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                              Islamic
                        architecture
www.shahrilkhairi.com   Evolution of architectural history in Middle Age

                                      In this chapter, we will discuss on
                                      the following aspects:

                                      • Architectural factors
                                      • Main characteristics
                                      • Prominent style
                                      • Well-known architects

622 to 1600 AD           islamic
750 to 1250 AD      romanesque gothic                       1130 to 1500 AD
www.shahrilkhairi.com                                 Islamic Architecture
 Definition

 Islamic architecture can be define as a building traditions of Muslim
 populations of the Middle East and any countries where Islam has been
 dominant from the 7th century on.

 Types of Islamic Architecture

 • Mosque – muslim centre @ place for worship
 • Madrasah – public school
 • Hammam - A structural design for a hot bathhouse
 • Caravanserai - A roadside inn for travellers
 • Casbah/Citadel - a fortress
 • Mausoleum - a tomb or a monument
www.shahrilkhairi.com   Mosque Typology
www.shahrilkhairi.com                              Mosque Architectural Features




Mashrabiya – projecting window
enclosed with carved wood
latticework




Mihrab - semicircular niche in the          Sahn – a courtyard combine with
wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla   ablution area
www.shahrilkhairi.com                   Mosque Architectural Features




Minaret - visual focal point and   Dome - focal point and covering the main
are used for the call to prayer    prayer hall




Dikka – a place of delivering      Mimbar – a pulpit where imam deliver
royal message                      khutbah
www.shahrilkhairi.com                       Mosque Architectural Features




Muqarnas - stalactite vault, Persian
architectural ornament




Praying area hall – main area          Arch – structure that spans a space
to perform congregational pray         while supporting weight
www.shahrilkhairi.com   Mosque Architectural Features
www.shahrilkhairi.com   Islamic Decorative Elements
www.shahrilkhairi.com   Islamic Decorative Elements


                               Geometric
                               Pattern

                               These patterns exemplify
                               the Islamic interest in
                               repetition, balance,
                               symmetry and
                               continuous generation of
                               pattern.


                               The integration of
                               geometry with such
                               optical effects as the
                               balancing of positive
                               and negative areas, a
                               skillful use of color and
                               tone values.
www.shahrilkhairi.com                                  Islamic Decorative Elements




Arabesque (islimi)
Arabesque designs are biomorphic, floral patterns representing the underlying order and
unity of nature with a great deal of accuracy. flowers and trees might be used as the motifs
for the decoration of textiles, objects and buildings.
www.shahrilkhairi.com                                    Islamic Decorative Elements




Calligraphy
Like other Islamic decoration, calligraphy is closely linked to geometry. The proportions of
the letters are all governed by mathematics. Inscriptions are most often used as a frame
along and around main elements of a building like portals and cornices.
www.shahrilkhairi.com     Islamic Decorative Elements



                         Light


                        Light can add a dynamic quality to
                        architecture, extending patterns,
                        forms and designs into the
                        dimensions of time.

                        And the combination of light and
                        shade creates strong contrasts of
                        planes and gives texture to
                        sculpted stone, as well as stocked
                        or brick surfaces.
www.shahrilkhairi.com                                  Islamic Decorative Elements




Water
In hot Islamic climates, the water from courtyard pools and fountains cools as it
decorates. Water can not only reflect architecture and multiply the decorative themes, it
can also serve as a means of emphasizing the visual axes.
www.shahrilkhairi.com                    Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt)




Background History
• The construction of the building started in 1356 AD by Sultan Hassan and finished in 1363
AD by Basyir Aga, one of his prince.
• Historians believe the mosque used stone from the pyramids at Giza.
• One of the minarets collapsed during construction killing 300 people.
www.shahrilkhairi.com               Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt)
Characteristics
• the building become a
mosque and religious school
for all four juristic branches of
Sunni Islam – Shafi’e, Maliki,
Hanafi and Hambali.

• represent great Mamluk
architecture monument in
Cairo.

• The facade is about 76
meters long and 36 meters
high.

• The cornices, entrance portal
with pointed arch, burial
chamber, and the
monumental staircase are
particularly noteworthy.

