Difference vs. Disorder: Language Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations

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This presentation reviews normal language development of bilinguals. It identifies common second language-influenced errors between English and Spanish as well as other languages.

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Difference vs. Disorder: Language Development in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations

  1. 1. Disclosure Statement:   Financial — Ellen Kester is the founder and owner of Bilinguistics. Ellen Kester and Scott Prath receive salaries from Bilinguistics. Bilinguistics receives royalties from product sales. Nonfinancial — None
  2. 2. • Bilingualism and Language • Typical Language Development in Bilinguals ▫ Form  Syntax  Morphology ▫ Content • Application to All Languages • Case Studies Outline
  3. 3. Demographic Example: Texas Public Schools 48% 34% 14%4%
  4. 4. How do we qualify and work with a bilingual population when: ▫ The tests we use are not normed on this population. ▫ My gut feeling doesn’t match the test results. ▫ I don’t know what goals are appropriate.
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  7. 7. Difference vs. Disorder NORMAL ERRORS SECOND- LANGUAGE INFLUENCE ATYPICAL ERRORS
  8. 8. S Se Se SE Es Es E
  9. 9. Spanish English ED BE BS SD ED = English Dominant BE = Bilingual English BS = Bilingual Spanish SD = Spanish Dominant
  10. 10. Spanish English ED BE BS SD ED = English Dominant BE = Bilingual English BS = Bilingual Spanish SD = Spanish Dominant Low Spanish Proficiency
  11. 11. Spanish English ED BE BS SD ED = English Dominant BE = Bilingual English BS = Bilingual Spanish SD = Spanish Dominant High English Proficiency Low English Proficiency
  12. 12. Spanish English ED BE BS SD ED = English Dominant BE = Bilingual English BS = Bilingual Spanish SD = Spanish Dominant
  13. 13. Spanish English ED BE BS SD ED = English Dominant BE = Bilingual English BS = Bilingual Spanish SD = Spanish Dominant Low English Proficiency
  14. 14. All of the documents and charts in this presentation can be downloaded from our Free Resource Library. Click here to visit the Resource Library
  15. 15. Conceptual L1 Lexical L2 Lexical (Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, 2010)
  16. 16. Conceptual L1 Lexical L2 Lexical (Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, 2010)
  17. 17. Conceptual L1 Lexical L2 Lexical (Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, 2010)
  18. 18. Conceptual L1 Lexical L2 Lexical (Kroll, Michael, Tokowicz, & Dufour, 2002; Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, & Green, 2010)
  19. 19. • Children tend to shift - L1 to L2 ▫ 8-10 year-olds were faster in English but more accurate in Spanish. ▫ 11-13-year-olds showed no clear advantage in either language. ▫ By 14-16 years of age children were more accurate and faster in English. • Consider: ▫ Transitional programs ▫ Dual language programs
  20. 20. Language Activity Children code switch between languages because they don’t know either language well. FACT or MYTH
  21. 21. Language Activity Raising children with two languages will confuse them. FACT or MYTH
  22. 22. Language Activity Parents should not use more than one language with their child. FACT or MYTH
  23. 23. Language Activity Children with language impairment should not learn more than one language at a time. FACT or MYTH
  24. 24. Differences Similarities + = Positive transfer + = Negative transfer
  25. 25. • 0-1 month – crying and vegetative sounds • 2-3 months – eye gaze • 6-9 months – joint attention • 9-12 months – using gestures • 12-15 months – following simple commands • 18 months – symbolic play, pretend play • 24 months – sequencing of activities • 36 months – episodic play
  26. 26. • Based on the Competition Model as applied to bilingual development (MacWhinney & Bates, 1989) ▫ Forward Transfer (L1 to L2) expected for ELLs • The effects of Spanish on English can result in errors in: ▫ Verb errors (especially unmarked present for past tense) ▫ Content word errors (more than general words) ▫ Prepositions ▫ Pronouns ▫ Word order
  27. 27. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NumberofErrors Mean Errors Per Grade Spanish SpnMorph SpnSemantic SpnSyntactic SpnTotal 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NumberofErrors Mean Errors Per Grade English EngMorph EngSemantic EngSyntactic EngTotal Cross-linguistic Errors in Children with Typical Development
  28. 28. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NumberofErrors Mean Errors Per Grade Spanish SpnMorph SpnSemantic SpnSyntactic SpnTotal 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NumberofErrors Mean Errors Per Grade English EngMorph EngSemantic EngSyntactic EngTotal Cross-linguistic Errors in Children with Typical Development
  29. 29. Morphological Errors Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/AdvN egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther G ender PK K 1 2 3 Morphological Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/Adv N egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Form
