Module 3 islamic architecture under imperial rule


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  • Qutub-ud-din Aibak - He was an able ruler and was very kind and generous with his people. Due to his good nature, he earned the title of "LakhBaksh", which means giver of thousands. He could rule for a very short time as he died in an accident in 1210.
  • Module 3 islamic architecture under imperial rule

    1. 1. Module – 3Islamic architecture under Imperial style Dr. Binumol Tom Professor Dept. of Architecture, College of Engineering, Trivandrum
    2. 2. Islamic architecture under Imperial style• Slave, Khalji, Tughlak, Sayyid, Lodi and Sher Shah Suri- Minarets, Tomb, Mosques in Afghanistan, Delhi and Sasaram;
    3. 3. Islamic architecture under Imperial style The Delhi or the Imperial Style of Indo-Islamic architecture flourished between 1191-1557 AD and covered Muslim dynasties viz.,• Slave (1191-1246),• Khalji (1290-1320),• Tughlaq (1320-1413),• Sayyid (1414-1444) and• Lodi (1451-1557). The first Islamic sultanate structures were built of disparate dismantled pieces of Hindu temples, after which came an era of carefully planned structures and precincts, later assimilating and incorporating Hindu elements and workmanship.
    4. 4. Slave Dynasty - 1206 to 1290.First Muslim dynasty to rule India.• Muhammad Ghori• Qutub-ud-din Aibak descended the throne. The first ruler of the slave dynasty was Qutub-ud-din Aibak who ruled from 1206 to 1210. He established his capital at two places, first at Lahore and then shifted it to Delhi. It was during his reign that the construction of the famous Qutub Minar started. He was succeeded by his son Aram Shah but due to his incompetence, he was defeated in just one year by Iltumish. Iltumish - 1211 to 1236. Under his strong governance, the slave dynasty was able to find a strong footing and establish itself as an important kingdom. It was during his reign that the construction of Qutub Minar got completed. After ruling successfully for a period of 25 years, he died, but nominated his daughter Raziya Sultan as the heir to the throne. She was an able ruler, but since she was a woman, she faced stern opposition from nobles who got her murdered. Ghiyasuddin Balban The last effective emperor of the slave dynasty was Ghiyasuddin Balban. He ruled from 1266 to 1286. During his reign, the administration was strengthened and he paid much attention to governance in his empire. The army was trained effectively to use weapons and the production of arms and other war weaponry was at its peak. This is what helped them fight against attacks by the Mongols. He died in 1286 and after him the slave dynasty collapsed.
    5. 5. Qutb Minar• Qutb-Minar in red and buff standstone is the highest stone tower in India.• It has a diameter of 14.32 m at the base and about 2.75 m on the top with a height of 72.5 m.• Qutbud-Din Aibak laid the foundation of Minar in AD 1199 for the use of the muazzin (crier) to give calls for prayer and raised the first storey, to which were added three more storeys by his successor and son-in- law, Shamsud-Din Iltutmish (AD 1211-36).
    6. 6. Base – 47ft diameterTop – 9ftCentral staircase – 360 stepscircle and star edged projectionscircle projectionsstellarplain circle
    7. 7. • All the storeys are surrounded by a projected balcony encircling the minar and supported by stalactite pendentive stone brackets, which are decorated with honey-comb design, more conspicuously in the first storey.• 360 steps
    8. 8. Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque• Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, to the north-east of minar was built by Qutbud-Din Aibak in AD 1198.• It is the earliest extant mosque built by the Delhi Sultans.
    9. 9. Quwwat-ul-Islam MosqueIt consists of arectangularcourtyard enclosedby cloisters,erected with thecarved columnsand architecturalmembers of 27Hindu and Jainatemples whichwere demolishedby Qutbud-DinAibak as recordedin his inscriptionon the maineastern entrance.