• Verses from the Quran in
elegant Kufic and Thuluth
scripts adorn the inner walls.
Islamic architecture   Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt)
Islamic architecture           Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt)

                                    Madrasa of Hambali




                Madrasa of Hanafi                                 Madrasa of Maliki



                                                   Madrasa of Syafi’e
www.shahrilkhairi.com   Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain)
www.shahrilkhairi.com                     Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain)
Background History
• The Mezquita (Spanish for "Mosque") of Cordoba is now the cathedral of Cordoba
(officially the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption).

• The site previously is Roman temple before the mosque was constructed in the 8th
century. Finally, a cathedral was added inside the mosque by the Christian conquerors in
the early 13th century.

• The construction of the Mezquita lasted for over two centuries, starting in 784 AD under
the supervision of the emir of Cordoba, Abd ar-Rahman I. The Mosque underwent
numerous subsequent changes: Abd ar-Rahman III ordered a new minaret (9th century),
while Al-Hakam II enlarged the plan of the building and enriched the mihrab (961). The last
of the reforms, including the completion of the outer aisles and orange tree courtyard,
were completed by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir in 987.

• In 1236, Cordoba was captured from the Moors by King Ferdinand III of Castile and
rejoined Christendom. The Christians initially left the architecture Mezquita largely
undisturbed - they simply consecrated it, dedicated it to the Virgin Mary, and used it as a
place of Christian worship. King Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa
Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the structure of the mosque. The heavy, incongruous
Baroque choir was sanctioned in the very heart of the mosque by Charles V in the 1520s.
www.shahrilkhairi.com   Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain)
www.shahrilkhairi.com                       Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain)
Characteristics
• giant arches and its forest of over 856 (of an original 1,293) columns of jasper, onyx,
marble, and granite. These were taken from the Roman temple which had previously
occupied the site and other destroyed Roman buildings.

• The Mezquita also features richly gilded prayer niches and the mihrab, a domed shrine of
Byzantine mosaics built by Al Hakam II (961-76). In front of the Mihrab is the Maksoureh, a
kind of anteroom for the caliph and his court; its mosaics and plasterwork make it a
masterpiece of Islamic art.

• the 16th-century Baroque choir is an impressive sight, with an intricate ceiling and richly
carved 18th-century choir stalls.

• Outside the Mezquita is the Courtyard of the Orange Trees (Patio de los Naranjos), which
in springtime is perfumed with orange blossoms and has a beautiful fountain.

• The Torre del Alminar, the minaret once used to summon the faithful to prayer, has a
Baroque belfry.
www.shahrilkhairi.com             Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain)
                                  Wooden vault            Gilded dome over
                                                          the mihrab




           Intricacy decoration



                                                          Courtyard of the orange
                                                          tree


                                       Striped Vousoirs




Renaissanse choir of the
Cathedral                              Horseshoe Arch
www.shahrilkhairi.com                                      The Taj Mahal (Agra, India)
Historical background
• Taj Mahal was built in 22 years (1631-1653) with the orders of Shah Jahan and it was
dedicated to Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Bano Begum), the 14th wife of Shah. Shah Jahan's
real name was Shahab-ud-din, and he was known as Prince Khurram before ascending to
the throne in 1628.

• 20.000 workers labored and 32 crore rupees were spent during the construction of the
monument and it was built according to Islamic architecture with influence of Mughal
style.

• Taj Mahal means the’ Palace of the Crown’ because; Taj means “Crown” and Mahal
means “palace”.

• It is myth told that Shah Jahan got the hands of his sculptors and architects cut off so that
they would never be able to build a monument as magnificent and beautiful as the Taj
again and he even got their eyes pulled out so that they would never be able to witness
anything bigger and more beautiful than the monument that they had built during their
lifetime.
www.shahrilkhairi.com   The Taj Mahal (Agra, India)
www.shahrilkhairi.com   The Taj Mahal (Agra, India)
Characteristics
www.shahrilkhairi.com                                       The Taj Mahal (Agra, India)
Characteristics
•While the white domed marble mausoleum is its most familiar component, the Taj Mahal is
actually an integrated complex of structures.

•it is known that a large team of designers and craftsmen were responsible with Jahan
himself taking an active role. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is considered as the principal designer
with help of ustad Isa from Persia.

