Confu, dao & buddhism

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Influences of Confucianism, Daoism & Buddhism in Chinese Architecture

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Confu, dao & buddhism

  1. 1. CHINESEARCHITECTU RE 1 CULTURE & ARCHITECTURE
  2. 2. CHINESEARCHITECTURE INFLUENCES OF CONFUCIA NISM TAOISM BUDDHISM 2
  3. 3. • Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over the years. Over the centuries, the structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being on the decorative details.• An ancient civilized nation and a great country on the East Asian continent, China possesses a vast territory covering 9.6 million sq. km. and a population accounting for over one-fifth of the worlds total, 56nationalities and a recorded history of 3,OOO years, during which it has created a unique, outstanding traditional Chinese Culture.• Traditional Chinese buildings are always found in pairs or groups, whether they are residences, temples or palaces.• Most structures in Chinese architecture are simple rectangles, and it is the architectural complex composed by single structures rather 3 than the single structures themselves that expresses the broadness
  4. 4. • Traditional Chinese architecture can still be seen throughout China, offering a tangible expression of traditional Chinese culture.• Traditional Chinese architecture encompasses palaces, temples, tombs, parks, and residences. • Traditional Chinese architecture represents the synthesis of political, economic, cultural, and technical influences over the ages. • In the past, these structures provided the ancient Chinese people with functional space 4 to live and work in. Today,
  5. 5. CONFUCIA NISM 5
  6. 6. ARCHITECTURE & CONFUCIANISM• Confucius (551-479 BC) FUNDAMENTAL established the Confucian school PRINCIPLES : of thought around 500 BC, during Among the fundamental Chinas Spring and Autumn principles of Confucian Period (770-476BC). philosophy are:• Confucianism became one of the  Loyalty pillars of Chinese culture, and was  Filial piety named Chinas official state  moral integrity ideology around 100 BC, during  Righteousness the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD)  benevolence by Emperor Han Wudi, who  wisdom reigned from 140-87 BC.  Faith• It continued to be revered  Adherence to the throughout subsequent dynasties. Confucian code• Confucian philosophy attaches  The absolute authority of great importance to ethics and the ruler over subject, 6 human relationships, and is one of father over child, and
  7. 7. COURTYARD RESIDENCES: CONFUCIAN IDEOLOGY• Confucian ideology DESIGN • Rites in Confucianism was a IN RESIDENTIAL was the core of feudal Chinas means of regulating order in hierarchical social system. human relationship. Its• Traditional courtyard ultimate purpose was to ensure a residences drew strict social order. distinctions between interior • The quadrangle building was and exterior, superior and one the reflected rites in inferior, and male and traditional chinese residential female; internal affairs and building. external affairs, the • In traditional Chinese honorable (master) and architecture, humble (maid) ranking. o The center was considered to• The compounds were enclosed be superior and the sides as and isolated from the outside inferior; world, and serving as material o the north was superior and the expressions of Confucian south inferior; 7 ideology. o The left was superior and the
  8. 8. • In courtyard residences, • Woman cannot enter external region. Guests cannot enter WING ROOMS internal region. NORT Receives most • All the windows in quadrangles H sunlight; Center are faced towards the inside of Room - Living Room the house. There are no /Ancestral hall windows inside the rooms, East rooms- which look isolated. But inside grandparents room the house, it formed a natural West rooms-Head of system. the family • It emphasized the relationship SOUT guest rooms, studies, between elder lies and H kitchens, and youngster, eldest son and• The southern and back rooms storerooms younger son, male and female EAST Eldest Son &to form a will have short walls his status. division family internal and between • It reflected a parochial feudal class system of "Higher-lower WEST family. sons and external younger• At the back are also rooms of their families ranking class 8 system",
  9. 9. COURTYARD RESIDENCES: CONFUCIAN IDEOLOGYIN RESIDENTIAL DESIGN Principal Room East wing- Eldest sonCourtyard West wing- Gate of younger sons Residential complex Plan of Typical Courtyard Residence - SIHEYUA 9
  10. 10. Aerial view of courtyard residenceInterior view of 10
  11. 11. THE CONFUCIAN CODE AND CITY PLANN• City planning was based primarily on the Confucian code that held up the feudal system.• Urban planning has played an integral role in the life of Beijing throughout its history.• The city was laid out on a square grid, and covered an area of approx 50 square kms.• A high wall surrounded the entire city, with three gates on the east, west, and south walls, and two gates on the north wall.• The main thoroughfares, which formed a north-south and east-west axis through the city, were 28M wide.• The secondary streets were 14 M wide, and the alleyways were 7M 11 wide.
