8 Wastes

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Brief introduction to the 8 Wastes of Lean Manufacturing

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8 Wastes

  1. 1. Finding the Waste The 8 Wastes Workshop By Harold Philbrick
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Understand what waste is </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to identify waste on the shop floor </li></ul><ul><li>Generate some ideas on how to address waste </li></ul><ul><li>Change how we see the work we do </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Purpose of Lean Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Define value and waste </li></ul><ul><li>How is waste created? </li></ul><ul><li>Review the 8 types of waste </li></ul><ul><li>How we can identify and address waste </li></ul><ul><li>Recap </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Lean Manufacturing? <ul><li>The optimization of value in our process so that we have the ability to make exactly what is needed, when it is needed and in the quantity it is needed by our customer </li></ul><ul><li>The relentless identification and elimination of waste from our process so that we can flow at the rate of customer demand </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Will Lean Help Us? <ul><li>Reduce Lead Time to our customers by eliminating waste from our system </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce frustrations by removing barriers to doing our jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage everyone to get involved in improving the process </li></ul><ul><li>Increase customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Optimally utilize resources while meeting our customer’s needs </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Value? <ul><li>A measurement of the worth of a product, or service, by a customer based on it’s usefulness in satisfying a customer need </li></ul><ul><li>An activity, process or operation that changes the product from one form to another in order to get it closer to the customer’s specifications </li></ul><ul><li>It is something that the customer is willing to pay for </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Waste? <ul><li>Any activity that adds costs or time but does not add value </li></ul><ul><li>Consuming more resources (time, money, space, etc) than are necessary to produce the goods, or services, that the customer wants </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Waste : Actions that could be stopped without effecting the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental Waste : Actions that need to be done based on how the current system operates but do not add value </li></ul>
  8. 9. The 8 Types of Waste <ul><li>Overproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Motion (Operations) </li></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Defects / Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting </li></ul><ul><li>People’s Skills </li></ul>
  9. 10. Overproduction <ul><li>Common causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing more than is required to make up for yield loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling production to forecasted demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long changeovers or avoiding changeovers lead to large lot production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplying the process with more than is needed to meet order requirements, sooner and faster than it is needed, causes almost all other types of waste </li></ul><ul><li>This is the worst waste of all, because it helps cause all the others </li></ul>
  10. 11. Inventory <ul><li>Common causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor equipment layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long changeover times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defective, or questionable, parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismatched production speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires people, equipment and space to count, transport, store and maintain it </li></ul><ul><li>If we do not get orders the material will become obsolete, and be thrown away </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory is often used to help hide other wastes </li></ul>
  11. 12. Inventory Hides Waste Sea of Inventory Employee Availability Finished Goods Raw Materials Long Transportation Communication Problems Machine Downtime Poor Scheduling Quality Problems Line Imbalance Long Setups Supplier issues House Keeping Employee Availability
  12. 13. Reducing Inventory Uncovers Opportunities to Improve, Opportunities That Must Be Addressed! Employee Availability Poor Scheduling Long Setups Long Transportation Communication Problems Machine Downtime Quality Problems Line Imbalance Supplier issues House Keeping Employee Availability
  13. 14. Transportation <ul><li>Common causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention points before and after operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive distance between operations (layout) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single skill focused operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double or triple handling, moving in and out of storage areas and warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Material can get damaged if it’s moved too much </li></ul><ul><li>It adds no value and is often used to get the extra inventory out of the way </li></ul>
  14. 15. Motion (Operators) <ul><li>Common causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor workstation layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Walking without working (away from workstation) </li></ul><ul><li>Searching for tools, materials or information </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching, bending or unnecessary motion due to poor housekeeping or workplace layout </li></ul><ul><li>Process is not designed with employees in mind </li></ul>
  15. 16. Processing <ul><li>Common causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of standard work or processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment over designed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process not updated with technology changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of effective problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Doing more than is necessary to produce an effectively functioning product </li></ul><ul><li>Extra setup steps, over-specification of the process, extra processing steps </li></ul>
  16. 17. Defects / Quality <ul><li>Common causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on downstream inspection; questionable material passed on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of standard work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material handling (transportation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process design/equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defective or scrap materials </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of inspecting defects </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to customer complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Rework or re-inspection of questionable materials </li></ul>
  17. 18. Waiting <ul><li>Common causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismatched production rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ours or upstream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficiently staffed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operator waiting for machines to run or cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Machine waiting for operator </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting for parts, instructions, approval, information, maintenance, decisions… </li></ul>
  18. 19. People’s Skills <ul><li>Common causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management does not involve employees in problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrowly defined jobs and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old school management, worker relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employees are seen as a source of labor only, not seen as true process experts </li></ul><ul><li>People are told what to do, and asked not to think </li></ul><ul><li>Employees are not involved in finding solutions, opportunities to improve our process are missed </li></ul>
  19. 20. How Does Waste Get There? <ul><li>Forget to change solutions when we change the process </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to understand why we do something a certain way, so we continue doing that way even if the limitation has been removed </li></ul><ul><li>Build it into our processes </li></ul><ul><li>Root cause of problems is not addressed or a band aid solution is implemented </li></ul>
  20. 21. How Can We Find It? <ul><li>Find the value added work, everything else is waste </li></ul><ul><li>Go out there and see it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe our processes as if you do not know it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to the operators so you can understand why we do things the way we do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the operation about? Why is it necessary? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spaghetti diagrams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map the flow of materials on a plant layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify storage points, transportation, etc </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. How Can We Find It? <ul><li>Introduce it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement one piece flow into the process and waste will rise to the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have the right attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste is hard enough to find when you want to find it, if we don’t want to find waste it will be impossible to root it out and remove it </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Waste – the simpler part… </li></ul><ul><li>Being Able to See IT! </li></ul><ul><li>(once we know what it is) </li></ul>The Real Challenge … knowing how to properly remove it!
  23. 24. How Do We Remove It? <ul><li>All of the lean tools are designed to remove and identify waste </li></ul><ul><li>5S </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Work </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Changeovers </li></ul><ul><li>Mistake Proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Kanban </li></ul><ul><li>One Piece Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizens </li></ul>
  24. 25. RECAP
  25. 26. Value Defined <ul><li>Value-Added Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Transforms or shapes material or information </li></ul><ul><li>Customer wants it </li></ul><ul><li>Done right the first time </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental Waste </li></ul><ul><li>No value created but required by current technology </li></ul><ul><li>No value created but required by current thinking </li></ul><ul><li>No value created but required by process limitations </li></ul><ul><li>No value created but required by current process </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Consume resources but creates no value for the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Could be stopped and it would be invisible to the customer </li></ul>
  26. 27. What is Lean Manufacturing? <ul><li>The optimization of value in our process so that we have the ability to make exactly what is needed, when it is needed, in the quantity it is needed by our customer </li></ul><ul><li>The relentless identification and elimination of waste from our process so that we can flow at the rate of customer demand </li></ul>
  27. 28. Attitude is Critical <ul><li>“ If you think you can or you think you can’t, you’re right.” Henry Ford </li></ul>

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