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Mental retardation (mr) ppt


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Mental retardation (mr) ppt

  1. 1. Mental Retardation (MR)/ Intellectual Disability (ID) Prepared by: Abugan, Nancy Lara U. Bayani Obi C. Ruiz, Benedict U.
  2. 2. Nature and Characteristics • Mental retardation refers to significantly sub average general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. • Characterized by two dimensions: limited intellectual ability and difficulty in coping with the social demands of the environment.
  3. 3. Causes 1. Maternal use of alcohol and drugs during pregnancy. 2. Maternal infections (such as HIV) 3. Poverty can cause mental retardation through high chances of: • Lead poisoning • Inadequate diet • Inadequate health care
  4. 4. Manifestations • Lack of or slow development of motor skills, language skills, and self-help skills, especially when compared to peers • Failure to grow intellectually or continued infant-like berhavior
  5. 5. • Lack of curiosity • Problems keeping up in school • Failure to adapt (adjust to new situations) • Difficulty understanding and following social rules
  6. 6. History • Egyptian Papyrus of Thebes in 1552 B.C. (Harris 2006)- children with Intellectual Disability (ID) were born because the gods had been angered. • Before the 18th century- societies differed in how or whether they conceptualized intellectual disability.
  7. 7. • France in 1799. - Jean-Marc Itard, a medical doctor, developed a skill-based program for a feral child he named Victor. • Eduoard Seguin- "physiological and moral education" and some of its elements, like individualized instruction and behavior management, are still practiced. - in 1866 published an influential reference book, Idiocy and its Treatments in Physiological Methods.
  8. 8. • Johann Guggenbühl- established the first known residential facility for PWID in 1841 in Switzerland. • - The facility was called Abendberg, and during its tenure it received international attention, creating a "prototype for institutional care" (Beirne-Smith et al. 2006).
  9. 9. Ethical Issues • Allowing patients with mental retardation to make their own decisions about treatment, within the limits of a competency test, is consistent with the principle of normalization, which underlies contemporary approaches to providing human services to patients with mental retardation
  10. 10. • Mental retardation, understood as a culturally imposed condition, is not relevant to the moral status of a person.