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Professor Tim Green
Identifying SmartGrid
Opportunities to Aid a Low-
Carbon Future in the UK
UK Energy Future
2020: 35% of energy demand to be supplied by renewable generation
2030: Decarbonisation of electricity sy...
Providing for the New Generation Patterns
Energy v. Capacity
• Wind farms provide low carbon energy and
displace fuel-burn...
Can we afford “predict and provide”?
55%
2010
Asset
Utilisation
BaU
Smart
Smart Grid= paradigm shift in
providing flexibil...
Transmission System Issues
Issue Present Solution Changes Foreseen
Wind farm
connection
Medium voltage cable Longer cable ...
Distribution System Issues
Issue Present Solution Changes Foreseen
Consumer
voltage
regulation
System planning
margins
On-...
Offshore Wind Farm Expansion in the UK
1.25 GW capacity installed
3.2 GW being added in 2010/11
New offshore wind farm zon...
Smarter Transmission Infrastructure
Sizewell
Pembroke
Osbaldwick
Rowdown
Beddington
Chessington
West
Landulph
Abham
Exeter...
Use of Transmission Capacity
• Full thermal capacity is 6.8 GW
• Capacity at N-1 is 5.1 GW
• Capacity at N-2 is 3.4 GW
• S...
European Super Grid
‘Roadmap 2050’, published 2010, ECF
Expanded network across Europe
would have a variety of
advantages:...
Increased Electric Demand in a Low-Carbon Future
Traditional electrical demand may well (perhaps must) reduce
but ..
Two f...
Electric Vehicles in Commercial District
Significant opportunity to
optimise charging as EVs will
remain stationary for se...
Generation asset utilisation with
Smart demand management
117 GW
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
00:00
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00...
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0 1344 2688 4032 5376 6720 8064
Time (h)
But is a flat demand profile the best ans...
Responding to frequency excursions
49.2
Frequency (Hz)
10s
50. 0
10 mins
Frequency control
=
? +
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
Time (min)
Loadp.f.(W)
Load per fridge (p.f) Demand 60Gw 100% Refig...
Thoughts on Demand-Action Research
• Utilising demand-side action is key to cost-effective
integration of variable low-car...
Active Network Management
• Distributed generation
actively managed
• Tap-changers
optimised for local
conditions
• Post-f...
From Active to Smart Distribution
• “Active” distribution system discussion has been over integrating
distributed generati...
Conclusion
• We seem to be at the beginning of a fascinating
phase of power system evolution
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Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK

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Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK

  1. 1. Professor Tim Green Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low- Carbon Future in the UK
  2. 2. UK Energy Future 2020: 35% of energy demand to be supplied by renewable generation 2030: Decarbonisation of electricity system .... .... while incorporating heat and transport sectors into electricity system A major change to generation mix and demand growth. • Cessation of (non-abated) coal and gas and existing nuclear • 30% Wind; 30% New Nuclear; 30% New Carbon Capture Coal/Gas Demand growth and wind integration is technically feasible with a traditional network. The problem would be the cost of a “dumb” approach. So, what do we need to be “smart” about?
  3. 3. Providing for the New Generation Patterns Energy v. Capacity • Wind farms provide low carbon energy and displace fuel-burn from conventional coal and gas • Most coal and gas stations are not closed because their capacity is needed occasionally to cover peak demand which coincides with times of no wind • Utilisation of generation assets falls Transmission Constraints • Wind is in the north, demand in the south • Constraining-off wind (in north) and constraining- on coal (in south) is very expensive • But, how is new transmission capacity best provided
  4. 4. Can we afford “predict and provide”? 55% 2010 Asset Utilisation BaU Smart Smart Grid= paradigm shift in providing flexibility: from redundancy in assets to more intelligent operation through incorporation of demand side and advanced network technologies in support of real time grid management 2020 2030 35% 25%
  5. 5. Transmission System Issues Issue Present Solution Changes Foreseen Wind farm connection Medium voltage cable Longer cable distance and higher power Greater north-south flows Frequency Control Part-loaded gas and coal stations CO2 emitting stations retired Greater variability introduced by wind Operating Reserve Part-loaded and warmed thermal stations Retired thermal stations Greater variability introduced by wind Security of Generation 20% plant margin Stochastic availability of wind Low utilisation of thermal stations Security of Transmission Redundant lines (N-1 planning etc.) Difficulty building new lines Low value of interrupted wind
