Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK <br />Professor Tim Green<br />
UK Energy Future<br />2020: 35% of energy demand to be supplied by renewable generation<br />2030: Decarbonisation of elec...
Providing for the New Generation Patterns<br />Energy v. Capacity<br />Wind farms provide low carbon energy and displace f...
Can we afford “predict and provide”? <br />Asset<br />Utilisation<br />Smart Grid= paradigm shift in providing flexibility...
Transmission System Issues<br />
Distribution System Issues<br />
Offshore Wind Farm Expansion in the UK<br />1.25 GW capacity installed<br />3.2 GW being added in 2010/11<br />New offshor...
Smarter Transmission Infrastructure<br /><ul><li>Build more lines to N-1 security standard
Improve damping and raise stability limit closer to thermal limit
Build offshore HVDC</li></li></ul><li>Use of Transmission Capacity<br />Wind Farm  <br />1 GW<br />Wind Farm  <br />1 GW<b...
Capacity at N-1 is 5.1 GW
Capacity at N-2 is 3.4 GW
Stability Limit is 2.2 GW</li></ul>Four <br />1.7 GW<br />lines <br />England<br />Smart releases capacity and avoids rein...
European Super Grid<br />‘Roadmap 2050’, published 2010, ECF<br />Expanded network across Europe would have a variety of a...
Increased load diversity (lower peak to average ratio)
Greater energy trading opportunities
Increased security of supply
Reduced dependency on fuel imports
But this is a DC network on an unprecedented scale and complexity</li></ul>Nordic<br />5GW<br />3GW<br />Benelux & Germany...
Increased Electric Demand in a Low-Carbon Future <br />Traditional electrical demand may well (perhaps must) reduce but .....
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Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK

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Intervención de Tim Green, Imperial College, en el marco de la jornada técnica Smartgrids - The making of en colaboración con IMDEA.
3 de noviembre de 2010
http://www.eoi.es/portal/guest/eventos?EOI_id_evento=1296

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  • There are 10 offshore wind farms in operation in the UK - Total of 972MW installed capacity. Further 3.5GW being implemented in 2010/11. The majority of these wind farms are under 10 km to the nearest coast and in water depths of up to 20m.Successful bids for nine new offshore wind farm zone licences within UK waters have been announced early this year. Turbines in the nine zones could generate up to 32 gigawatts of power. The Dogger Bank zone is located off the east coast of Yorkshire between 125 and 195 kilometres offshore. It extends over approximately 8,660 km2. The water depth ranges from 18-63 metres.The Moray Firth Zone - Won by EDP Renovaveis and SeaEnergy Renewables. Potential yield: 1.3 gigawatts The Firth of Forth Zone - Won by SSE Renewables and Fluor. Potential yield: 3.5 gigawatts The Dogger Bank Zone - Won by SSE Renewables, RWE Npower Renewables, Statoil and Statkraft. Potential yield: 9 gigawatts The Hornsea Zone - Won by Mainstream Renewable Power and Siemens Project Ventures, and involving Hochtief Construction. Potential yield: 4 gigawatts The Norfolk Bank Zone - Won by Scottish Power Renewables and Vattenfall Vindkraft. Potential yield: 7.2 gigawatts The Hastings Zone - Won by E.On Climate and Renewables UK. Potential yield: 0.6 gigawatts The Isle of Wight Zone - Won by Eneco New Energy. Potential yield: 0.9 gigawatts The Bristol Channel Zone - Won by RWE Npower Renewables. Potential yield: 1.5 gigawatts The Irish Sea Zone - Won by Centrica Renewable Energy and involving RES Group. Potential yield: 4.2 gigawatts To date rule of thumb of €500m capex on offshore transmission for every 1000MW of offshore wind capacity (15-20% total capex)
  • The EWEA published ‘Oceans of Opportunity’ in September 2009. This sets out the EWEA’s target of 40GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020 and 150GW by 2030.The key objectives of this report are to develop an offshore grid, which builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 others being considered in the North and Baltic Seas. Some of the main issues to overcome include policy, supply chain and the development of HVDC VSC for multi-terminal operation.Link to document:http://ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_documents/documents/publications/reports/Offshore_Report_2009.pdf
  • 5000 cars/km2Another important point here is that local peaks may occur in the morning, so that a standard, location non-specific, ToU tariff that attempts to minimise evening peak will not be sufficient
  • Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK

