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abb micro-grids and-renewable_energy_integration

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diesel and renewables

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abb micro-grids and-renewable_energy_integration

  1. 1. Micro-Grids and renewable energy integration Budi Supomo – ID ABB, 2014
  2. 2. Global energy challenges Social, economic and environmental Month DD, Year | Slide 2 © ABB Group Access to electricity and water • At an economically viable cost • For an increasing global population Climate change and protection • CO2 reduction goals • Sustainable power generation • Energy efficiency Increased need for significant infrastructure investments to overcome challenges related to • Centralized solutions • Decentralized solutions
  3. 3. Micro-Grids Decentralized, self-sufficient power networks Month DD, Year | Slide 3 © ABB Group Grids Microgrid Macrogrid Central Generation Isolated Interconnected Distributed Generation Fossil Fuel Based Fossil + Renewable Grid + Fossil Grid + Renewable Fossil Renewable Strong Grid Weak Grid Low Penetration High Penetration Microgrid Isolated Interconnected Fossil Fuel Based Fossil + Renewable Low Penetration Microgrids are generally located in regions rich in renewable energy resources
  4. 4. Grid stabilization for high penetration systems Integration Strategies Renewable Integration Low Penetration <10-15% OK Medium Penetration 10/15% - 50% Power management required Limiting Power of Renewables Load Shedding Combining RE and Diesel Control Provision of Spinning Reserve High Penetration > 50% Sophisticated Control System & Stability required Same as Medium Penetration Grid Stabilisation Low Load Diesels Demand Side Management
  5. 5. Grids powered by fossil-fuel and renewable energy Diesel Micro-Grids Diesel microgrids have the greatest energy cost savings potential Diesel generation Wind power Solar power Residential loads Industrial loads Month DD, Year | Slide 5 © ABB Group
  6. 6. Off Grid Micro-Grid Typical System Configuration Month DD, Year | Slide 6 © ABB Group
  7. 7. Integration Solution Micro-Grid Networked Power Control & Optimization System Month DD, Year | Slide 7 © ABB Group
  8. 8. Integration Solution Micro-Grid ABB Solution : RMC 600 System Month DD, Year | Slide 8 © ABB Group
  9. 9. Integration Solution Micro-Grid Grid Stabilizing using Flywheel or Battery Month DD, Year | Slide 9 © ABB Group
  10. 10. Month DD, Year | Slide 10 © ABB Group
  11. 11. Microgrid design Model verification – using real data Simulation tool Recorded data from real system Output of simulation (Voltage, frequency, etc.) Input Power System Model Output HSS LS Netz Leitung Gen1 LS Gen1 G ~ Gen 1 Ltg LS G ~ Gen 2 3 ~ 415V / 50 Hz P-Q Messung Gen 1 PLL Grid P-Q Messung Netz LS G ~ Gen 3 Ltg LS G ~ Gen 4 Ltg LS G ~ Gen 5 Ltg LS G ~ Gen 6 Ltg LS G ~ Gen 7 Ltg f-U measurement Leitung Ps1 LS Ps1 Ps 1 P-Q Messung Ps1 Diesel generator PowerStore Isolated gird Kompensation WKA 1 LtgLS G ~ WKA 3 WKA 2 LS P-Q Messung WKA 1 G ~ G ~ Ltg Leitung WKA1 WKA 1 LS WKA1 Wind turbine
  12. 12. 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Average Oil Increase in USD$/Barrel is $12.50/year $133.88 June ‘13 $94.13 $13,000/kW $5,000/kW $32/Barrel $7,000/kW $3,500/kW  Diesel fuel cost is volatile and rising over time  Renewable energy cost is far less volatile and reducing over time  Energy source is free  Renewable energy is economically competitive today  Leveled Cost of Electricity (LCOE) lower than diesel fuel generation Integrating renewable energy into Micro-Grids Secure power generation and fuel cost savings Month DD, Year | Slide 12 © ABB Group Sources: 1) US Energy Information Administration – Independent Statistics and Analysis http://www.cleantechinvestor.com/portal/fuel-cells/6422-mining-and-energy.html 2) Alliance for Rural electrification (ARE). Projections made from a case study based in Ecuador with real natural conditions. http://www.ruralelec.org/fileadmin/DATA/Documents/06_Publications/Position_papers/ARE_TECHNOLOGICAL_PUBLICATION.pdf - 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 1,000,000 1,200,000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Totalcost($US) Year Diesel Generator - 1.5$/L Diesel Generator - 1$/L Diesel Generator - 0.7$/L Hybrid PV-Wind LCOE: 0.81 $/kWh LCOE: 0.64 $/kWh LCOE: 0.54 $/kWh LCOE: 0.42 $/kWh
