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News intro and language


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News intro and news language

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News intro and language

  1. 1. Newspapers, Online and Social and Participatory Media
  2. 2. THE EXAM Paper 1: Section A (45 marks) News and Online This section includes: • An in-depth study of Online, Social and Participatory (The Guardian and Mail websites, Twitter, Instagram and Facebook feeds as well as the comments; and • An in-depth study of offline, print Newspapers (The Guardian and Mail)
  3. 3. This component is worth 45 marks and 20% of the marks for the total A level. This is part of an externally assessed, two hour written examination. You are required to study two media forms in depth. 1) Newspapers 2) Online, social and participatory media AO1: 15 marks will focus on industry and audience AO2: 30 marks will focus on language and representation Three 10 mark questions and one 15 mark question (some will relate to unseen sources on the two media forms). THE EXAM
  4. 4. You will explore: - the contexts surrounding why offline news producers are moving towards online - how news organisations are differentiating their offline and online products and also selling the similarities of both - how online news producers are using social and participatory media (Twitter, Facebook and Instagram feeds), for example, to enhance their core offline and online web content, encourage participation and/or drive the news agenda. NEWSPAPERS
  5. 5. Form an understanding of how media language has been used to construct representations both offline and online. Analyse how different newspapers might construct different representations, viewpoints and express different values from each other. Consider the academic ideas and arguments presented by the set theorists listed for media language and representation. Contextualise and solidify understanding of ‘broadsheet’ and ‘tabloid’ codes and conventions in online and print. News and Online Media Language
  6. 6. How media industries influence news producers in each media form (e.g. in terms of ownership, funding, processes of production and distribution and exchange, regulation etc.) The relationship between media producers, the media product and audiences (e.g. in terms of how and why media producers target and reach audiences, the influence of technology, interaction and how audiences interpret and consume media and the context of why certain news producers target certain audiences and have a political leaning). Consider the academic ideas and arguments presented by the set theorists listed News and Online Media Industries and Audiences
  7. 7. Newspapers have been around since the mid 17th century (probably earlier in various forms) Until the 20th century (and the introduction of audio visual broadcasting – radio/pathé news) newspapers were the primary means of bringing news to the public. They are largely self regulating. They have a regulating body – IPSO the Independent Press Standards Organisation (formerly the Press Complaints Commission). Leveson Inquiry 2011 – in response to allegations of phone hacking at The News of the World (amongst others) was carried out. It suggested a code of conduct and tighter controls be imposed – nothing has really happened about this (apart from the new IPSO instead of the PCC) Unlike news broadcasting, newspapers do not have to be impartial – they are allowed to show their political bias. Newspaper Overview The newspaper industry is largely in decline in terms of print circulation. Newspapers have had to adapt and move online in a bid for survival.
  8. 8. * Not Newsworks stakeholders ** Online only The market Populars QualityMid-market * * * * * **
  9. 9. What might be the problem with political affiliation?
  10. 10. See the chart below. Figures correct January 2017. HWK 1 MAKE A TABLE FOR THE SUN, THE DAILY MAIL AND THE TELEGRAPH
  11. 11. Broadsheets vs Tabloids - Have a look at these front pages. What do you think are the codes and conventions of a broadsheet newspaper? News and Online Language - Broadsheets
  12. 12. Broadsheets vs Tabloids - Have a look at these front pages. What do you think are the codes and conventions of a tabloid newspaper? News and Online Language - Tabloids
  13. 13. Some codes and conventions… ‘Quality’ or 'serious' press Aimed at higher social groupings (A,B,C1) Plainer layout (Little colour on the front page, smaller typeface suggests readers will make more effort to read it), and subtle, possibly smaller, pictures Longer articles, more detailed News and Online Language - Broadsheets
  14. 14. Some codes and conventions… 'Popular' press Aimed at lower social groupings (C2,D & E) Bold layout (e.g. colour on the masthead, very bold typeface, easy to read), with large, dramatic pictures Shorter articles, more pictures, less 'in-depth' reporting Puns and jokes in headlines More focus on human interest stories, celebrity gossip Use of gimmicks such as bingo games, free travel tickets, phone-in surveys News and Online Language - Tabloids
  15. 15. News and Online Language - Terminology First let’s look at some papers and apply the terminology (make a video?) so we can play Blockbuster! BLOCKBUSTER - Newspaper Technical Codes BLOCKBUSTER - Newspaper Technical Codes
  16. 16. SPIN THE WHEEL - Discussion Prompts Blockbuster (learn codes first, play in teams) News and Online Language
  17. 17. An important term…GATEKEEPING • A term which is applied to the editing and filtering process where decisions are made to let some information ‘pass through’ to the receiver (audience) and other information remains barred.