  30. 30. Morphological Errors Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/AdvN egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther G ender PK K 1 2 3 Morphological Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/Adv N egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Form
  31. 31. Morphological Errors Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/AdvN egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther G ender PK K 1 2 3 Morphological Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/Adv N egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Form
  32. 32. Morphological Errors Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/AdvN egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther G ender PK K 1 2 3 Morphological Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Plurals Adj/Adv N egation O ther Verb:Past/Present Verb:Present/Past Verb:R eg/Irreg Verb:U nm arkedPres/Past Verb:PersonVerb:O ther PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Form
  33. 33. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Syntax Errors English PK K 1st 2nd 3rd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Syntax Errors Spanish PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Form
  34. 34. Verb Differences - Form English (2 verb person forms) Spanish (5-6 verb person forms) • I eat • You eat • He eats • We eat • Y’all eat • They eat • Yo como • Tú comes • Él/Ella/Ud. come • Nosotros comemos • Vosotros coméis • Ellos comen Most frequent Spanish-influenced English (SIE) verb error: Unmarked present tense for past tense
  35. 35. Pronouns - Form • Spanish is called a Pro-Drop language because subjects/pronouns are usually dropped once the subject has been established. • In English, pronouns are required. Spanish English Maria fue a la tienda.  (Ella)  Compró pan. Maria went to the store.  She bought bread.
  36. 36. Multi-Purpose Verbs Spanish phrases with  multi‐purpose verbs English Equivalents Spanish‐Influenced  English Tomar una decisión To make a decision Did you take a decision?* Poner una cita To make an appointment Do you want to put an  appointment?* Tener hambre To be hungry Do you have hunger?* Tener 4 años To be 4‐years old I have 4 years.* •Verbs such as “do,” “make,” “put,” and  “take” generally have one primary meaning  and other less frequent uses.   • Subject to transfer of meaning from L1.  
  37. 37. Word Order - Form English Spanish • Strict Word Order • SVO ▫ John threw the ball. • Flexible • SVO, OSV, VOS ▫ Juan tiró la pelota. ▫ La pelota Juan tiró. ▫ Tiró la pelota Juan.
  38. 38. Semantic Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M eaningXStory Articles Prepositions Pronouns PronounN oReferent G eneralW ord Use W ord Use PK K 1st 2nd 3rd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Semantic Errors Spanish PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Content
  39. 39. Semantic Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M eaningXStory Articles Prepositions Pronouns PronounN oReferent G eneralW ord Use W ord Use PK K 1st 2nd 3rd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Semantic Errors Spanish PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Content Prepositions
  40. 40. Semantic Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M eaningXStory Articles Prepositions Pronouns PronounN oReferent G eneralW ord Use W ord Use PK K 1st 2nd 3rd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Semantic Errors Spanish PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Content Pronoun Dropping
  41. 41. Semantic Errors English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M eaningXStory Articles Prepositions Pronouns PronounN oReferent G eneralW ord Use W ord Use PK K 1st 2nd 3rd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Semantic Errors Spanish PK K 1st 2nd 3rd Bilingualism and Language: Content Word Use
  42. 42. English • Satellite-framed ▫ verb + preposition ▫ e.g., To look for, ▫ To get on • Typically 1:1 correspondence of meaning ▫ In ▫ On ▫ Around Spanish • Verb-framed ▫ Directional information in the verb ▫ e.g. Buscar (to look for) ▫ Subir (to get/go up on) • Not 1:1 correspondence of meaning ▫ En = on, in ▫ Por = for, by Preposition Differences - Content Frequent Spanish-influenced English (SIE) error: Preposition error or omission
  43. 43. Prepositions - Content Spanish Prepositions English Equivalent Spanish‐influenced Eng en “in” and “on” Put the food in the plate.*,  Put the soup on the bowl.* Pensar en  OR  Pensar de To think about or think of I think on him every day.* Enojarse con/de Get mad at Get mad with/of* Decidir de To decide on Decide of what you  want?* Casarse con To marry or be married to Is he married with her?* Enamorarse de To be in love with Is he in love of her?* Consistir en To consist of What does your plan  consist in?* Buscar To look for I look my toy.* Subir To go up, to get on I go the stairs.* Click here to download this chart as a pdf.