  12. 12. • The 13th century capital city of Dadu was built using the architectural principles of the Confucian classic Zhou Li: Kaogong Ji (Rites of the Zhou: Engineering References), which states: "When designing a capital city, it should be laid out in a square grid measuring nine by nine li (about 4.5 kilometers) per side, with three gates on each of the city walls.• There should be nine streets and nine avenues, each wide enough for nine horse carts to pass abreast.• The palace should be in the center of the city, with the ancestral temple on the left, temples to the deities on the right, office buildings in front, and a marketplace behind.“• The layout of the city was extremely orderly, with clearly demarcated streets and districts. 12
  13. 13. CITY PLAN OFDADU 13
  14. 14. HIERARCHICAL DISTINCTIONS IN ARCHITEC• Chinas hierarchical social system gave rise to a highly restrictive system of architectural regulations.• All construction was controlled by a building code that clearly differentiated rank and status. This code controlled every aspect of design and construction, and was enforced as law.• A comprehensive building code was established which specified permissible construction for each level of society, from the imperial family to the nobility, officials, & the common people.• Its regulations encompassed every aspect of building design and construction, including scale, floor plan, roof shape, and decoration.• Stone lions: Only officials of the fifth rank and above were allowed to place the magnificent stone lions outside the gates of their homes.• Officials in ancient China were classified according to rank. The fifth rank was regional administrators,. 14
  15. 15. • The number of rows in a lions mane further indicated the rank of the homes resident.• The emperors lions had thirteen rows, those of dukes and princes had twelve A Qing-era guardian lion pair within the Forbidden City - The lions are always created in rows, and pairs, with the male resting his paw upon the 15 those of world and the female restraining a playful cub
  16. 16. BEIJINGS FORBIDDEN CITY PALACE - BESTREPRESENTATION OF CONFUCIAN RITE• The Forbidden City • Beijings Forbidden City, represents the ultimate designed by Ming Dynasty architectural expression of (1368-1644) architect Kuai Confucian ideology. Xiang, who lived from 1397 to• Beijings Forbidden City was 1481. the most classical example • This massive imperial courtyard and representation of complex clearly embodies the Confucian Rite system. Confucian emphasis on strict• In Confucianism, there was a divisions of rank, and the strong emphasis on the position of the individual relationship of an individual within a hierarchical system- in a collective society. Emphasis on divisions between• Forbidden city forms a super- ruler and subjects, husband and large quadrangle architecture wife, Nobles and commoners that was the most complex etc., representation of this rite • The Forbidden City served as 16
  17. 17. • The complex includes • The residential portion of the ceremonial halls, emperor was at the rear. At the governmental offices, and center line from south to north housing for servants and staff, as are the living halls of the well as the palaces and emperor and queen. courtyards, in which the • They were also formed by a members of the royal family group of 3 large halls to reflect lived, studied, worshipped, and the meaning of “Past dynasty entertained. at the back “.• The Emperors working office • In ancient times, Chinese was at the front of the city nobles has the system of one complex and was used by the husband, one wife and many Emperor to hold large ceremony. concubines.• Important ceremonial functions • The living hall of the queen and audiences with civil and was in the centerline of the military officials were carried • This living arrangementother back while the out in three large halls. was used to reflect12 palace concubines lived in the• These halls were constructed on ranking systemeast and west courtyards on between 17
  18. 18. 18Forbidden city – Architecture of Quadrangles
