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www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Green Chemistry:
Biofuels as an alternative
To
Traditonal sources of energy
James Clark
Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence
University of York, UK
www.greenchemistry.net
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Chemicals including fuels
traditionally rely on
non-renewable resources
including fossil feedstocks
and especially petroleum
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Petroleum
feedstock
Fuels
Solvent
Bulk chemicals
Plastics
Fibres
Fine chemicals
Oils
Petroleum Refinery
20% of the oil imported to the EU goes into chemical manufacturing
and over 90% of all organic chemicals are made from oil
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Elemental Sustainability
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
We need Green Chemistry
to make manufacturing more
efficient
and based more on renewable
resources
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
What is Green Chemistry?
SD
ECONOMIC
SOCIAL
ENVIRONMENTAL
Energy
waste
Non-renewables
risk
cost REDUCE water
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
E C
W
Pre-
manufacturing Manufacturing
Product
delivery
Product
use
End of Life
E C
W
E
W
E C
W W
E
RefurbishRemanufactureRecycle
From ‘cradle’ to ‘grave’
We must apply green chemistry across the whole life-cycle
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Moving towards more
sustainable feedstocks
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Fuels
Solvent
Bulk chemicals
Plastics
Fibres
Fine chemicals
Oils
Bio-refinery-all the carbon we need
Biomass=
eco-sound
bioresources
straws,
food waste,
forestry waste,
grasses….all
sources of
renewable
carbon
And use whats close to home!
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Renewable Resources & Biorefineries
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Extractables
(secondary metabolites
from straw) Materials
(primary metabolites –
starch, cellulose)
Bulk Chemicals
((Bio)chemical processing of
bulk materials/residues)
CHEMICALPOTENTIAL
TECHNOLOGIES
ADDINGVALUE
Biomass
Benign Extraction Methods
Separation/Purification
Green Chemical Transformation
Expansion Methods
Green Chemical
Modification
Composites
Selective Fermentation
Controlled Pyrolysis
Extraction Technology
(Bio)platform molecules
Green Chemistry/technology
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Plant waxesPlant waxes
Sterols/ Steryl estersSterols/ Steryl esters
OH
O
O
EstersEsters
Resin acidsResin acids
OH
O
Fatty acidsFatty acids
GlyceridesGlycerides
O
O
O
O
O
O
COOH
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Renewable biopolymers
Chitosan 1011 tpa soluble in acid, bead, films
fibres, amine functionality
Starch 1011 tpa partial solubility poly
glucose. Complex structure
Cellulose 1012 tpa poly glucose very long
chain. Very stable fibrous
structure
Silica 1022 tonnes highly rigid 3-D structure.
Readily functionalised.
High surface area
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Chitin from Waste Seafood
Chitin
Disposal cost = £60-100/T
Seafood waste
Incineration
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
pyrolysis hydrolysis
chemical products
syngas bio-oil char sugars
fermentation
platform molecules
fuels
+ platform molecules
polysaccharides
direct use
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Feedstocks for biofuels
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Waste is tomorrows resource
We need to encourage the greater use of
chemically rich waste as a resource
…and utilise it closer to home!
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Adding value to Food WasteAdding value to Food Waste
FOOD
WASTE
-Anaerobic Digestion
-Fermentation
-Added value products
and applications
BIOFUEL MARKET
UK and Europe
Compostation
(Farm facility)
Food Processing
(300tonne/week)
Land spread
Food
Co-product
Oil
(20% yield)
Biofuel Production
Dryer
High Temperature
130o
C
£350-400/tonne
EXPECTED
CURRENTLY
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Production of BiodieselProduction of Biodiesel
O
O
R
R
O
R
O
O
O
OH
OH
OH
R
O
MeO
+
+
3MeO
H
(Cat=NaOMe)
T=60-70o
C
(R=C17)
3
127 mTonne of FAME by 2016
Glycerol
Biodiesel
Biodiesel Glycerol - a ready made opportunity
Solvay/Dow
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
US biodiesel
consumption
Milliongallons
OH
OH
OH
Cl
O
Glycerol
co-
product
New Solvay Process
Epichlorohydrin
Surfaces, plastic
etc
= old
route to
glycerol
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Anaerobic digestion and FermentationAnaerobic digestion and Fermentation
 Promising results in fermentation of crude
glycerol to valuable products
 High interest in Anaerobic digestion,
 Handling of heterogeneous waste
 Added value obtained from gasification
 .
