Current Issues in Brain Development ECE 275 Lynlee Lusk
(Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)According to Monastra, ADHD is “a psychiatric disorder that is characterized by symptoms of inattention…. These symptoms occur prior to 7 years of age. The condition does not disappear with age; it is likely to cause impairment throughout a person’s life” (Monastra 18).
Fidgeting/squirming Inappropriate running / Lack of attention to details / climbing Makes careless mistakes Difficulty with quiet activities Poor listening skills Often interrupts or intrudes Does not follow through on on others tasks Excessive talking Difficulty with organization Blurting answers Loses things Cannot wait his / her turn Easily distracted Avoids tasks requiring Forgetful sustained mental effort Leaving seathttp://pediatrics.about.com/cs /adhd/l/bl_adhd_quiz.htm
ADHD is caused by changes in brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters help send messages between nerve cells in the brain. Dopamine is an example of a neurotransmitter and low amounts of dopamine will cause symptoms of ADHD to appear (Sweeney 88).
The ADHD brain lacks the development of the prefrontal cortex. Without this development the brain must processes incoming information in other areas. Genetic or environmental? 3%-10% of Americans have ADHD. It is more common in boys than girls. The multi-media world may explain the increased number of children diagnosed with ADHD (Sweeney 88).
Monastra explains the long-term outcome for ADHD children when he says “ADHD (is) indeed a health impairment that, when untreated, increased a person’s risk for failure at school, for involvement in substance abuse and criminal activities, and for the development of a variety of problems at work and in social relationships” (21). A child’s frequent, uncontrolled behavior not only affects the immediately family but has a profound impact in the child’s classroom.
The perspective of the child should not be forgotten. “The overall goal of this…approach is for patients…to develop a good understanding of their personal profile and to increasingly become self-advocates” (Felt, Lumeng, Christner 640). The goal is based on behavioral modifications; education, practice, time and patience. This takes consistency on the part of the parents, teachers and caregivers.
MeMoves was initially created to use in the special needs classroom. Can be used as a transition tool, to calm a distressed child, and as a way to increase attention. Appropriate for preschool through 3rd grade and all those with special needs. Cross crawl, Lazy 8s, The Double Doodle, Brain/Earth Buttons http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLHt1Xk0hKA&f eature=related
Felt, B., Lumeng, J., and Christner, J. 2009. Multimodal Treatment of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in Children. American Family Physician 79, no. 8, (April 15): 640, 642. Monastra, Vincent J. Parenting Children with ADHD: 10 Lessons That Medicine Cannot Teach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2006. Print. Rabiner, D., D. Murray, A. Skinner, and P. Malone. 2010. A Randomized Trial of Two Promising Computer-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Difficulties. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 38, no. 1. (January 1): 131-142.
Dennison, Gail E. & Paul E. Brain Gym. Hearts at Play, Inc. 2010. Print. Monastra, Vincent J. Parenting Children with ADHD: 10 Lessons That Medicine Cannot Teach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2006. Print Sweeney, Michael S. BRAIN The Complete Mind. National Geographic Society, 2009. Print.