    1. 1. Identifying SmartGrid Opportunities to Aid a Low-Carbon Future in the UK <br />Professor Tim Green<br />
    2. 2. UK Energy Future<br />2020: 35% of energy demand to be supplied by renewable generation<br />2030: Decarbonisation of electricity system .... <br />.... while incorporating heat and transport sectors into electricity system<br />A major change to generation mix and demand growth. <br />Cessation of (non-abated) coal and gas and existing nuclear<br />30% Wind; 30% New Nuclear; 30% New Carbon Capture Coal/Gas<br />Demand growth and wind integration is technically feasible with a traditional network. <br />The problem would be the cost of a “dumb” approach.<br />So, what do we need to be “smart” about?<br />
    3. 3. Providing for the New Generation Patterns<br />Energy v. Capacity<br />Wind farms provide low carbon energy and displace fuel-burn from conventional coal and gas<br />Most coal and gas stations are not closed because their capacity is needed occasionally to cover peak demand which coincides with times of no wind<br />Utilisation of generation assets falls<br />Transmission Constraints<br />Wind is in the north, demand in the south<br />Constraining-off wind (in north) and constraining-on coal (in south) is very expensive<br />But, how is new transmission capacity best provided<br />
    4. 4. Can we afford “predict and provide”? <br />Asset<br />Utilisation<br />Smart Grid= paradigm shift in providing flexibility: from redundancy in assets to more intelligent operation through incorporation of demand side and advanced network technologies in support of real time grid management <br />55%<br />Smart<br />35%<br />BaU<br />25%<br />2030<br />2020<br />2010<br />
    5. 5. Transmission System Issues<br />
    6. 6. Distribution System Issues<br />
    7. 7. Offshore Wind Farm Expansion in the UK<br />1.25 GW capacity installed<br />3.2 GW being added in 2010/11<br />New offshore wind farm zones recently announce total about 32 GW<br />Some new wind farms are 200 km from shore<br />EHV AC cable connection has a difficult/expensive reactive power problem<br />Connection will have to be DC<br />Voltage source DC required to run wind turbines<br />
    8. 8. Smarter Transmission Infrastructure<br /><ul><li>Build more lines to N-1 security standard
    9. 9. Improve damping and raise stability limit closer to thermal limit
    10. 10. Build offshore HVDC</li></li></ul><li>Use of Transmission Capacity<br />Wind Farm <br />1 GW<br />Wind Farm <br />1 GW<br />Scotland<br />Export 4 GW<br />Transmission Capacity?<br /><ul><li>Full thermal capacity is 6.8 GW
    11. 11. Capacity at N-1 is 5.1 GW
    12. 12. Capacity at N-2 is 3.4 GW
    13. 13. Stability Limit is 2.2 GW</li></ul>Four <br />1.7 GW<br />lines <br />England<br />Smart releases capacity and avoids reinforcement <br />Import 4 GW<br />Managed Load 1GW<br />Load<br />40 GW<br />Reserve Gen 1 GW<br />
    14. 14. European Super Grid<br />‘Roadmap 2050’, published 2010, ECF<br />Expanded network across Europe would have a variety of advantages:<br /><ul><li>Increased diversity of wind energy resource leading to regional balancing of energy generation
    15. 15. Increased load diversity (lower peak to average ratio)
    16. 16. Greater energy trading opportunities
    17. 17. Increased security of supply
    18. 18. Reduced dependency on fuel imports
    19. 19. But this is a DC network on an unprecedented scale and complexity</li></ul>Nordic<br />5GW<br />3GW<br />Benelux & Germany<br />Poland & Baltic<br />10GW<br />UK & Ireland<br />4GW<br />2GW<br />4GW<br />19GW<br />21GW<br />France<br />Central Europe<br />10GW<br />4GW<br />South East Europe<br />41GW<br />3GW<br />10GW<br />Italy & Malta<br />Iberia<br />
    20. 20. Increased Electric Demand in a Low-Carbon Future <br />Traditional electrical demand may well (perhaps must) reduce but ..<br />Two further demand sectors need to be met: heating and vehicles<br />How does this demand affect<br />Peak demand : average demand ratio<br />Generation asset utilisation<br />Loading on final LV distribution<br />
    21. 21. Electric Vehicles in Commercial District<br />BaU<br />SMART<br />Significant correlation in arrivals to work i.e. significant peak load imposed by EV charging<br />Significant opportunity to optimise charging as EVs will remain stationary for several hours (e.g. 8h)<br />
    22. 22. Generation asset utilisation with<br /> Smart demand management<br />Value of demand response: almost 40GW less installed generation capacity required<br />
    23. 23. But is a flat demand profile the best answer?<br />Annual Wind Power Variation<br />Demand will need to respond to generation patterns through price or other signals<br />Demand will also have to respond to local network constraints<br />This may need to be resolved regionally<br />
    24. 24. Responding to frequency excursions<br /> Frequency (Hz)<br />?<br />+<br />=<br />10s<br />10 mins<br />50. 0<br />Frequency control<br />49.2<br />
    25. 25. Anything to worry about?<br />...but the beer is getting warm!<br />fridges are supporting the system<br />
    26. 26. Thoughts on Demand-Action Research<br /><ul><li>Utilising demand-side action is key to cost-effective integration of variable low-carbon generation and vehicle & heating demands
    27. 27. Smart-Metering must be seen in this context
    28. 28. Operational tools need to be developed
    29. 29. Decentralised control structures and supporting communications needs to be developed
    30. 30. Distribution management takes on new tasks
    31. 31. Public need to believe this is necessary and in their interest; public acceptance is likely to be the key issue.</li></li></ul><li>Active Network Management<br /><ul><li>Distributed generation actively managed
    32. 32. Tap-changers optimised for local conditions
    33. 33. Post-fault restoration reacts in real-time
    34. 34. Energy storage used to mange congestion
    35. 35. Control is devolved to substation regions
    36. 36. Regional controllers report to control centre
    37. 37. Some “peer-to-peer” functions might be needed</li></li></ul><li>From Active to Smart Distribution<br /><ul><li>“Active” distribution system discussion has been over integrating distributed generation
    38. 38. “Smart” distribution system discussion is around integrating active consumers.
    39. 39. “Smart” distribution may introduce a more complex hierarchy in system control
    40. 40. System balancing (of demand and supply) becomes local so that very large number of consumers can be reached and so that local congestion can be managed</li></li></ul><li>Transmission System Issues<br />
    41. 41. Distribution System Issues<br />
    42. 42. Conclusion<br /><ul><li>We seem to be at the beginning of a fascinating phase of power system evolution</li>

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