  19. 19. A. Meridian GateB. Gate of Divine MightC. West Glorious GateD. East Glorious GateE. Corner towersF. Gate of Supreme HarmonyG. Hall of Supreme HarmonyH. Hall of Military EminenceI. Hall of Literary GloryJ. Southern Three PlacesK. Palace of Heavenly PurityL. Imperial gardenM. Hall of Mental 19 Cultivation
  20. 20. The design of theForbidden City, from itsoverall layout to thesmallest detail, wasmeticulously planned toreflect philosophical andreligious principles, andabove all to symbolise themajesty of Imperial power.Some noted examples ofsymbolic designs include: 20
  21. 21. SYMBOLISM• Yellow is the color of the • The sloping ridges of building Emperor. Thus almost all roofs roofs are decorated with a line of in the Forbidden City bear statuettes led by a man riding a yellow glazed tiles. There are phoenix and followed by an only two exceptions. The imperial dragon. The number of library at the Pavilion of statuettes represents the status of Literary Profundity had black the building – a minor building tiles because black was might have 3 or 5. associated with water, and thus • The Hall of Supreme Harmony fire-prevention. Similarly, the has 10, the only building in the Crown Princes residences have country to be permitted this in green tiles because green was Imperial times. As a result, its associated with wood, and thus 10th statuette, called a growth. • "Hangshi", or "ranked tenth”, is Thus, ancestral temples• The main halls of the Outer and alsoinunique of the palace. are front in the Forbidden Inner courts are all arranged in City. areas are placed in Storage groups of three – the shape of • Thefront part of the palace the layout of buildings follows 21
  22. 22. • Taoism is a religion native to China. Laozi,a famous thinker living in 6th Century BC, established this philosophy and came to be regarded as the father of Taoism.DAOISM /TAOISM • It formed mainly during Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220). Many Taoist ideas and thoughts are 22 greatly reflected in Taoist
  23. 23. DAOISMMAJOR DAOIST PRINCIPLES THE DAO (TAO)1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause To escape the “social, of the political, & cultural traps” universe. It is a force that of life, one must escape by: flows through all life. 1. Rejecting formal2.A believer’s goal is to knowledge and become one with Dao ; one learning. with nature. 2. Relying on the senses3.Wu wei - Let nature take its and instincts. course. 3. Discovering the nature - The art of doing and nothing. “rhythm” of the - Go with the flow! universe.4.Man is unhappy because he 4. Ignoring political and Nature-worshiping and ghost-worshiping, popular in ancient lives according to man- social laws. Chinese laws, customs, &a social and cultural basis to the made society, contributed 23 formation of Taoism.
  24. 24. THE UNIVERSE OF OPPOSITES – YIN & YANG YANGYIN • Masculine• Feminine • Active• Passive • Light• Darkness • Warmth• Cold • Strong• Weak • Heaven• Earth • Sun• Moon 24
  25. 25. BELIE• SFDaoism focused on meditation, • Daoism has influenced breathing and recitation of verses. Chinese culture for over This was the dominant practice of 2,000 years. Daoism until about 1,100 AD. • Its practices have given• In the 5th Century AD, the birth to martial arts such Lingbao school emerged which as Tai Chi and Qigong. borrowed much from Buddhist • Healthy living such as teachings such as reincarnation practicing and cosmology. The use of vegetarianism and talismans and the practice of exercise. alchemy were also associated with • And its texts have the Lingbao school. codified Chinese views• In the 6th Century, Zhengyi on morality and Daoists, who believed in behavior, regardless of protective talismans and rituals, religious affiliation. emerged. Zhengyi Daoists • The basic ideas of 25 performed offering rituals for Taoism are Changsheng