  13. 13.  Inherent volatility of renewable energy can compromise grid stability  The renewable energy integration solution must address requirements traditionally fulfilled by diesel generation (base load)  Frequency and voltage control  Sufficient spinning reserve  Sufficient active and reactive power supply  Peak shaving and load levelling  Load sharing between generators  Fault current provision  Renewable energy generation capacity should be sized to maximize ROI and fuel savings Renewable energy integration challenges Managing power output fluctuations Month DD, Year | Slide 13 © ABB Group ROI: Return on investment
  14. 14. Renewable energy integration High penetration leads to short payback and higher ROI Month DD, Year | Slide 14 © ABB Group Renewable integration Solarfarm Windfarm Fossil Fuel Power Station Load Low renewable energy contribution 25% Peak Power 10% Annual Avg Energy/ fuel savings  Control system: none/simple  Grid frequency: within operational limits Solarfarm Windfarm Fossil Fuel Power Station Renewable integration Load Grid Stabilization Peak Power 100% High renewable energy contribution 60% Annual Avg Energy/ fuel savings  Control system: sophisticated  Grid frequency: stable
  15. 15.  Renewable energy volatility compromises grid stability  Integration without intelligent plant control system limits economic benefits  Poor integration can damage fossil fuel generators  Lack of automatic adjustment of spinning reserve results in higher fuel consumption  Renewable generation may have to be curtailed to guarantee grid stability  Use of intelligent control and grid stabilization enables high penetration systems resulting in shortest payback and highest ROI  Up to 100% renewable energy peak penetration and 60% annual energy contribution is typical Renewable energy integration challenges Summary Month DD, Year | Slide 15 © ABB Group
  16. 16. ABB solution
  17. 17. RE + enables high penetration, up to 100%, into diesel microgrids  Expertise in engineering and consulting  25+ years of microgrid experience and system design optimization  Intelligent control and management of all interconnections  Remote Microgrid Controller (RMC 600)  Grid stabilization  PowerStore™ Additional expertise and capabilities  Renewable energy generation  Solar PV plant/farms turnkey solutions  Wind farm integration ABB RE + and renewable energy generation Comprehensive solution from a single source Month DD, Year | Slide 17 © ABB Group RE+: Renewable Energy + PV: Photovoltaic PowerStore Loads Diesel generator s Renewable energy generation RMC system RE+ ABB
  18. 18. 1.Grid Stabilizing Systems  Keep the voltage (and frequency) stable even with a high penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources and with sudden load variations 2.Energy Storage Systems  To locally increase the match of generation and load, i.e.to consume power predominantly near to where it is generated 3.Distributed Power Flow Control Systems  To maximize use of renewable while maintaining the grid stable and providing high quality power and maximizing asset life 4.On/Off-grid Transition Systems Technologies for Micro-Grids and Distributed Generation Key Technological Components Month DD, Year | Slide 18 © ABB Group
  19. 19.  Maximize renewable energy penetration and fuel savings  Optimum loading and spinning reserve in fossil fuel generators  Distributed control logic enhances reliability and scalability for future expansions ABB RE+: Renewable microgrid controller, RMC 600 Efficient and reliable power management Month DD, Year | Slide 19 © ABB Group Solarfarm Windfarm Fossil Fuel Power Station Communication network Load Grid Stabilization Control center Renewable Microgrid Controller (RMC600)
  20. 20. ABB RE+: PowerStore™ flywheel system Grid stabilization Month DD, Year | Slide 20 © ABB Group MG 440Vac 60-120Hz 440Vac 50/60Hz Reactive Power Real Power Real Power Fixed Frequency Variable Frequency 2.9T 1,800 - 3,600 RPM Virtual Generator Flywheel Inverter  Stabilizes frequency and voltage fluctuations  Heavy-duty application: dynamic power injection and absorption in miliseconds  Maximizes fuel savings through highest possible renewable penetration  Proven track record  3,000 kW installed and 2,100 kW under commissioning Flywheel Converters
