^ "NMOS versus PMOS". 2. "The Story of the Intel 4004". Intel. 3.^ "Perkin Elmer - Micralign Projection Mask Alignment System". 4.^ "The MOS 6502 and the Best Layout Guy in the World". swtch.com. 2011-01-03. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 5.^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Belzer, Jack; Holzman, Albert G.; Kent, Allen (1978). Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology: Volume 10 - Linear and Matrix Algebra to Microorganisms: Computer-Assisted Identification. CRC Press. p. 402. ISBN 9780824722609. 6.^ Ogdin 1975, pp. 57–59, 77 7.^ Jump up to:a b c d "1970s: Development and evolution of microprocessors" (PDF). Semiconductor History Museum of Japan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-06-27. Retrieved 16 September 2020. 8.^ Ogdin 1975, pp. 72, 77 9.^ "Rockwell PPS-4". The Antique Chip Collector's Page. Retrieved 2010-06-14. 10.^ Ryoichi Mori; Hiroaki Tajima; Morihiko Tajima; Yoshikuni Okada (October 1977). "Microprocessors in Japan". Euromicro Newsletter. 3 (4): 50–7 (51, Table 2.2). doi:10.1016/0303-1268(77)90111-0. 11.^ "NEC 751 (uCOM-4)". The Antique Chip Collector's Page. Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2010- 06-11. 12/8/2022 PRESENTATION TITLE 47
  48. 48. Thank you
  49. 49. Question & Answer

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