  6. 6. Distribution System Issues Issue Present Solution Changes Foreseen Consumer voltage regulation System planning margins On-load tap-change transformer Distributed/Micro generation cause voltage rise Demand growth through electric vehicles and heat pumps Line loading limit System planning margins (Design for low loss) Distributed generation cause back-feed Demand growth through electric vehicles and heat pumps Fault current limit System planning margins City-centre load growth (short distribution system, high interconnection, distributed generation)
  7. 7. Offshore Wind Farm Expansion in the UK 1.25 GW capacity installed 3.2 GW being added in 2010/11 New offshore wind farm zones recently announce total about 32 GW Some new wind farms are 200 km from shore EHV AC cable connection has a difficult/expensive reactive power problem Connection will have to be DC Voltage source DC required to run wind turbines
  8. 8. Smarter Transmission Infrastructure Sizewell Pembroke Osbaldwick Rowdown Beddington Chessington West Landulph Abham Exeter Axminster Chickerell Mannington Taunton Alverdiscott Hinkley Point Bridgwater Aberthaw Cowbridge Pyle Margam Swansea North Cardiff East Tremorfa Alpha Steel UskmouthUpper Boat Cilfynydd Imperial Park Rassau Whitson Seabank Iron Acton Walham Melksham Minety Didcot Culham Cowley Bramley Fleet Nursling Fawley Botley Wood Lovedean Bolney Ninfield Dungeness Sellindge Canterbury E de F Kemsley Grain Kingsnorth Rayleigh Main Littlebrook Tilbury Warley Barking W.HamCity Rd Brimsdown Waltham Ealing Mill Hill Willesden Watford St Johns Wimbledon New Hurst Elstree Rye House N.Hyde Sundon Laleham Iver Amersham Main Wymondley Pelham Braintree Burwell Main Bramford Eaton Socon Grendon East Claydon Enderby Walpole Norwich Main Coventry Berkswell Rugeley Cellarhead Ironbridge Bushbury Penn Willenhall Ocker Hill Kitwell Oldbury Bustleholm Nechells Hams Hall Bishops Wood Feckenham Legacy Trawsfynydd Ffestiniog Dinorwig Pentir Wylfa Deeside Capenhurst Frodsham Fiddlers Rainhill Kirkby Lister Drive Birkenhead Washway Farm Penwortham Carrington South Manchester Daines Macclesfield Bredbury Stalybridge Rochdale WhitegateKearsley Elland Stocksbridge West Melton Aldwarke Thurcroft BrinsworthJordanthorpe Chesterfield Sheffield City Neepsend Pitsmoor Templeborough Thorpe Marsh Keadby West Burton Cottam High Marnham Staythorpe Stanah Heysham Padiham Hutton Bradford West Kirkstall Skelton Poppleton Thornton Quernmore Monk Eggborough Ferrybridge Killingholme South Humber Bank Grimsby West Drax Lackenby Greystones Grangetown Saltholme Norton Spennymoor Tod Point Hartlepool Hart Moor Hawthorne Pit Offerton West Boldon South Shields Tynemouth Stella West Harker Eccles Blyth Indian Queens Coryton Ratcliffe Willington Drakelow Shrewsbury Cross Weybridge Cross Wood North Fryston Grange Ferry Winco Bank Norton Lees Creyke Beck Saltend North Saltend South Hackney Baglan Bay Leighton Buzzard Patford Bridge Northfleet East Singlewell Fourstones Humber Refinery Spalding North West Thurrock ISSUE B 12-02-09 41/177619 C Collins Bartholomew Ltd 1999 Dingwall Dounreay Newarthill Cumbernauld Kincardine Wishaw Strathaven Kilmarnock South Ayr Coylton Inveraray HelensburghDunoon Inverkip Devol Moor Hunterston Sloy Fort William Bonnybridge Neilston Ceannacroc Conon Fort Augustus Foyers Inverness Stornoway Elvanfoot Kaimes Glenrothes Westfield Grangemouth Longannet Linmill Bathgate Errochty Power Station Torness Cockenzie Keith Thurso Fasnakyle Beauly Deanie Lairg Shin Nairn Kintore Blackhillock Elgin Keith Peterhead Persley Fraserburgh Invergarry Quoich Culligran Aigas Kilmorack Grudie Bridge Mossford Orrin Luichart Alness Brora Cassley Dunbeath Mybster St. Fergus Strichen Macduff Boat of Garten Redmoss Willowdale Clayhills Dyce Craigiebuckler Woodhill Tarland Dalmally Killin Errochty Tealing Glenagnes Dudhope Milton of Craigie Dudhope Lyndhurst Charleston Burghmuir Arbroath Fiddes Bridge of Dun Lunanhead St. Fillans Finlarig Lochay Cashlie Rannoch Tummel Bridge Clunie Taynuilt Nant Cruachan Port Ann Carradale Auchencrosh Lambhill Clydes Mill Glenluce Newton Stewart Maybole Dumfries Ecclefechan Berwick Hawick Galashiels Dunbar Meadowhead Saltcoats Hunterston Farm SP TRANSMISSION LTD. Kilwinning Currie Cupar Leven Redhouse Glenniston SCOTTISH HYDRO-ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION Telford Rd. Gorgie Kilmarnock Town Busby Erskine Strathleven Mossmorran Dunfermline Broxburn Livingston Whitehouse Shrubhill Portobello Devonside StirlingWhistlefield Spango Valley Ardmore Broadford Dunvegan NGC Easterhouse East Kilbride South Gretna Chapelcross THE SHETLAND ISLANDS Tongland Glen Morrison Clachan 400kV Substations 275kV Substations 400kV CIRCUITS 275kV CIRCUITS Major Generating Sites Including Pumped Storage Connected at 400kV Connected at 275kV Hydro Generation TRANSMISSION SYSTEM REINFORCEMENTS Langage BlacklawWhitelee Iverkeithing Marchwood Bicker Fenn Coalburn REINFORCED NETWORK Under Construction or ready to start Construction subject to consents Very strong need case Series Capacitors RedbridgeTottenham Strong need case Future requirement, but no strong need case to commence at present • Build more lines to N-1 security standard • Improve damping and raise stability limit closer to thermal limit • Build offshore HVDC