•refined elegance is a conspicuous contrast both to the Hindu architecture of pre-Islamic
India, with its thick walls, corbeled arches, and heavy lintels, and to the Indo-Islamic styles,
in which Hindu elements are combined with an eclectic assortment of motifs from Persian
and Turkish sources

• The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each
element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the
principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.

• The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate
garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right). The Taj is at the farthest end of
this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it. The large garden contains four reflecting
pools dividing it at the center.
www.shahrilkhairi.com
www.shahrilkhairi.com
www.shahrilkhairi.com



                              To be continued..




                        Romanesque
                         architecture

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History of islamic architecture

  • 1. www.shahrilkhairi.com Islamic architecture
  • 2. www.shahrilkhairi.com Evolution of architectural history in Middle Age In this chapter, we will discuss on the following aspects: • Architectural factors • Main characteristics • Prominent style • Well-known architects 622 to 1600 AD islamic 750 to 1250 AD romanesque gothic 1130 to 1500 AD
  • 3. www.shahrilkhairi.com Islamic Architecture Definition Islamic architecture can be define as a building traditions of Muslim populations of the Middle East and any countries where Islam has been dominant from the 7th century on. Types of Islamic Architecture • Mosque – muslim centre @ place for worship • Madrasah – public school • Hammam - A structural design for a hot bathhouse • Caravanserai - A roadside inn for travellers • Casbah/Citadel - a fortress • Mausoleum - a tomb or a monument
  • 4. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque Typology
  • 5. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque Architectural Features Mashrabiya – projecting window enclosed with carved wood latticework Mihrab - semicircular niche in the Sahn – a courtyard combine with wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla ablution area
  • 6. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque Architectural Features Minaret - visual focal point and Dome - focal point and covering the main are used for the call to prayer prayer hall Dikka – a place of delivering Mimbar – a pulpit where imam deliver royal message khutbah
  • 7. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque Architectural Features Muqarnas - stalactite vault, Persian architectural ornament Praying area hall – main area Arch – structure that spans a space to perform congregational pray while supporting weight
  • 8. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque Architectural Features
  • 9. www.shahrilkhairi.com Islamic Decorative Elements
  • 10. www.shahrilkhairi.com Islamic Decorative Elements Geometric Pattern These patterns exemplify the Islamic interest in repetition, balance, symmetry and continuous generation of pattern. The integration of geometry with such optical effects as the balancing of positive and negative areas, a skillful use of color and tone values.
  • 11. www.shahrilkhairi.com Islamic Decorative Elements Arabesque (islimi) Arabesque designs are biomorphic, floral patterns representing the underlying order and unity of nature with a great deal of accuracy. flowers and trees might be used as the motifs for the decoration of textiles, objects and buildings.
  • 12. www.shahrilkhairi.com Islamic Decorative Elements Calligraphy Like other Islamic decoration, calligraphy is closely linked to geometry. The proportions of the letters are all governed by mathematics. Inscriptions are most often used as a frame along and around main elements of a building like portals and cornices.
  • 13. www.shahrilkhairi.com Islamic Decorative Elements Light Light can add a dynamic quality to architecture, extending patterns, forms and designs into the dimensions of time. And the combination of light and shade creates strong contrasts of planes and gives texture to sculpted stone, as well as stocked or brick surfaces.
  • 14. www.shahrilkhairi.com Islamic Decorative Elements Water In hot Islamic climates, the water from courtyard pools and fountains cools as it decorates. Water can not only reflect architecture and multiply the decorative themes, it can also serve as a means of emphasizing the visual axes.
  • 15. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt) Background History • The construction of the building started in 1356 AD by Sultan Hassan and finished in 1363 AD by Basyir Aga, one of his prince. • Historians believe the mosque used stone from the pyramids at Giza. • One of the minarets collapsed during construction killing 300 people.
  • 16. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt) Characteristics • the building become a mosque and religious school for all four juristic branches of Sunni Islam – Shafi’e, Maliki, Hanafi and Hambali. • represent great Mamluk architecture monument in Cairo. • The facade is about 76 meters long and 36 meters high. • The cornices, entrance portal with pointed arch, burial chamber, and the monumental staircase are particularly noteworthy. • Verses from the Quran in elegant Kufic and Thuluth scripts adorn the inner walls.