  21. 21. ABB turnkey solar PV solutions Month DD, Year | Slide 21 © ABB Group PV Modules Trackers DC Cabling Protectors Inverters Transfor- mation Center* Integration into microgrid EPC: Engineering, procurement and construction BoS: Balance of system EBoP: Electrical balance of plant *Voltage level is stepped up to grid level. Monocryistalline Thin film Polycrystalline Fix 1 Axis 2 Axis Glasshouses Roof PowerStore Plug & play Inverters Concrete building Switching Transformers MV and LV Switchgear Concrete building Plug & play Perimetral vigilance DC Cabinet Protection and string monitoring String composition DC Cables DC Cabinet tracker control Renewable Microgrid Controller PV plant supervisory and control system EBoPBOSEPC Diesel generators
  22. 22. ABB wind integration solutions Month DD, Year | Slide 22 © ABB Group Wind Farm Wind Turbines Cabling Protection Inverters Transfor- mation Center* Integration into microgrid EPC: Engineering, procurement and construction EBoP: Electrical balance of plant *Voltage level is stepped up to grid level. Plug & play Inverters Concrete building Switching Transformers MV and LV Switchgear Concrete building Plug & play PowerStore Renewable Microgrid Controller Wind Farm plant supervisory and control system ABB EBoP and automation/controlWind Turbine OEM EPC Developers Diesel generators
  23. 23. ABB RE+ and battery energy storage An alternative solution when applicable Load Charge Discharge t [hrs] Supply power Absorb power Absorb power EnergystoredinESS ABB’s comprehensive battery energy storage solutions  Based on proven power converter technology  Turnkey and modular solutions suitable for all power levels (~25kW to 70 MW)  Solutions designed and developed independently of battery technology Month DD, Year | Slide 23 © ABB Group Applications: peak demand shaving or load shifting  Longer stored energy discharge timescale; minutes to hours  Enable fossil fuel generators to run at stable outputs  Maximize renewable energy load factor
  24. 24.  ABB RE+ solution enables  Secure power generation and fuel cost savings  Maximum benefits of high ROI and shortest payback time through high renewable energy penetration and grid stabilization  Reliable, uninterrupted and high quality power supply to all loads  ABB renewable energy generation capabilities encompass  Turnkey solar PV farms  Wind farm integration ABB RE + and renewable energy generation Summary Month DD, Year | Slide 24 © ABB Group
  25. 25. References
  26. 26. High penetration reference system Marble Bar, solar/diesel system, Australia Customer  Horizon Power  Office of Energy, Government of Western Australia Key objectives  Minimize diesel consumption  Reliable and stable power supply ABB solution  Implement a solar microgrid with PowerStore grid- stabilizing technology and microgrid automation The resulting system has  Diesel (4 x 320kW)  PV (1 x 300kW)  PowerStore grid stabilizing system (1 x 500kW) Government of Western Australia Office of Energy © ABB Group October 2, 2014 | Slide 26 182,000 liters of fuel saved annually 1,100 tonnes CO2 avoided annually 60% of energy supplied from PV plant
  27. 27. Month DD, Year | Slide 27 © ABB Group
  28. 28. High penetration reference system Ross Island, wind/diesel system, Antarctica Customer  New Zealand’s Scott Air Base (50 Hz system) America’s McMurdo Station (60 Hz system) Key objectives  Reduce diesel cost  Reduce environmental risk of transporting diesel  Reduce CO2 emissions  Ensure a reliable, high quality supply ABB solution  Implement a wind diesel microgrid with PowerStore grid-stabilization and microgrid automation The resulting system has:  9 x diesel generators  Wind turbines (3 x 330kW)  PowerStore grid stabilizing (1 x 500kW)  Frequency converter to integrate both bases  Renewable Microgrid control system © ABB Group October 2, 2014 | Slide 28 463,000 liters of diesel fuel saved annually 2,800 tonnes CO2 avoided annually Up to 70% wind energy penetration
  29. 29. Business cases
  30. 30. High Penetration Business cases Low Penetration High Penetration Solar PV Array 200kW 500kW RE+ - 500kW PowerStore + RMC Capex for PV $5/W $3.8/W PV Capex 1 mio $ 1.9 mio $ System Capex 1 mio $ 2.85 mio $ Renewable Energy Generated 370 MWh p.a. 925 MWh p.a. Excess Energy 37 MWh p.a. 147 MWh p.a. Annual Renewable Energy Contribution 14% 32% Fuel Savings 75,000 liter p.a. 182,000 liter p.a. Marble Bar – Solar/Diesel © ABB Group October 2, 2014 | Slide 30