    10. 10. Tomb of Iltumish
    11. 11. • North-west of the enlarged mosque at the Qutb, built a little before A.D. 1235.• A square 42 feet in side and with a height of almost 30 feet, its plain and unadorned exteriors• its interior - the whole of which is covered from top to bottom on all four sides by rich carvings almost rivaling Hindu temple sculpture on the sandstone-clad walls.• The cenotaph and the three arches of the mehrab towards the west(marking the direction of Mecca) are both in marble, again a garland of inscriptions from the Quran.
    12. 12. • Architecturally speaking, Iltutmishs tomb is interesting as it reveals quite clearly the first attempt in India to solve the dome on a square problem - a squinch was employed - a half- arch/dome spanning across the corners of the square base and making the square an octagon.• This can be repeated to transform the octagon into a sixteen-sided figure on which the base of the dome may rest. That the dome, if ever fully built, subsequently collapsed was a testimony to the fact that the it was imperfectly constructed - however an important start had been made and future attempts in this direction were to grow ever more confident.
    13. 13. • Iltutmish constructed the tomb for his son Nasir- ud-din Mohammed - the so-called Sultan Ghari or Sultan of the Cave.• This is probably due to the subterranean tomb chamber.• The octagonal platform For the first time in India a strange and novel way of laying the dead to above was probably eternal rest - burying them with a intended to support a tomb as a monumental cenotaph. pillared pavilion, the whole of which has disappeared or was never built.
    14. 14. • The crypt or the tomb is implanted in a Ghari (cave), approached by winding steep stairs made of stone, and supported by pillars and flooring.• The cave is covered by an unusual octagonal roof slab.• The exterior of the tomb structure built in Delhi sandstone with marble adornment exhibits a walled area with bastions (towers) on corners, which impart it the look of a fortress in aesthetic Persian and Oriental architecture.• The other tombs inside the Ghari have not been identified.
    15. 15. • This platform was surrounded by a square masonry arcade on a high plinth, and according to Percy Brown, it has "such a grim and martial appearance that one of its more remote purposes may have been to serve as some kind of advanced outwork to the main fortress of the capital"
    16. 16. Colonnade inside Sultan Ghari
    17. 17. • Ghiyas ud din Balban‟s Tomb of Balban, Tomb (12th Century) at Mehrouli Mehrauli has great architectural importance since it is the first true arch ever built in India.• Balban was the third sultanate ruler of importance. He was a brilliant administrator and is known in history as a dynamic ruler who consolidated territories.• Balban‟s tomb has a multi- chambered tomb and key stone was used for the construction of the arches, making it very unique.
    18. 18. Tomb of Balban
    19. 19. Ruins of the Tomb of Balban
    20. 20. Khalji Dynasty 1290 - 1320• Firoz Jallal –ud – din Khalji (1290) – ascended the throne of Delhi at the age of 70• Ala-ud-din Khalji – murdered Jallal-ud-din – crowned himself the King• He stamped out the last embers of Hindu rule (by annexing Gujarat, Ranthambor and ChittoorArchitectural projects – marks the evolution of another innovative feature in the Indo-Islamic architecture.• Alai Darwaza at Qutb complex (Darwaza near the Qutub Minar which served as an entrance gateway to the mosque at the Qutub complex )• Alai Hauz at Hauz Khas (reservoir at Hauz Khas around 1311AD)• New city of Siri fort (second city of Delhi )• Alai minar• Jamat Khana Masjid near Nizamuddin in Delhi• Ukha Masjid in Bharatpur in Rajasthan were also built during this period.
    21. 21. • Indian carver effortlessly carved Quranic inscriptional Alai Darwaza bands• Horse shoe shaped arch• Slender pilaster works• Intrados of the arch – spear head fringe (garland of buds)• treatment of outer façade as two storeyed building with blind windows in its non existent upper storey – enticing technique• Star and hexagon jaalis – create intricate and complex pattern – forerunner to what mughals later elevated to great works of art• Jaali – sensible architectural device (illumination and ventilation) – contrast to dark interiors of hindu temples
    22. 22. Alai Darwaza• Blend of red sandstone and white marble as facing materials• 56 ft (17m) square base• Dome – 34ft (10.3m)• Squinches constructed of true arches
    23. 23. Qutb complex with extensions carried out by Ala-ud-din Khalji
    24. 24. Qutb complex with extensions carried out by Ala-ud-din Khalji
    25. 25. • Quwat-ul-isam mosque – Iltumish enlarged the size by three times- while Ala-ud-din by six times by adding another cloister around the existing one• Northern side - added Alai Minar – 21.3 m high rubble stump exists today – he envisaged the minar to be higher than qutb minar.
