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Asian architecture [hindu & china] - Art Appreciation


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Hindu - Famous Structures;
China - History, Features, and Famous structures

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Asian architecture [hindu & china] - Art Appreciation

  1. 1. ASIAN ARCHITECTURE [Hindu & Chinese Architecture]
  2. 2. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES Angkor is a vast temple complex in Cambodia featuring the magnificent remains of several capitals of the Khmer Empire, from the 9th to the 15th century AD. These include the famous Angkor Wat temple, the world’s largest single religious monument, and the Bayon temple (at Angkor Thom) with its multitude of massive stone faces. During it’s long history Angkor went through many changes in religion converting between Hinduism to Buddhism several times.
  3. 3. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES Prambanan is the largest and most beautiful Hindu temple complex in Indonesia.
  4. 4. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES Situated on a large rock, Tanah Lot is one of the most famous Hindu temples in Bali, and probably the most photographed. The Tanah Lot temple has been a part of Balinese mythology for centuries. The temple is one of 7 sea temples, each within eyesight of the next, to form a chain along the south- western coast of Bali.
  5. 5. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES The City of 1000 Temples, Kanchipuram is one of the oldest cities in South India, and known for its ancient Hindu temples and silk sarees. The city contains several big temples like the Varadharaja Perumal Temple for Lord Vishnu and the Ekambaranatha Temple which is one of the five forms of abodes of Lord Siva.
  6. 6. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES The Brihadeeswarar Temple, located in Thanjavur, India, was built by the Chola king Rajaraja I in the 11th century. The world’s first complete granite temple, Brihadishwara is a brilliant example of the Dravidian style of temple architecture. The temple tower is 66 meters (216 feet) high making it one of the tallest temples in the world.
  7. 7. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES -The enormous temple complex is dedicated to Shiva, known here as Sundareshvara and his consort Parvati or Meenakshi. -The temple complex is within a high- walled enclosure, at the core of which are the two sanctums for meenakshi and Sundareshwara, surrounded by a number of smaller shrines and grand pillared halls.
  8. 8. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES The architecture of Virupaksha temple was so integrated that the original pre- Vijayanagara temple must have been enclosed by the building of a closed circumambulatory passage and one or more antechambers as well as an open, pillared passage on the three sides of the vimana. Presently the temple has three gopuras: a large outer eastern one, a small inner east and a northern one.
  9. 9. HISTORY
  10. 10. HISTORY •Gradual improvement of technique on timber structure buildings •Rammed earth construction •Glazing tiles and building with stones Primitive – Han Dynasty •output and quality of bricks and tiles are improved •techniques on timber structure are also improved Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties: •application of bricks - more popular •advancement in baking glazes •proportion of the building components fell into fixed pattern Sui and Tang Dynasties:
  11. 11. HISTORY • scale of the buildings is generally smaller than that in Tang Dynasty • more beautiful and rich in diversity Song Dynasty • Tibetan Buddhist temples and Islamic mosques were built Yuan Dynasty: • Production of bricks increased • Quality and quantity of glaze tiles had exceeded the past's • Official buildings were highly standardized Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) Dynasties
  12. 12. HISTORY •Traditional Chinese style blended with Western architectural characteristics 1840s (Opium war) •Architectural styles were pared down - buildings looked sparse (Solid grey blocks and simple designs) •Returning to the Ancient's Period - Buildings with large roof •New Communist Bldgs Period - Big Ten Buildings for National Celebration(constructed in 1959) exemplified the combination designs of Stalinist architecture, traditional Chinese architecture and modern architecture. 1949 (People's Rep. Of China - Established) •new architectural styles began to develop (combines older styles plus new invented elements) 1980s:
  13. 13. EVOLUTION: 1) Cave dwellings 2) Nest dwellings 3) Houses built and raised above the ground on bamboo poles 4) Architectural Techniques (Mortise and tenon joints) 5) Earthenware roof tiles and plaster were used 6) The Great Wall of China 7) Buddhist Pagodas 8) Use of brick walls, glazing, & sculpture 9) More elegant and intricate styles 10) Traditional Chinese Architecture peak
  14. 14. FEATURES
  15. 15. FEATURES • Flexible Structure: Dougong - unique design only found in China; a system of brackets inserted between the top of a column and a crossbeam The Eave of the Ancient Palace in the Forbidden City [Ancient]
  16. 16. FEATURES • Wonderful and Elegant Appearance: The unique outside has not only fit and satisfied the practical functional need of building, but also exhibited its wonderful appearance. It is a good model of a combination of practicality and beauty. • Regular Layout: Most of the buildings strictly follow the axis-centered principle with symmetrical wings. • Gorgeous Ornaments: Meticulous attention is given to ornaments either from a whole or a specific part. [Ancient]
  17. 17. FEATURES • Traditionally: emphasis on width of the buildings; Modern: emphasis in height and depth • Emphasis on symmetry • The use of certain color, numbers of the cardinal directions [Ancient-Modern]
  19. 19. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES • The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications built by a number of emperors to protect the northern borders against nomadic tribes.
  20. 20. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES • Situated 13 Km northwest of central Beijing, the Summer Palace is one of the largest, (2.9 Sq Km) best preserved, and most interesting royal gardens in the world. • Although it is called a palace it is not in fact a single building but includes scores of buildings, such as temples, halls, pavilions and towers.
  21. 21. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES • The Ming Tombs cover an area of 80 square kilometres, situated in a valley bordered on three sides by the Yanshan Mountains.
  22. 22. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES • Situated in the heart of Beijing, the Forbidden City is the world's largest palace complex. It has lavishly decorated ceremonial halls and royal palaces. All the gates, palace and other structures of the Forbidden City were arranged about the north-south central axis of old Beijing
  23. 23. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES • Temple of Heaven is not a single building but a complex located in the southern end of central Beijing. • The temple was used by the emperor to make offerings to the heaven and to prey for a good harvest.
  24. 24. FAMOUS ARCHITECTURAL STRUCTURES • First built to a height of 60 meters (197 feet) with five stories, it is now 64.5 meters (211.6 feet) high with an additional two stories.