  44. 44. Pronoun Differences • English ▫ Pronouns are required ▫ Once subject is established a pronoun is used ▫ Related to the simple verb system • Spanish ▫ Pro-drop language ▫ Once subject is established, pronoun is dropped ▫ Related to the complex verb system Frequent Spanish-influenced English (SIE) error: Pronoun without a reference
  45. 45. Content Errors • Spanish-influenced English may include use of words close in meaning to the target ▫ “moose” for “deer” ▫ “turtle” for “frog” ▫ “rat” for “chipmunk” ▫ “cone house of the bees” for “beehive” • Typically do not use general, non-specific vocabulary (“this,” “thing”) Frequent SIE error: Incorrect but related vocabulary
  46. 46. • Bilingual children develop early vocabulary at the same rate as monolingual children (Pearson, 1993). • Early language milestones are similar (single words, lexical spurt, 2-word phrases) (Pearson and Fernandez, 2001). • Conceptual scores are similar (Pearson, 1998). • Language exposure drives vocabulary production (Pearson, Fernandez, Lewedeg, and Oller, 1997)
  47. 47. • For bilingual toddlers 30% of vocabulary are translation equivalents1 • Young school-age bilinguals produce same # of category items in Spanish and English BUT 70% are unique to one language2 • Task performance varies by language3 • 1 Pearson, Fernandez & Oller, 1995 • 2 Peña, Bedore & Zlatic, 2002 • 3 Peña, Bedore, & Rappazzo, 2003
  48. 48. Cumulative not Comparative Language and Content of Intervention  Select based on what is appropriate in each language and  what is appropriate for child’s and family’s situation.  For example: Spanish •Gender •Verbs •Article+nouns •Food •Clothing •Household items Both •People •Functions •Categorization •Part-Whole English •Pronouns •Prepositions •Nouns •Colors •Numbers •Shapes Peña & Kester, 2004
  49. 49. Code-switching • A natural dynamic phenomenon that serves specific purposes in specific contexts. • Used for a variety of functions ▫ Emphasis ▫ To gain a listener’s attention ▫ To change speaking roles • Draws on the resources of both codes at once • Rule-based • Indicative of socio-linguistic competency
  50. 50. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 PK K 1 2 3 AverageOccurrencesper sample Spanish Code-Switching/Borrowing CS Word CS Phrase CS Sentence CS Total CS Borrow
  51. 51. Measures of Productivity & Complexity Often used as measures of proficiency Look very similar in English and Spanish
  52. 52. Mean Length of Utterances Spanish 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd MLU MLU Words MLU Morphemes Mean Lenth of Utterances English 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd MLU MLU Words MLU Morphemes
  53. 53. Productivity Measures Spanish 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NDW TNW Productivity Measures English 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 PK K 1st 2nd 3rd NDW TNW NDW: Number of Different Words TNW: Number of Total Words
  54. 54. Spanish-Influenced English Linguistic Element Spanish Syntax English Syntax Examples of SIE Sentences Flexible Word Order Ridged Word Order “Juan me hit.”  Modifiers Noun + Adjective Adjective + Noun The river big. Questions No auxiliary Auxiliary “Where you went?”  Pronouns Pronoun dropping Maintenance of  pronouns “Is hot today.”  Negation Double Single “I no want nothing”  Plurals Nouns & Adjectives  marked  Only nouns marked “The bigs trees” Prepositions  (syntax) Verb‐framed Satellite‐framed To climb (on*) the  bus. Multi‐purpose  verbs (semantics) Often no Direct  Translation Often no Direct  Translation I put an  appointment. Verb system Complex (3rd person unmarked,  5‐6 person  forms/verb) Simple (3rd person  marked, 2 person  forms/verb) He look for the frog
  55. 55. Intervening with other languages of the world Vietnamese Romanian Hindi Urdu Arabic
  56. 56. Other Common Languages • “difference between ___________ and English Language”
  57. 57. Portuguese vs. English • Grammar - Verb/Tense: Portuguese leads to such errors as… ▫ Tense choice is a significant problem for… • Grammar - Other: Portuguese word order is… • Vocabulary: Because of shared Latin roots…
  58. 58. Russian vs. English • Grammar - Verb/Tense: Russian and English convey meaning through… • learners often omit the auxiliary in questions or negatives: How you do that? ▫ Tense choice is a significant problem for Russians learning English… • Grammar - Other: Russian has no articles…
  59. 59. Language Outcomes • Qualifies• DNQ • DNQ• DNQ Typical in both languages Typical in English, not Spanish Below normal Limits in both languages Typical in Spanish, not English
  60. 60. Click to visit www.bilinguistics.com
  61. 61. Difference or Disorder?  Understanding Speech and Language  Patterns in Culturally and Linguistically  Diverse Students Rapidly identify speech‐language  patterns related to second language  acquisition to  distinguish difference from disorder.
  62. 62. Thank you!

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