    26. 26. Alai Minar
    27. 27. 8 cities of Delhi 5 6 1. Lalkot 2. Siri 3. Tughlakabad 4. Jahanpanah 5. Firozabad 2 6. Purana Quila 4 7. Shahjahanabad1 3 8. New Delhi
    28. 28. Tughlaq Dynasty(1320-1413)• The rulers of the Tughlaq Dynasty also undertook considerable construction activities, including building three of the seven ancient cities of Delhi.• Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325 AD) built Tughlaqabad, the third city of Delhi, in 1321-23 AD.• The Tomb of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, built of red sandstone, is an irregular pentagon in its exterior plan and its design is of the pointed or "Tartar" shape and is crowned by a finial resembling the kalasa and amla of a Hindu temple.
    29. 29. Tomb of Giyasudin Tughaq• Walls made an angle of 75degree with ground (multan influence)• Plan based on the contours of the site• Tomb is connected to the fortress by a 250 yards (228.6m) causeway, built over what at one time would have been a sheet of water, today dry land• Square tomb – 61 ft side• Height – 80 ft• Arch and lintel construction – mixed attitude of the hindu builders to arched and lintel and beam method• True arch + redundant stone lintel intalled just below the springing of the arch
    30. 30. Tughlaq Dynasty(1320-1413)• Delhis fourth city Jahanpanah was built by Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq in mid- 14th century.• Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388 AD) was undoubtedly the greatest builder among all the rulers of the Tughlaq dynasty. He himself wrote in Fatuhat-i-Feroz Shah "among the gifts which God bestowed on me, His humble servant, was a desire to erect public buildings".• He built Ferozabad, Delhis fifth city, in 1354 AD. The famous Firoz Shah Kotla ground is the only remnant of its past glory.• Feroz Shah Tughlaq is also credited with founding the fortified cities of Jaunpur, Fathabad and Hissar.
    31. 31. Citadel of Firoz shah kotla• 800 m X 400m• Private palaces, mosques, harems of royal court, gardens, baths, tanks, barracks, armory, servant quarters E River Yamuna Diwani khas Diwan-i-am Main entrance W
    32. 32. Three tiered structureEvery platform is set back fromthe preceding one to createterraces in front of a series ofcompartmentsInspiration - terraced BuddhistviharasInhabited by the concubines ofthe KingInfluence – pseudo militaristicstyle of Ghiyas-ud-dinStone stambha of Asoka period
    33. 33. • His construction works were of a unique simple style characterised by the use of inexpensive materials. The medieval rulers, who were used to the convenience of choosing new locations for starting new constructions, rarely adopted restoration of previous buildings.• It was only Feroze Shah Tughlaq who took up large-scale restoration works and repaired hundreds of monuments, including the Qutub Minar which was damaged by lightening in 1369 AD.• The Kali Masjid (c.1370 AD), the Khirki Masjid (c.1375 AD) and the Kalan Masjid (c.1375 AD) also belong to this period, the last two being raised on a tahkhana or substructure of arches.
    34. 34. Kalan masjid Built over a platform or basement often raised more than 12ft (3.6m) above ground level Imposing flights of steps leading from ground level upto the entrance gateway Dominating gateway Central courtyard Lower periphery of the erected basement became deep arched niches, big enough in size to use either as living rooms or the attendant priests, or hops or even dormitories for pilgrims on festive occasions
    35. 35. • Khirki Masjid belongs to the Indo-Islamic style of Khirki masjid architecture• The Indo-Islamic style of architecture is a distinctive blend of Islamic as well as traditional Hindu style of architecture• Its roof is a unique thing, which is unheard of in Islamic mosque architecture.• The presence of a number of domes on the roof covering the mosque and the latticework (jali) on the windows are suggestive of the Islamic style of architecture.• The pillars and brackets within this structure show local Hindu influence.