(Double Green UK)
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Glycerol Uses and LimitationsGlycerol Uses and Limitations
www.icis.com
800 mTonne market size
•Volatility of prices
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
127 mTonne of FAME by 2016;
12.7mTonnes of biodiesel glycerol
ADDED VALUE CHEMICALS
Biodiesel glycerine; usesBiodiesel glycerine; uses
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Bioethanol Production
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Bioethanol as a Platform Molecules
Biomass
Sugarcane
Bioethanol
Bioethene
Biopolyethylene BioPVC
Polymerisation Chlorination/Polymerisation
Dehydration
(20 x 103
tpa capacity plant (<0.1% PE)
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Economically feasible
new generation biofuel plants
will need a wider product
portfolio including
“platform” molecules
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Chemical from lignocellulosics
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Major platform molecules via fermentation
OH
OH
O
O
OH
OH
O
O
OH
OH
O
O
OH
O
O
O
OH
OO
OH
OH
OH
O
ONH2
OH
O
NH2
O
OH
O
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
O
OH OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH OH
O
OH
OH
O
OOH
O O
OH
A very wide range of useful products
Clean
Synthesis
methods
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
SA as a Platform Molecules
• Can be produced from fermentation of sugars using E. coli and
Actinobacillus succinogenes (Satake Centre, University of Manchester)
• Up to 110 g l-1
concentrations have been achieved.
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Starbon® – a renewable
mesoporous catalyst with
tunable properties
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
31
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Starbon application:
Acid catalysis directly on fermentation broths
Esterification of
succinic acid.
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
O
O
O R
R
O
O O
O
O
O
O
OO
R
OO
R
H BASE
O
O
O R
R
O
O O
DMI
BASE
1
R = Me or OMe
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0.5 2 5 10 20 No Catalyst KF -
spraydried
0 - neutral
alumina
%YieldofCompound1
KF Loading of KF/Al 2O3 /mmolg
-1
Derivitisation of unsaturated platform molecules-
Michael reaction routes to complex structures
KF-alumina much more
Reactive than other solid bases
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
0
25
50
75
100
Ru Pt Pd Rh
5% M-Starbon-300
conversion selectivity butanediol selectivity butyrolactone
OH
OH
O
O
Starbon-metal/aqueous ethanol/H2
Starbon-nanometal catalysis under fermentation conditions
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Thermochemical biomass
conversions
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Microwave assisted
decomposition of biomass:
a new thermochemical route
to biofuels
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Microwave Enhancement of Biomass
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Why MW? Advantages of MW Heating
Rapid internal heating
Uniform heating
Instant control
Acceleration of reaction rate
Selective interaction with active
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
MW industrial application
Special ceramic production
Drying
Food industry
Polymerisation
Chemical
processing/synthesis
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
–1.5 of oil
18 Kg of wheat straw = 6.7 Kg of char 5.7 Kg of oil+
Larger Scale Trial
Wheat straw @ 30 Kg/hr
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Biomass
Microwave
processor
Energy
ExtractedExtracted
oiloil
ExtractedExtracted
oiloil
PyrolysisPyrolysis
OilOil
PyrolysisPyrolysis
OilOil
CharCharCharChar
Wide range of
feedstock
+ = Wide range of
products
Flexibility of Microwave
Parameters
(time, temperature, power)
Low temperature !
Microwave Processing of Biomass
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Biomass
Microwave processing.
I. Solid char
35 % of total mass
58% of total energy Organic oil
IV. Aqueous fraction I
31% of total mass
5% of total energyWater
treatment
III. Organic fraction:
10% of total mass
13% of total energy
II. Sugars
Aqueous fraction II
12% of total mass
10% of total energy
Market:
Bio-alcohol
Market:
Transport fuel
V. Gas fraction
14% of total energy
Microwave processing of biomass
Market:
PowerStation
Power generation
10% of total energy
Market:
Pharmaceutics
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Microwave oil characteristics
1.Low water content
2.Low acid content.
3.Low alkali metals content.
4.The high yields of fermentable
sugars:
- Levoglucosan (up to 50%)
- Levoglucosanone (up to 25%)
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Continuous
feed
Microwave energy
volatiles
Continuous microwave processing of untreated biomass
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Creating a complete
supply chain:
from
Farm to Forecourt
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
The multiproduct biorefinery of the future
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
A model for a wheatstraw biorefinery
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
A seaweed biorefinery
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
How green is my product?
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Carbon Footprinting products
•Quantify the emissions across the product supply chain and express as
a carbon equivalent
•Base on a Product Unit (defined as an item that can be purchased by
the consumer; the unit includes the industrial packaging in which it is
sold)
•Supply chain goes from material to disposal but not including emission
in-store or in use by the consumer
•Analysis should include all processes used in transformation of the raw
material
•GHG emission can be through direct release into the atmosphere at the
process site on through consumption of energy (with an appropriate
conversion factor); mass balance is used to calculate waste per step
which then has to be equated to CO2
equivalent emission, e.g. via
energy per unit weight
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Environmental footprinting
Indicator of resource consumption and waste absorption
transferred onto the basis of biologically productive land
Consumption category:
• energy use
• built environment
• food
• forestry
Convert into global hectares as ‘the annual productivity of one
hectare of biologically productive land or sea with world average
productivity’
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
York, the University and Green Chemistry at York
 Top 5 UK-ranked Chemistry Department
Times Online Good University Guide 2008
 World-leading Green Chemistry research
centre dedicated to creating genuinely
sustainable supply chains for chemicals
 World-leading centre of excellence in
plants and microbes leading to a greater
realisation of the economic potential of
products developed from bio-resources
 One of Europes finest medieval cities
 Top 100 World- and Top 10 UK-ranked
University
Times Good University Guide 2009
York
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
• Research
• Industry collaboration
• Education, including
development of teaching and
promotional materials
• Networking with all chemical
stakeholders
Activity Areas
The Centre’s Activities can be groups into 4 areas:
The York Green Chemistry Centre….The York Green Chemistry Centre….