  26. 26. MAIN• The Dao:T E N E T S The ultimate truth is • The De: Another key the Dao or The Way. component of Daoism is the• The Dao has several meanings. De, which is the It is the basis of all living manifestation of the Dao in things, it governs nature, and it all things. is a method to live by. • De is defined as having• Daoists do not believe in virtue, morality and integrity. extremes, instead focusing on the interdependence of things.• There is no total good or evil or • Immortality: Historically, the negative and positive. The Yin- highest achievement of a Yang symbol exemplifies this Daoist is to achieve view. immortality through• The black represents the Yin breathing, meditation, the white represents the Yang. helping others and the use Yin is also associated with of elixirs. 26 weakness and passivity and • Daoists believe that
  27. 27. ARCHITECTURE &• Taoist architecture includes • Taoism reached its peak various structures D A O I S M to according during the Tang Dynasty and different functions, categorized as the Song Dynasty, when palace for oblation and sacrifice, Chinese timber framed altar for praying and offering, architecture, characterized by cubby for religious service, high base, broad roof and residence for Taoist abbes and perfect integration of garden for visitors. decoration and function,• During the last period of the East matured in all aspects were Han Dynasty when Taoism was built. introduced, Taoist ascetics mostly • There were strict regulations lived in huts and even caves in on size, structure, decoration remote mountains under guidance and use of colour. of their philosophy of nature. • For the 660 years, Taoism,• During the Jin dynasty and the • Buddhism result, there As a and Confucianism Northern and Southern dynasty, influenced similarities in that remained each other, so 27 Taoism experienced reforms and certain designing and grouping in structures
  28. 28. ARCHITECTURE &DAOISM• Taoism pursues the • In every single yard, there are harmonious unity of neatly located attached humans and nature. architectural structures. The Taoists skillfully built whole layout reflects Taoists temples that conformed to emphasis on order and the contours of the land. equability.• Starting with inherited • Most Taoist architectures Chinese traditional ideas resort to nature topography to of construction, they added build towers, pavilions, their own concepts. lobbies and other garden• Splendorous symmetric structural units, decorated architectural complexes with murals, sculptures and are composed of many steles to entertain people, fully ordinary yards spreading interpreting Taoist philosophy orderly along a central of nature. axis. 28
  29. 29. • Taoist architecture applies two • The second is the Bagua architectural styles - style in which all structures traditional style and Ba-gua surround the Danlu (stove to style. make pills of immortality) in• In the traditional style, the center according to traditional architectural Baguas position request. layout, which is symmetric, • The center axis from the was applied. south to the north is very long• Main halls were on the central and structures flank the axis. axis, while other religious • The style reflects Taoist structures on the two sides. philosophy that the human• Usually, on the northwest cosmos follows the natural corner of the complex, Lucky cosmos to integrate energy, qi Land to Meet God was and spirit. located.• Annexes like dining hall and accommodation were located at 29
  30. 30. • In Taoist principles, GOLD, WOOD, WATER, FIRE AND EARTH are considered five elementary substances to form everything in the world.• Timber was chosen by Chinese architects because it is derived from wood, one of the five. Taoism respects anything which is more of nature or closer to nature as first choice when they make choices among many alternatives.• It is believed that when people live in a timber house rather than cements or stone structures, they are supposed to keep a constant exchange with nature and reach the integration of nature and human beings.• Thats why Taoist architecture resort to nature topography to build towers, pavilions, lobbies and other garden structural units, decorated with murals, sculptures and steles to entertain people, 30 fully interpreting Taoist philosophy of nature.
