Smart grids More efficient and reliable grids

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Smart grids More efficient and reliable grids

  1. 1. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 1 Smart grids More efficient and reliable grids 3rd November 2010, Madrid. Inés Romero
  2. 2. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 2 Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions
  3. 3. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 3 Today’s energy challenge – growing demand Electricity demand rising twice as fast China 105% 195% India 126% 282% Europe and North America 11% 31% M. East and Africa 73% 131% Growth in primary energy demand Growth in electricity demand IEA forecast 2006-30 South America 56% 81%
  4. 4. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 4 Major challenge: improving reliability In U.S. the annual cost of system disturbances is an estimated $80 billion* Commercial ($57 billion), industrial ($20 billion) and residential ($3 billion) sectors affected Most cost ($52 billion) due to short momentary interruptions Poor reliability is a huge economic disadvantage * Berkley National Laboratory 2005 #disturbance eventsinUS Source: FERC 2008
  5. 5. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 5 © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 5 Two major ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources Energy efficiency and renewable power generation could provide almost 80 percent of the targeted reduction AnnualemissionofCO2inGigatons Source IEA 2008 550* policy scenario * ppm concentration in the atmosphere 20 25 30 35 40 45 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Reference scenario 550 policy scenario 450 policy scenario 450* policy scenario 9% 14% 23% 54% Energy efficiency Renewables Carbon capture and sequestration Nuclear
  6. 6. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 6 © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 6 Major challenge: environmental concerns CO2 is responsible for 80 percent of all greenhouse gas effects More than 40 percent of CO2 is generated by traditional power plants Electric power generation is the largest single source CO2 emissions AnnualemissionofCO2inGigatons Electricity plants Industry (excl. cement) Road transport Residential and service sector Deforestation Others Refineries etc International transport 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 Source: IPCC “Mitigation of Climate Change”, Cambridge University Press, 2007
  7. 7. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 7 Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions
  8. 8. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 8 Smart grid value proposition Four main areas of emphasis Capacity for increasing demand Providing the backbone of the future electrical system Reliability of electricity supply Upgrades and new installations to meet the future challenges Efficiency along the value chain Actions to mitigate climate change Sustainability by integrating renewable Regulatory influence and customer behavior are critical
  9. 9. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 9 Economic build up of capacity Capacity Investment in global grid infrastructure is estimated to total $6 trillion by 20301 Present grids can be refurbished to operate at full capacity without compromising safety New installations must provide maximum flow of energy to any location in the grid In 2020 the fleet of electric cars could reach 40 million world wide, around 2 percent of the cars on the road by then1 The infrastructure for charging the vehicles has to be built Fast charging options cannot be provided by the current grid infrastructure The future electrical system must be used at its full capacity and must be able to cope with new challenges Capacity Reliability Efficiency Sustainability 1 Source: IEA
  10. 10. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 10 Electrical energy all the time, everywhere Reliability in Transmission systems Safe operation with minimum reserves is the most economic way of operating PS Systems must be designed for utmost reliability and maximum power quality Impact of unavoidable faults must be limited to local areas Immediate restoration of full performance is essential The future electrical system must provide a completely reliable energy supply without interruptions Capacity Reliability Efficiency Sustainability The European grid covers the whole continent
  11. 11. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 11 Electrical energy all the time, everywhere Reliability in Distribution systems Distribution grids are pending from a large scale implementation of technologies to support remote monitoring and control automated switching fast fault location Resulting in reduced outage time increased power quality improved maintenance Reliability of power distribution is of prime importance in future electrical systems Capacity Reliability Efficiency Sustainability
  12. 12. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 12 Power generation and grid coupling Efficiency Conversion efficiency of primary energy to electricity is steadily increasing Advanced process control adds to the overall efficiency Equipment and systems to couple generation to the grid are becoming more efficient An improvement of only 1% in efficiency can save 100 million tons of CO2 (emission of 50 M cars1) Estimates allocate a double digit energy saving potential in power generation2 In future electric systems highly efficient power generation is mandatory Capacity Reliability Efficiency Sustainability distributed generation solar plants traditional power plants wind farms Transformers AC-DC converters Substations Conversion efficiency Process improvement 1 at 200g/km of CO2 emission and 10,000 km/year 2 Graus: Energy policy 2007; Gielen: IEA 2007
  13. 13. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 13 Saving potential in transmission and distribution Efficiency Losses of electrical energy in the grid can reach 6-10 % Aging equipment with lower efficiency and thermal losses in conductors are the main reasons Inefficient distribution transformers account for about 30 percent of losses Network losses in EU are an estimated 50 TWh, the annual consumption of 13 million households1 In future electrical systems losses must be reduced significantly Capacity Reliability Efficiency Sustainability 1Source: European Commission
  14. 14. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 18 Integrating renewable power Bridging long distances (Sustainability) Large hydropower plants offer the biggest contribution to renewable energy over the next 20 years Several gigawatts of power must be transported over thousands of kilometers to the centers of consumption Technologies for economic and reliable transport are required The future electrical system must provide viable solutions Capacity Reliability Efficiency Sustainability
  15. 15. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 19 Integrating renewable power Intermittent power generation (Sustainability) Electricity from wind and solar plants is intermittent Spinning reserves between 5 and 18 percent of installed wind energy are required1 Plant interconnections and a wide range of storage technologies could reduce the need for reserves The future electrical system must be able to cope with these challenges Capacity Reliability Efficiency Sustainability 1 Wind impact on power system, Bremen 2009
  16. 16. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 22 Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions
  17. 17. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 23 Smart electricity – efficient power for a sustainable world A smart grid is the evolved system that manages the electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable and economic manner built on advanced infrastructure and tuned to facilitate the integration of behavior of all involved
  18. 18. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 24 The visionary smart grid Summing up the major requirements Capacity Reliability Efficiency Sustainability Upgrade/install capacity economically Provide additional infrastructure (e-cars) Stabilize the system and avoid outages Provide high quality power all the time Improve efficiency of power generation Reduce losses in transport and consumption Connect renewable energy to the grid Manage intermittent generation
  19. 19. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 25 Smart grids Focus of activities © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 25 Focus area Activities Distribution grid automation • Network Management for distribution grids • Intelligent equipment • Distribution communication e-Mobility • EV charging infrastructure • Grid intelligence • On board and manufacturing segment • Storage services Demand response – Commercial and Domestic • Home / building automation • Demand response applications • Connectivity to grid Distributed generation integration • Residential / community renewables • Networked CHP and other generation • Micro and Personal grids • MV / LV DC grids Distributed storage (<1MW) • Building / community level storage. • Micro and Personal grids • V2G Bulk storage (>1MW) • Integration of large scale battery storage • Mitigation of renewable intermittency
  20. 20. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 27 Smart Cities Integration into the Smart Grid Storage of peak supply power in car batteries (future) Local distribution grid extensions Charging scheduling for residential areas Ultra-fast charging stations: •Storage •Power quality services Used car batteries as central storage capacity Battery switch stations: •Storage •Power quality services
  21. 21. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 28 Distribution Automation Integration of Power and Information Distribution Control Center Network management SCADA/DMS OMS with AMR/AMI connection Models sub-transmission and distribution (including medium- and low voltage) networks Workforce management Primary Substation Automation Protection Monitoring and control Automatic functions Information refinement MV/LV Network Automation (FA) Protection Monitoring and control Automatic functions Information refinement Home/Building Automation Smart metering (AMR/AMI) Smart home integration (demand response) © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 28
  22. 22. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 29 Demand Response Addressing the temporary change in electricity consumption
  23. 23. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 30 Demand Response Spinning reserve within seconds addressed by emergency dispatch of demand response Balance power within 1-24 hours addressed by active consumers Peak Load reduction Use more efficient production units Use less costly production units Use units with less emission Improved utilization of the grid capacity Generally utilities run 10-20% of their capacity less than 1-3% of the time
  24. 24. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 31 Grid applications for energy storage SVC Light with Storage © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 31 Grid connection of renewable generation Backup power Continuous reactive power support Eventual reactive power support Intermittent loads of a railway Emergency and short-time power Integration of electric vehicles Peak-load shaving Ancillary services
  25. 25. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 32 PV and Energy Storage interaction Residential application in a building slow charging control automation LV 25 EV’s appliances DC AC BatteryFilter Control AC DC 40-50 apartment As a vital part of an active building, energy storage primary has the following tasks: To provide load support during a few hours per 24 h. To store excess energy produced locally (PV) when the grid or the local consumers for whatever reason can not use. To control and dynamically stabilize the voltage. To mitigate harmonics, unbalances and voltage dips and thereby provide a high power quality.
  26. 26. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 34 ! ! "# " # $ $ ! " % & $ $ ! % ! "# ' % " ' & "# ( % " ' % ! & ' ) # "# "# ' "# ( # ) ABB understands the system behind the charging
  27. 27. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 37 Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions
  28. 28. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 38 © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 38 Progress Update – CEU Smart Grid in Malta. First Smart Grid Island Partner: IBM, Enemalta Corporation, Water Services Corporation Malta Target: Building a Smarter Energy and Water Systems to deliver affordable and secure energy Challenges: Integrate Utilities Business systems conduct remote monitoring, meter reading and real-time management of the network based on IT Results: Active demand: Real-time monitoring and smart meters can deliver pricing based on time of day, enabling the utility to better manage energy consumption and customers to cut their electrical bills. Malta residents will also be able to track their energy use online and see how to curb consumption habits.
  29. 29. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 39 © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 39 Progress Update – NEU Stockholm City (Stockholm Royal Seaport) Customers – Stockholm Municipality and the utility FORTUM Showcase Urban Smart Grid will be part of and supporting a larger showcase for a Sustainable City concept Demonstrate climate positive strategies, setting a compelling environmental and economic example for cities to follow. Selected as one of 18 global projects supported by Clinton Climate Initiative Program for sustainable urban growth Scope and ABB deliverables Integration of Electrical Vehicles, Demand Response, Active House, integration of Local Decentralized Renewable Production, Energy Storage, Substation Automation ,Ship to Shore and an Innovation Center.
  30. 30. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 47 Agenda Drivers and challenges How future electric systems must perform Smart grids and applications Worldwide on-going projects Conclusions
  31. 31. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 48 Smart grids will contribute significantly to mitigating climate change Source: DOE and NETL Today <13% variable renewables penetration 5% demand response systems >1% consumer generation used on the grid 47% generation asset utilization 50% transmission asset utilization 30% distribution asset utilization With smart grids >30% variable renewables penetration 15% demand response systems 10% consumer generation used on the grid 90% generation asset utilization 80% transmission asset utilization 80% distribution asset utilization
  32. 32. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 49 We all have a part to play Everyone must reconsider their own individual energy consumption Politicians must set up incentives to save energy and commit to global CO2 reductions Energy markets and all stakeholders must actively participate in efforts to reduce consumption and optimize efficiency
  33. 33. © ABB Group November 10, 2010 | Slide 50

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