we want to make a differencewe want to make a difference
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Microwave Chemistry
Science Leader Dr Duncan MacQuarrie
This brings together our long-standing interest in microwave-
assisted chemistry with our more recent interest in the conversion
of biomass (eg forestry and agricultural wastes, food waste, etc)
to useful products. With substantial funding from ERDF, Carbon
Trust, METRC and industry we are starting major new projects
on fast pyrolysis for the production of liquid fuels, high calorific
value chars and chemical intermediates.
A major part of this is the design and build of new continuous
microwave processors, with the final semi-scale prototype to be
located outside the GCC.
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Clean Synthesis and
Platform Molecules
Science Leader Dr Simon Breeden
Very much our root area with interests covering the
use of solid catalysts and alternative solvents to
“green” reactions.
Recently we have become especially interested in
doing clean synthesis starting from molecules and
mixtures derived from biomass (eg using
fermentation broths).
We have funding in this area from industry,
EPSRC, METRC, and GSK.
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Renewable Materials
Science Leader Dr Avtar Matharu
For us this means the physical and chemical modification of
natural abundant materials and especially polysaccharides.
Projects include Starbons (new carbonaceous materials derived
from starch), new “bio-boards” made entirely of green and
sustainable components, novel switchable adhesives, new
intumescent flame retardants, and PVC replacements.
Funding comes from industry, EPSRC, DEFRA and TSB. The
area is supported by state-of-the-art thermal analysis, infrared
spectroscopy and extrusion equipment.
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Natural Solvents
Science Leader Prof Ray Marriott
We are interested in supercritical and liquid
carbon dioxide as an extraction, fractionation and
reaction medium with projects covering areas
such as the extraction of waxes from agricultural
and food waste for personal care (and other)
applications, and the synthesis of flavour and
aroma molecules using in-situ biocatalysis.
Funding comes from the University, METRC and
industry. We have excellent supercritical fluid
extraction facilities and access to scale-up
facilities.
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
NORSC
Combining the expertise of the
leading Northern England Universities
to provide sustainable chemistry
solutions to industry
NORSC
Combining the expertise of the
leading Northern England Universities
to provide sustainable chemistry
solutions to industry
MUSC
The Chemical Industries Association
and the Green Chemistry Centre
working together to create new
green and sustainable supply chains
for chemical products
MUSC
The Chemical Industries Association
and the Green Chemistry Centre
working together to create new
green and sustainable supply chains
for chemical products
Anglo-French
collaboration
chemicals from biomass
using green chemistry
and white biotechnology
Anglo-French
collaboration
chemicals from biomass
using green chemistry
and white biotechnology
Green Chemistry and the Consumer
Green chemistry solutions for
the retailer and producer
Green Chemistry and the Consumer
Green chemistry solutions for
the retailer and producer
Green Chemistry networks worldwide
Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Japan, USA,
Korea, Brazil……..
Green Chemistry networks worldwide
Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Japan, USA,
Korea, Brazil……..
Promoting awareness and
facilitating, education,
training and practice
of green chemistry
worldwide
Promoting awareness and
facilitating, education,
training and practice
of green chemistry
worldwide
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Networking Projects:
Green Chemistry Network
• Est. 1998 with
funding from the
Royal Society of
Chemistry
• One of the largest
international
networks of this type
in the world
• International
membership
• Excellent forum for
information
exchanges and
collaboration
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Pre – HE: Education and Outreach
Aims
• To excite young people about chemistry and the
positive impact it can have.
• To enable young people to critically engage with
ideas and solutions
Impacts/areas of work
• lots of projects and funding at key stage 2
- Discovery Days, Countryside
Days, Science Days in Primary
Schools
- High awareness about
environment at young age,
interest and enthusiasm
• opportunities at GCSE/A
level stage
www.greenchemistry.netwww.greenchemistry.net
Research
Industry
Networking
Education
www.greenchemistry.net

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Editor's Notes

  1. Currently produced via the reduction and hydrolysis of maleic anhydride. 110 g l-1 achieved using pure sugars and nutrients/minerals. Colin Webb’s group in manchester can produce SA from wheat as a generic feedstock (supplying nutrients and minerals as well as sugars) – but to lower concentrations (around 40 g l-1) Production amounts are limited as the microorganisms naturally producing SA are intolerant to high concentrations of acids (they either die or cease growth). As a result, the broth is typically neutralised with the addition of bases such as ammonium, sodium or potassium hydroxide. This thus produces the SA in the succinate salt form, upon which upstream acidification processing is applied, adding further cost to the production of the organic acid.99 Various separation methods such as EDBM38 could be used to increase the SA concentration but, for the preliminary experiments shown here, the SA was typically prepared as 13% by mass concentration (0.118g of SA in 0.8ml H2O).