  31. 31. DAOIST • Taoist temple buildings,• EMPLESTTaoist temple buildings also basically consist of the divine clearly reflect Taoists hall, the alter, the room for strong will in the pursuit of reading sculptures and happiness, longevity and practicing asceticism, the living immortality. room, the reception room for• Most Taoist temples are pilgrims, and the park. wooden-framed and have • The main hall for a single deity, garden structures. Some but other deities’ statues could garden features are man- come on the sides or behind the made pavilions, towers, main statue. walkways and terraces. • The general layout adopts the• Quiet and beautiful form of Chinese traditional mountains provide an courtyard, with the divine hall unblemished environment on the mean axis and the in which Taoists can reception room and Taoists cultivate their inner selves. living room, etc., on both sides. 31• Together with a park • Also, an interesting feature of
  32. 32. CHINESE TAOISTTEMPLESof Dragon and• A Statue Lion guards the gates of a Taoist temple;• In the main hall, the four Heavenly Emperors in Taoism replace the Buddha The highest three celestial realms of Jade Purity, trinity and four Highest Purity, and Great Purity. They are Heavenly Kings in emanations of Tao, omnipresent and supreme. Buddhism;• The stories illustrated in Taoist murals depict a more earthly world of common people rather than holy or sacred The Three Star-gods of Happiness, clay figures world and Rank and 32 Affluence, and Longevity. set in the hall are more
  33. 33. O R N A M E N TAT I O N &D Taoist R AT I O N• ECO • Taoist architectural architectural motifs were decoration meaningful - reflects Taoist Celestial bodies pursuit of luck mean brightness and fulfillment, shining everywhere long lifespan while landscape etc., and rocks• Common immortality. decorative The stove for offerings • Folding fan, fish, figures of a narcissus, bat and Daoist temple deer are used to include a imply beneficence, tortoise wealth, celestial intertwined being, fortune and with a snake, official position. 33 elephants, motif Fish
  34. 34. Roof with upturned eaves & richornamentation Taoist Temple in a picturesque setting Taoist Temple set up along with the topography of the place 34
  35. 35. DEITIES &I M M O R TA L S The Door Spirits are the The Kitchen Spirit spirits who guard the doors of houses. 35
  36. 36. BUDDHI SM 36
  37. 37. • Buddhism was • Chinese Buddhism refers introduced to China collectively to the various from India around the schools of Buddhism that have first century AD, since flourished in China since the fourth century AD, it ancient times. Buddhism has was widely spread and played an enormous role in gradually became the shaping the mindset of the most influential religion Chinese people, affecting their in China. aesthetics, politics, literature,• Because of varied philosophy and medicine. introduction time and channel as well as • The coming of Buddhism to regional, historic and China from India was a great social backgrounds, event in the development of Buddhism in China is Chinese culture and of divided into three Buddhism itself. 37 branches, namely
  38. 38. • After a long period of • It is said that in the year 2BC, Yi assimilation, it established Cun, an emissary of Dayuezhi itself as a major system of Kingdom (an ancient mid-Asian thought as well as a country established by a strong religious practice, Chinese minority originally contributing greatly to the living in northern China and later enrichment of Chinese moved to the west), went to philosophy and exercising Changan (todays Xian City) to and enduring influence on impact Buddist sutras to a the Chinese popular Chineses Doctor Jing Lu. And religion and on the mind this is the first record about the and character of the introduction of Buddhism into Chinese people. China.• Indeed, it became one of • There is another saying that the Three Pillars of the during the reign of the Indian traditional culture of King Asoka (272-226 BC), 18 China. Indians visited China’s Xianyang38• Buddhism was firstly City during the reign of Emperor
  39. 39. • The feature of Chinese • During the Southern and Northern Buddhism lies in the Dynasties(420-589) the ruling coexistence of Mahayana classes further helped the spread Buddhism and Hinayana of Buddhism by building Buddhism. temples and monasteries,• Buddhism was initiated in translating Buddhist sutras and India, developed in China constructing grottoes, and many and further expanded to famous monks, scholars and Japan and Korea. teachers emerged.• Indian Buddhists were • By the Sui and Tang threatened by the values and Dynasties(581-907), Buddhism socio-political structures of reached its apex of popularity and the Indian society dominated splendors, and different sects of by Hinduism and Islam and Buddhism had been formed in vanished between 9th China . century and 10th century in • Over a long period, Buddhism India while Buddhism were gradually took root in the feudal 39 developed rapidly in China society of China , intermingling