  18. 18. News Values • In 1965 some media researchers analysed international news stories to find out what kind of stories came top of the news ‘agenda’ worldwide. Their findings led to them creating a list of ‘news values’ – a kind of scoring system. A story that scores highly on each news value is very likely to make the front page, or the start of a TV news bulletin. • It is not just down to news values that decides which stories come top of the news agenda: journalists and news editors draw on their own experience to decide what should be deemed the most important, or what should come top. • Different news organisations have their own system of setting a news agenda: what one newspaper will put on the front page is not necessarily what another paper will put on the front page.
  19. 19. Threshold Unexpectedness Negativity Elite persons/places Unambiguous Personalisation Proximity Continuity/currency The bigger the impact and reach of the story An event that is a shock or out of the ordinary Bad news is more interesting ‘if it bleeds, it leads’ Stories about important people and powerful nations Stories that are easy to understand and for papers to report on Stories that include human interest – ‘real’ people Stories that are closer to home are more likely to be included Stories that are already in the news continue to run and are updated Discuss recent stories that have made the news (if you can’t remember, get your phone out and have a quick look on the BBC website) What news values can you apply to those stories?
  20. 20. News and Online Language Take a look at this cover – what news values are present?
  21. 21. The choice of story clearly shows certain news values/ideological focus are favoured. However, the choice of images and words can help exaggerate these values to help sell the newspaper. 1 2 3 4
  22. 22. News and Online Language Conduct a semiotic analysis of a front cover Different newspapers select and have different priorities as to where to place their stories What do you think this depends on? In pairs, look at the two contrasting newspapers – what stories have made the front page/headlines and what news values do they support? Why do you think this is? READERSHIP IDEOLOGIES AND VALUES OF THE NEWSPAPER (political affiliation/type of newspaper) In groups of 2 or 3, look at the front pages on your tables and conduct a semiotic analysis. Consider: • Masthead • Layout & Style • Language • Anything else you think worthy of comment Annotate the front pages given to you, using Barthes’ codes think about what is DENOTED (literal meaning) and what is CONNOTED (an idea or meaning suggested by or associated with the denoted word/image) by these CONVENTIONS. ALWAYS CONSIDER: • WHY DOES IT READ THE WAY IT DOES? • WHAT IS THE INTENDED MEANING OR IDEAS BEING COMMUNICATED? • WHO IS THIS FOR?
  23. 23. News and Online Language How is a Newspaper Article Structured ?
  24. 24. News and Online Language All newspaper articles follow a particular framework or structure
  25. 25. Construction of a News Report News and Online Language
  26. 26. News and Online Language How is a Newspaper Article Structured? Headline: • All stories have a headline, which gives the reader an idea of what the article is about. Tabloid headlines often use puns or other techniques, such as alliteration, to captivate their audience. Introduction: • As the first paragraph in an article, the introduction is very important. Its contents tell the reader in more detail what the article is about. Research into how people read newspapers shows that most people read the headline first, followed by the first paragraph of the story. If the introduction is not interesting then most people will not continue reading the article. The first paragraph is often known as a stand-first, printed in a bold font. Elaboration: • The next few paragraphs tell the reader more about the story that is outlined in the introduction. They inform readers about the following key words: • What • When • Where • Who • Why. Quotes: • Almost all news stories have comments from those involved or from voyeurs (onlookers). Their function is to make the article more objective by keeping a balanced viewpoint. Alternatively, they can make the article more subjective by sensationalising the reaction of the public and can indicate bias. Projection: • Many stories tell the reader what might happen next in relation to the event or people in the report. This might include a comment from a police officer, an MP, a family member or a general prediction of consequences or outcomes.
  27. 27. News and Online Language Take a look at this cover – what news values are present? 1. Looking at our case studies, The Sun, The Guardian and the Daily Mail, find the main story inside the newspaper. 2. Answer the following questions on your blog. 1. How have the conventions been established as a tabloid newspaper / broadsheet newspaper? 2. How does the article make you feel about the situation? 3. What news values are prominent? 4. Discuss the effect of the particular words / phrases on the audience 5. Why has a particular person been quoted? What does this add to the story? 6. What does the way in which the story has been reported in your paper overall suggest about the attitudes, values and beliefs of the world?
  28. 28. News and Online Language Language Content Style Values and attitudes Photographs Headlines What examples of language stand out. Calculate the average number of words per sentence. What is included or missed out of the story? Can you explain this? Is the article chatty or formal? Serious or funny? How long are the sentences? Is there any bias? Which shots have been chosen and why? How have they been edited? What kind of headline is it? What techniques are used? This is a framework for analysing the language of newspapers. Remember to include evidence to support the comments that you make.