  31. 31. High Penetration Business cases Medium Penetration High Penetration Wind Farm 5 x850 kW 7 x 850kW RE+ RMC RMC+ 2 x 1MW PowerStore Capex for Wind Farm $6,692,110 $9,368,954 System Capex $6,992,110 $12,068,954 Renewable Energy Generated 15.11 GWh p.a. 21.15 GWh p.a. Excess Energy 657 MWh p.a. 1,895 MWh p.a. Annual Renewable Energy Contribution 24% 32% Fuel Savings 3,534,000 liter p.a. 4,750,000 liter p.a. Faial Island – Wind/Diesel © ABB Group October 2, 2014 | Slide 31
  32. 32. Summary  Allow for sufficient planning time & budget to ensure the integration of renewables  Gives you the highest ROI  Does not negatively affect your power system  Being able to control all plant in a system including all renewable generators to  Control generation to meet demand  Control excess energy and prevent over production and reverse power scenarios  Optimize the total system efficiency by maximizing the renewables  Maintaining grid stability when running high penetration renewable systems by  Compensating the frequency and voltage fluctuations Micro-Grid challenges
  33. 33. Grid Stabilization for High Penetration Systems Storage vs. Stabilization  Storage  Long term application  High energy content  Typical low duty cycle  Stabilization  Fast charge/discharge  Low energy content  High duty cycle © ABB Group October 2, 2014 | Slide 34
  34. 34.  The flywheel is a robust, mechanical device using simple technology such as a synchronous motor/generator  It is failsafe, utilizing it‘s own energy to supply the lifting magnets Flywheel Performance Data  Net. energy content 18 MWs  Max Input/output power 1650 kW  Speed range 1800 to 3600 rpm  Total weight 6000 kg  Rotor weight 2900 kg  Idling losses 10 kW  Greasing frequency 5 years  Bearing service life 8 years ABB RE+ Grid Stabilizing PowerStoreTM Flywheel System October 2, 2014 | Slide 35 © ABB Group 18 MWs flywheelMagnetic Support Top Bearing Top Guard Bearing Rotating Rectifier Excitation Generator Main Machine Flywheel Bottom Bearing Bottom Guard Bearing
  35. 35. Features  Scalable & Modular  High duty cycle  Grid Stabilising  Frequency Control  Voltage Control  Grid forming in 100% RE scenario  Unbalance load supply  Spinning reserve  Active & reactive power supply  Fault ride through ABB RE+ Solution Grid Stabilizing PowerStore Flywheel System October 2, 2014 | Slide 36 © ABB Group
  36. 36. MV - HV range ~10MW – 70MW rating LV range ~25kW – 300kW rating LV - MV range ~200kW – 30MW rating Optimized convertersTypical grid connection levels ESI PCS 100 DynaPeaQ PCS 8000 Batteries,flywheels, super-capacitors MV - HV range ≥30MW rating Pumpedhydro Power electronic conversion ABB energy storage converter portfolio
  37. 37. ESS applications fall into 2 categories Segmentation between long and short discharge time ESS = Energy Storage System 100 kW 1 MW 10 MW 100 MW 1000 MW 10 1000 100 10 h 1 h 10 min Power requirement [MW] 30 300 End-user peak shaving Frequency regulation Load leveling (postponement of grid upgrade) Renewables integration Energy Power Load leveling (generation utilization) Dischargetime[min]
  38. 38. Energy Power 100 kW 1 MW 10 MW 100 MW 1000 MW 10 1000 100 10 h 1 h 10 min Dischargetime[min] Power requirement [MW] 30 300 Pumped-Hydro Lithium ion battery Flow battery / emerging technologies Sodium Sulfur battery Lead acid battery Super-capacitor / flywheel Right technology for right application Segmentation on ‘power’ and ‘energy’ technologies
  39. 39. How ABB selects the right battery manufacturer Evaluate both technical and commercial maturity Technical maturity Commercial maturity Specific to batteries  Right performance  Right total cost  Support with in-house testing  … as ‘due diligence’  … to stay at the cutting edge of battery technology All ABB suppliers  Supplier Code of Conduct  Process Audit  Supplier Qualification  Supplier Risk Management Reputable manufacturer + unproven battery Reputable manufacturer + proven battery New manufacturer + unproven battery New manufacturer + proven battery  An ABB battery module testing facility

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