    36. 36. Khirki masjid
    37. 37. • It is a small quadrangle-shaped mosque, and the only one of its kind-a mosque, which is closed on top!• Mosques usually have an open courtyard where the faithfuls offer their prayers to God.• Khirki Masjid has elaborate latticework on its windows (carved stone screens), but compared to the intricate patterns of the later-day Mughal buildings, it is simple.• The pillars and brackets in the mosque show a high degree of indigenous influence.• The roof of the Khirki Masjid is divided into squares through which sunlight streams in. Most of the squares, however, sport groups of domes on them.• The mosque, which is built with rubble masonry covered externally with plaster, has majestic steps leading up to it.
    38. 38. Hauz Khas Complex• The etymology of the name Hauz Khas in Urdu language is derived from the words „Hauz‟: “water tank” (or lake) and „Khas‟:“royal”- the “Royal tank”. Hauz Khas, South Delhi houses a water tank, an Islamic seminary, a mosque, a tomb and pavilions built around an urbanized village with medieval history traced to the 13th century of Delhi Sultanate reign.• The large water tank or reservoir was first built by Khalji {the plaque displayed (pictured in the gallery) at the site records this fact} to supply water to the inhabitants of Siri.• It was part of Siri, the second medieval city of India of the Delhi Sultanate of Allauddin Khilji Dynasty (1296–1316).
    39. 39. Hauz KhasThe tank was de–silted during the reignof Firuz Shah Tughlaq(1351–88). Severalbuildings (Mosque and madrasa) and tombswere built overlooking the water tank or lake.Firuz Shah‟s tomb pivots the L–shapedbuilding complex which overlooks the tank
    40. 40. Tomb of Firoz shah• Among the notable buildings of historical importance that he built within Hauz Khas precincts is the domed tomb for himself.• The tomb which is very austere in appearance, is located at the intersection of the two arms of the L– shaped building which constitutes the madrasa.• Entry to the tomb is through a passage in the south leading to the doorway.• The passage wall is raised on a plinth which depicts the shape of a fourteen phased polyhedron built in stones.• Three horizontal units laid over eight vertical posts that are chamfered constitute the plinth.
    41. 41. Tomb of Firoz shah• Squinches and muqarnas are seen in the solid interior walls of the tomb and these provide the basic support to the octagonal spherical dome of the tomb.• The dome with a square plan – 14.8 m (48.6 ft) in length and height – has a diameter of 8.8 m (28.9 ft).• The maximum height of the tomb is on its face overlooking the reservoir.• The domed gateway on the north has an opening which has height equal to two–thirds the height of the tomb.• The width of the gate is equal to one-third of tombs width.• The entrance hall has fifteen bays and terminates in another doorway which is identical to the gateway at the entrance.• This second doorway leads to the tomb chamber and cenotaph, which are accessed from the gateway through the L–shaped corridor. Similar arrangement is replicated on the western doorway of the tomb leading to the open pavilion on the west.
    42. 42. Tomb of Firoz shah• The ceiling in the dome depicts a circular gold medallion with Quranic inscriptions in Naksh characters.• Foliated crenellations are seen on the outer faces of the base of the tomb. Interesting features seen on the northern and southern sides of the tomb, considered typical of the Tuglaq period layout, are the ceremonial steps provided at the ground level that connect to the larger steps leading into the reservoir.• The tomb, a square chamber, is made of local quartzite rubble with a surface plaster finish that sparkled in white colour when completed. The door, pillars and lintels were made of grey quartzites while red sandstone was used for carvings of the battlements. The door way depicts a blend of Indian and Islamic architecture. Another new feature not seen at any other monument in Delhi, built at the entrance to the tomb from the south, is the stone railings.• There are four graves inside the tomb, one is of Feruz Shah and two others are of his son and grand son.• The main impression is one of solidity and lack of decoration(typical of Tuglaq style).