  9. 9. Use of Transmission Capacity • Full thermal capacity is 6.8 GW • Capacity at N-1 is 5.1 GW • Capacity at N-2 is 3.4 GW • Stability Limit is 2.2 GW England Scotland Four 1.7 GW lines Wind Farm 1 GW Reserve Gen 1 GW Wind Farm 1 GW Load 40 GW Managed Load 1GW Export 4 GW Import 4 GW Transmission Capacity? Smart releases capacity and avoids reinforcement
  10. 10. European Super Grid ‘Roadmap 2050’, published 2010, ECF Expanded network across Europe would have a variety of advantages: • Increased diversity of wind energy resource leading to regional balancing of energy generation • Increased load diversity (lower peak to average ratio) • Greater energy trading opportunities • Increased security of supply • Reduced dependency on fuel imports • But this is a DC network on an unprecedented scale and complexity Iberia France UK & Ireland Nordic Benelux & Germany Italy & Malta South East Europe Central Europe Poland & Baltic 4GW 21GW 41GW 5GW 10GW 4GW 19GW 10GW 10GW 3GW 2GW 3GW 4GW
  11. 11. Increased Electric Demand in a Low-Carbon Future Traditional electrical demand may well (perhaps must) reduce but .. Two further demand sectors need to be met: heating and vehicles How does this demand affect • Peak demand : average demand ratio • Generation asset utilisation • Loading on final LV distribution
  12. 12. Electric Vehicles in Commercial District Significant opportunity to optimise charging as EVs will remain stationary for several hours (e.g. 8h) Significant correlation in arrivals to work i.e. significant peak load imposed by EV charging BaU SMART
  13. 13. Generation asset utilisation with Smart demand management 117 GW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Demand(GW) Time Non-optimised EV and HP operation EV charging HP demand Originaldemand 78 GW 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 Demand(GW) Time Optimised EV and HP operation Value of demand response: almost 40GW less installed generation capacity required GW 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 tion EV charging HP demand Original demand
  14. 14. 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 1344 2688 4032 5376 6720 8064 Time (h) But is a flat demand profile the best answer? Annual Wind Power Variation Demand will need to respond to generation patterns through price or other signals Demand will also have to respond to local network constraints This may need to be resolved regionally
  15. 15. Responding to frequency excursions 49.2 Frequency (Hz) 10s 50. 0 10 mins Frequency control = ? +
  16. 16. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Time (min) Loadp.f.(W) Load per fridge (p.f) Demand 60Gw 100% Refigerators, step 1.320GW ramp 0 DDC No DDC ...but the beer is getting warm! fridges are supporting the system Anything to worry about?
  17. 17. Thoughts on Demand-Action Research • Utilising demand-side action is key to cost-effective integration of variable low-carbon generation and vehicle & heating demands • Smart-Metering must be seen in this context • Operational tools need to be developed • Decentralised control structures and supporting communications needs to be developed • Distribution management takes on new tasks • Public need to believe this is necessary and in their interest; public acceptance is likely to be the key issue.
  18. 18. Active Network Management • Distributed generation actively managed • Tap-changers optimised for local conditions • Post-fault restoration reacts in real-time • Energy storage used to mange congestion • Control is devolved to substation regions • Regional controllers report to control centre • Some “peer-to-peer” functions might be needed
  19. 19. From Active to Smart Distribution • “Active” distribution system discussion has been over integrating distributed generation • “Smart” distribution system discussion is around integrating active consumers. • “Smart” distribution may introduce a more complex hierarchy in system control • System balancing (of demand and supply) becomes local so that very large number of consumers can be reached and so that local congestion can be managed
  20. 20. Conclusion • We seem to be at the beginning of a fascinating phase of power system evolution

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