  40. 40. • The development of • Differing from other Chinese Buddhist religions temples, Chinese architecture can be traced Buddhist temples have many back to the introduction of characteristics of their own. Buddhism. • For example, similar to• The main Buddhist Chinese palaces and architectural icons include dwelling houses, they are TEMPLES, PAGODAS, comprised of a number of AND GROTTOES. small yards.• Buddhist architecture is • The oldest temple in China - regarded as a great art White Horse Temple is a treasure where sculpture, typical example of this. calligraphy and painting • Temple roofs were curved combine. because the Buddhist• Being the spiritual believed that it helped ward symbols of Buddhism, off evil spirits which were they are not only monastic believed to be straight lines. 40
  41. 41. BUDDHIST SYMBOLS • The umbrella • The Golden Fish • The Treasure Vase • The Lotus • The Conch Shell • The Endless Knot • The Victory Banner • The Dharma Wheel 41
  42. 42. • LOTUS: The Lotus • ENDLESS KNOT: The flower is one of the most endless knot is a geometric important religious diagram which symbolizes symbols in Buddhism. The that everything is lotus symbolizes purity interrelated. All living and enlightenment. Lotus things exist only as part of a flower symbol has been web of karma and its effect. depicted in some form or As the endless knot has no other in Buddhist art. beginning and no end, it also Especially, Buddha is often represents the infinite portrayed as sitting on a wisdom of Buddha. lotus while praying for enlightenment. • DHARMACHAKRA:• CONCH SHELL: The Dharmachakra is one of the conch shell is used in best known symbols of Buddhist rituals for Buddhism which is a gathering devotees turning wheel which 42
  43. 43. INFLUENCE OF BUDDHISM IN• H I influence of Buddhism onCThe N A • The introduction of Chinese culture is profound, Buddhism also exerted not only in terms of religion, subtle influence on Chinas but also literature, art, traditional customs and traditional customs, etc., social mores.• Ancient Chinese architecture, • It helped improve peoples being exquisite and view on life and the magnificent, especially further spreading of filial Buddhist temples, had its piety. configuration originated and • The principle of "Bad imitated from primitive deeds, as well as good, Buddhism of India. may rebound upon the• The development of sculpture, doer." is deeply rooted in painting and murals accelerated the society, causing people due to the prosperity of to do good deeds in order Buddhism in China. to pursue a better afterlife. 43• Yungang Grottoes located in • The advocacy of filial
  44. 44. BUDDHISM & ARCHITECTURE• The main Buddhist architecture • Buddhist temples tend to include temples, pagodas, and be decorated in red or grottos. black, and there is a main• The architectural styles of hall for a statue of a Buddhist temples in China were Bodhisattva, followed by a mainly formed in three periods: smaller hall with statues of  HAN DYNASTY other Buddhas and (206BC-220) - retention of deities. Indian styles. • The Chinese Buddhist  NORTHERN AND monastery or temple is SOUTHERN fashioned after the DYNASTIES (386-589)- imperial palaces and bears wooden framework was very little resemblance to added to the original styles. the temples in India or  TANG DYNASTY (618- other Buddhist countries. 907) - the styles of • Generally there are three 44 Buddhist temples were groups of buildings
  45. 45. • Grotto, another type of Buddhist architecture, is often chiseled into cliffs. In the 3rd century, Chinese Buddhists began to build grottoes and Xinjiang is the first area where grottoes were hewn.• Grottoes are decorated with painted sculptures, carvings The Long-men Grottoes in Henan Province and frescos.• Craftsmen revealed real life pictures and their understanding of 45 society in these art
  46. 46. Mogao GrottoesGrottoes of Zhongshan Mountain 46
  47. 47. PAGODA• Pagoda, symbol of Buddhism is often erected in temples.• Pagodas were made of stone, wood, colored glaze or metal.• Pagodas have an odd number of layers. Seven-layer and Nine- layer pagodas are commonly built.• The shape of cross-section is rectangular, eight-sided or even circular.• Initially, the pagoda served as the central axis alongside which rows of halls and monks rooms spread out.Later, pagodas were built near the main palace hall. 47• Chinese pagodas, in short, are a North Temple Pagoda
  48. 48. STUPA• Stupas appeared in China with the import of Buddhism and, during a long history of well over a thousand years, have become a valued part of the national Buddhist art.• Stupa, a word from ancient Sanskrit meaning a square or round tomb or a soul shrine’.• The perfect proportions of the Buddha’s body corresponds to the design of religious monuments - STUPAS• Its architecture developed from the pre- Buddhist Indian grave-mound.• Under these mounds the saintly ascetic were buried; their bodies were seated on the ground and covered with Beihei Park , Beijing 48 earth.
  49. 49. Stupa & Pagoda – Analogy with the 5 elements of nature 49
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