  • 17. Islamic architecture Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt)
  • 18. Islamic architecture Mosque of Sultan Hassan (Cairo, Egypt) Madrasa of Hambali Madrasa of Hanafi Madrasa of Maliki Madrasa of Syafi’e
  • 19. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain)
  • 20. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain) Background History • The Mezquita (Spanish for "Mosque") of Cordoba is now the cathedral of Cordoba (officially the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption). • The site previously is Roman temple before the mosque was constructed in the 8th century. Finally, a cathedral was added inside the mosque by the Christian conquerors in the early 13th century. • The construction of the Mezquita lasted for over two centuries, starting in 784 AD under the supervision of the emir of Cordoba, Abd ar-Rahman I. The Mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd ar-Rahman III ordered a new minaret (9th century), while Al-Hakam II enlarged the plan of the building and enriched the mihrab (961). The last of the reforms, including the completion of the outer aisles and orange tree courtyard, were completed by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir in 987. • In 1236, Cordoba was captured from the Moors by King Ferdinand III of Castile and rejoined Christendom. The Christians initially left the architecture Mezquita largely undisturbed - they simply consecrated it, dedicated it to the Virgin Mary, and used it as a place of Christian worship. King Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the structure of the mosque. The heavy, incongruous Baroque choir was sanctioned in the very heart of the mosque by Charles V in the 1520s.
  • 21. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain)
  • 22. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain) Characteristics • giant arches and its forest of over 856 (of an original 1,293) columns of jasper, onyx, marble, and granite. These were taken from the Roman temple which had previously occupied the site and other destroyed Roman buildings. • The Mezquita also features richly gilded prayer niches and the mihrab, a domed shrine of Byzantine mosaics built by Al Hakam II (961-76). In front of the Mihrab is the Maksoureh, a kind of anteroom for the caliph and his court; its mosaics and plasterwork make it a masterpiece of Islamic art. • the 16th-century Baroque choir is an impressive sight, with an intricate ceiling and richly carved 18th-century choir stalls. • Outside the Mezquita is the Courtyard of the Orange Trees (Patio de los Naranjos), which in springtime is perfumed with orange blossoms and has a beautiful fountain. • The Torre del Alminar, the minaret once used to summon the faithful to prayer, has a Baroque belfry.
  • 23. www.shahrilkhairi.com Mosque of Cordova (Andalusia, Spain) Wooden vault Gilded dome over the mihrab Intricacy decoration Courtyard of the orange tree Striped Vousoirs Renaissanse choir of the Cathedral Horseshoe Arch
  • 24. www.shahrilkhairi.com The Taj Mahal (Agra, India) Historical background • Taj Mahal was built in 22 years (1631-1653) with the orders of Shah Jahan and it was dedicated to Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Bano Begum), the 14th wife of Shah. Shah Jahan's real name was Shahab-ud-din, and he was known as Prince Khurram before ascending to the throne in 1628. • 20.000 workers labored and 32 crore rupees were spent during the construction of the monument and it was built according to Islamic architecture with influence of Mughal style. • Taj Mahal means the’ Palace of the Crown’ because; Taj means “Crown” and Mahal means “palace”. • It is myth told that Shah Jahan got the hands of his sculptors and architects cut off so that they would never be able to build a monument as magnificent and beautiful as the Taj again and he even got their eyes pulled out so that they would never be able to witness anything bigger and more beautiful than the monument that they had built during their lifetime.
  • 25. www.shahrilkhairi.com The Taj Mahal (Agra, India)
  • 26. www.shahrilkhairi.com The Taj Mahal (Agra, India) Characteristics
  • 27. www.shahrilkhairi.com The Taj Mahal (Agra, India) Characteristics •While the white domed marble mausoleum is its most familiar component, the Taj Mahal is actually an integrated complex of structures. •it is known that a large team of designers and craftsmen were responsible with Jahan himself taking an active role. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is considered as the principal designer with help of ustad Isa from Persia. •refined elegance is a conspicuous contrast both to the Hindu architecture of pre-Islamic India, with its thick walls, corbeled arches, and heavy lintels, and to the Indo-Islamic styles, in which Hindu elements are combined with an eclectic assortment of motifs from Persian and Turkish sources • The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements. • The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right). The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it. The large garden contains four reflecting pools dividing it at the center.
  • 30. www.shahrilkhairi.com To be continued.. Romanesque architecture