    43. 43. Tomb of Telangani• Firoz shah‟s prime minister Khan-e-jahan Telengani built in Nizamudin auliya area• Octagonal plan• Over this circular dome was installed – leaving aside the cumbersome process of arching across the right angular corners• Builders were inspired by the similar octagonal plan of the sacred Mosque of Oman in Jerusalem• Crypt with verandah on all its eight sides• Huge dome and side smaller domes• Triple arched facades• Typical Hindu chajjas to provide for sun breakers – light and shade in the interiors
    44. 44. Octagonal tomb of Telangani
    45. 45. Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1444)• In the 14th century under the Timurid rulers, Islamic architecture underwent a change.• The narrow horseshoe arch was replaced by the true arch, an idea imported directly from Persia. However, Indian masons weren‟t completely convinced of its holding power.• They began using wooden beams as supports, and eventually the four- centred arch minus the beam support came into vogue.• During the Sayyid and the Lodi Dynasties, more than fifty tombs of different sizes were constructed.• The Tombs of Mubarak Sayyid (d. 1434 AD), Muhammad Sayyid (d.1444 AD) are of the octagonal type.
    46. 46. Tomb of Mubarak Sayyid • The Mubarak Sayyid Tomb is octagonal in plan with a massive dome and eight octagonal roof kiosks (chhatri) on each side. • The roof kiosks occupy the middle of the sides and stone buttresses are set at the vacant corners of the structure. • This design gives the tomb a pyramidal effect as a whole. • The funerary mosque stands near the tomb, and it is assumed that the tomb and mosque once stood within precinct walls. • This is the only mosque built by the Sayyids.
    47. 47. Tomb of Mubarak Sayyid (1434 AD)• Enlargement and refinement of the proportions of Tughlaq prototype• 9 m long side of octagon with arched colonnade• The merlons on the parapet and kiosks above the verandahs• 15 m high dome squatly placed over 21 m wide octagonal base – improved in tomb of Muhammed Sayyid a decade later
    48. 48. Tomb of Mubarak Sayyid
    49. 49. Tomb of Muhammad Shah Sayyid• This beautiful octagonal maqbara (tomb) of Muhammad Shah Sayyid is located near the south-west corner of the Lodi Garden.• The tomb was built in 1444 for the third Sayyid sultan Muhammad Shah.• The architecture follows the style of the Khan-i-Jahan Telangani maqbara and the Mubarak Shah Sayyid maqbara with some modifications.• It has a fuller dome on a raised seat surrounded by chhatris.• Each of the octagonal side has a three-arch opening, bordered by inclined columns at each corner. This is arguably the best example of Sayyid monuments.• The tomb is beautifully ornamented and some of the orginal coloured plaster-work is still visible.
    50. 50. Lodi Dynasty (1451-1557)• The Lodis introduced the concept of double domes built one upon the other, leaving some space in between.• Two different types of tombs with octagonal and square plans respectively began to be constructed.• The Tombs of Sikander Lodi (d.1517 AD) is of the octagonal type.• The square tombs are represented by such monuments as the Bara Khan Ka Gumbad, Chota Khan Ka Gumbad, Bara Gumbad (1494 AD), Shish Gumbad, Dadi Ka Gumbad and the Poli ka Gumbad.• The Tomb of Isa Khan (1547 AD), the Tomb of Adham Khan (1561 AD), Moth ki Masjid (c.1505 AD), Jamala Masjid (1536 AD) and the Qila-i-Kuhna Masjid (c.1550 AD) belong to the final phase of the Delhi style of architecture.
    51. 51. Gumbads of the Lodis• Gumbads – Domes• These are tomb structures• Large and impressive boat keel profiled domes crowning the tombs – outstanding architectural features
    52. 52. Garden tombs of Lodi• Double Dome – outer dome to splendid heights, without allowing the inner chamber to appear un proportionately tall.• Inner and outer dome with void inside – perfect proportion in interior as well as exterior• Ornamental garden – tombs in gardens, formal and elaborate arrangement.
    53. 53. Tomb of Sikander Lodi (1518 AD)• A copy of tomb of Mubarak Sayyid, the kiosks being removed and replaced by semi – minarets called Gulsastas attached the base• Placement of tomb within a garden, Lodi Gardens in New Delhi – a formal and elaborate arrangement along with impressive gateways – clue for the development of “Garden and tomb” of the Mughals
    54. 54. Garden tomb of Sikander Lodi
    55. 55. Garden tomb of Sikander Lodi• Sikandar Lodi was the second of the Lodi sultans, who had built his capital in Sikandarabad near Agra. His maqbara (tomb) was built in 1517-18 in the Sayyid-Lodi style of octagonal tombs. This maqbara is similar in design to the Muhammad Shah Sayyid maqbara in the South-West corner of the Lodi Garden, except that: a) A large wall enclosure surrounds the tomb, of which the western wall serves the purpose of a mosque b) There are no chhatris around the dome c) The dome is a double-dome d) At the top of the dome, there is a lotus in stead of a small chhatri
    56. 56. Garden tomb of Sikander Lodi• Further into the gardens, are remains of a watercourse connected to the Yamuna River to Sikander Lodis tomb.• The tomb of Mohammed Shah, the last of the Sayyid dynasty rulers, the earliest of the tombs in the garden, was built in 1444 by Ala-ud-din Alam Shah as a tribute to Mohammed Shah.
    57. 57. Bara Gumbad• Bara Gumbad, or Big Dome, consist of a square tomb with a predominant white dome, built during the Lodi period (1451-1526).• it consists of a large rubble-construct dome, it is not a tomb but a gateway to an attached a three domed masjid (mosque), both built in 1494 during the reign of Sikander Lodi, there is also a residence surrounding a central courtyard, where the remains of a water tank can be seen.
    58. 58. • There is also Bara Bara Gumbad Gumbad Mosque, with three domes Mosque and five arched openings.• The interior of the mosque is heavily decorated with florals, geometric designs and holy inscriptions.• The hall in front of the mosque served as a guest house.• There are remains of a water tank in the courtyard.
    59. 59. Bara Khan Ka Gumbad
    60. 60. Sheesh Gumbad• Opposite theBara Gumbad is the Sheesh Gumbad ("Glass dome") for the glazed tiles used in its construction, which contains the remains of an unknown family, this was also built during the reign of Sikander Lodi.
    61. 61. Chota Khan Ka Gumbad• Sited next to the larger Bara Khan Tomb, this square-plan tomb has a double-storey division on the exterior, with a central liwan projecting out on each façade.• The spandrels of the portal arch are decorated with carved stucco.• Its high dome is flanked by four hexagonal roof kiosks (chhatri) at the corners.• The interior has a mihrab niche on the western side, decorated with a lamp motif.
    62. 62. Moth-ki- masjid (1505 AD)
    63. 63. • "Pavilion" tombs are open Pavilion Tombs tombs also known as chattris (literally "umbrellas") or twelve- pillared tombs.• They were present in Tughlaq architecture, such as in Shah Alams tomb enclosure and the Hauz Khas madrasa and carried on into the Lodhi period. Tughlaq-era pavilion tombs (second half of 14th c.) at the Hauz Khas madrasa
    64. 64. THE SURIS (1540 – 1555 AD)• An Afghan usurper, Sher Shah Sur seizes the throne of Delhi in 1540 AD for 15 years period – results in Humayun‟s exile to Persia• Built Purana Qila or Old Fort (the sixth Delhi) – a walled enclosure of considerable size forming citadel• Inspired by Lodis – use of Lodi prototype
    65. 65. The history of Old Fort (purana quila)• The Old Fort is one of the most visited tourist places of Delhi.• Purana Qila is a citadel which was partly raised by Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri, who was temporarily deposed Humayun.• Sher Shah made a major contribution to public works, built the Qila Kunha Mosque and the Sher Mandal within the citadel in 1541 A.D.• The purpose of the later is not quite clear though it is thought that Humayun housed his library there.• He fell on its steep stairs while answering the call to prayer, and died as a result three days later.
    66. 66. • Located at the highest point of the Old Fort in Delhi known as Purana Qila, Sher mandal Sher Mandal may have been built by Mughal emperor Humayun as an astronomical library and pleasure tower during his rule in Delhi between 1530 and 1556, which was interrupted for fifteen years by the Afghan Suri Dynasty.• Some historians attribute it to Suri ruler Sher Shah Sur (1540-1545) based on vague references to the building in his biography Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi, commissioned by Mughal emperor Akbar in 1579.• There is no epigraphical evidence to support either claim.
    67. 67. • In any case, Sher Mandal along with Qila-i- Kuhna Masjid, is one of two surviving Sher mandal structures within the fort ramparts from the mid sixteenth century.• The building is a two story octagonal structure crowned with a pillared and domed pavilion (chattri).• Built entirely of local red sandstone, both stories are punctuated with deeply recessed arched niches on each side of the octagon.• While the niches on the second story are connected to form a verandah around a central chamber, those on the lower story only allow for entry arches into the tower.• The upper chamber is cruciform in plan and opens into a verandah through four doors. Continuous eaves (chajja) runs below the roof parapet.
    68. 68. Quila Kunha Masjid• Inside the fort Qila Kuhna Masjid which is one of the finest example of architectural style being used in those days.• The Masjid was built by Sher Shah in 1541 and it seems that there was an attempt to build the whole structure in Marble.• But the scarcity of marble forced the use of Redsand stone.• This mixture was accidental forced or intended we do not know, nevertheless the combination adds a different look to the structure.• The inner west wall of the Masjid has five arched openings and which are richly ornamented in white and black marbles.
    69. 69. Quila Kuhna Masjid
    70. 70. Tomb of Sher Shah Suri, Sasaram, Bihar (cir. 1540 AD)• His tomb is an example of Indo-Islamic architecture, it was designed by the architect Aliwal Khan and built between 1540 and 1545, this red sandstone mausoleum (122 ft high), which stands in the middle of an artificial lake, which is nearly square.• The tomb stands at the centre of the lake on a square stone plinth with domed kiosks, chhatris at each of its corners, further there are stone banks and stepped moorings on all sides of the plinth, which is connected to the mainland through a wide stone bridge.• The main tomb is built on octagonal plan, topped by a dome, 22- metre in span and surrounded ornamental domed kiosks which were once covered in coloured glazed tile work.• The tomb was built during the reign of his son Islam Shah.• An inscription dates its completion to August 16, 1545, three months after the death of Sher Shah.
    71. 71. Tomb of Sher Shah Suri, Sasaram, Bihar (cir. 1540 AD)• Lodi prototype as base for design• Octagonal in plan and raised to the height of 45.6 m up on the square base of 76 m side• Huge pyramidal mass arranged in five distinct stages• Pillared kiosks in each storey• Located in the unique setting, as placed in the middle of 426.7 m sided artificially created water body approached through a gateway along a causeway• Advanced structure till date with great imaginative efforts• The upper structure (tomb) being placed slightly off in diagonal way with the lower platform probably due to the correction of error in the orientation of tomb
    72. 72. Tomb of Sher Shah Suri, Sasaram, Bihar (cir. 1540 AD)
    73. 73. Tomb of Sher Shah Suri, Sasaram, Bihar (cir. 1540 AD)
    74. 74. References• Nath, R. 1978. History of Sultanate Architecture. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications.• Williams, John A. and Caroline. 1980. Architecture of Muslim India: The Sayyids and the Lodis 1414-1526. Santa Barbara, California: Visual Education, Inc.• Grover Satih, The Architecture of India (Islamic), Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.• Related sites.