PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING

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La Psicologia y aprendizaje de las Lenguas es un vocabulario, fonología, gramática, y otros aspectos de la estructura lingüística.
Al hacer uso de la palabra (o no), ¿qué decir a quién y cómo decirlo adecuadamente en cualquier situación dada.
El conocimiento social y cultural que permite a los oradores a usar e interpretar las formas lingüísticas.

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PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING

  1. 1. SCHOOL : NOMBRES : PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING FECHA : OCTUBRE – FEBRERO 2008 Lic. Eliana Pinza Languages
  2. 2. <ul><li>When we talk about what is being acquired in SLA, it is not enough just to talk about the language itself. We must also include the social and cultural knowledge embedded in the language being learned, that is required for appropriate language use. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Social contexts of Second Language acquisition <ul><li>Communicative competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What a speaker needs to know to communicate appropriately within a particular language community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It involves knowing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary, phonology, grammar, and other aspects of linguistic structure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When to speak (or not), what to say to whom, and how to say it appropriately in any given situation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The social and cultural knowledge which enables speakers to use and interpret linguistic forms . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Language community refers to a group of people who share knowledge of a common language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two levels of context that affect language learning which are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsocial Factors (potential effects of different surrounding circumstances) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrosocial Factors (relates SLA to broader cultural, political, and educational environments) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Microsocial factors <ul><li>Variation in learner language </li></ul><ul><li>L2 learner language is highly variable sometimes due to changes that occur in what learners know and can produce as they progressively achieve higher levels of proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a variation in learners’ L2 production at every stage along the way of their social context. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Linguistic contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological contexts </li></ul></ul>Elements of language form and function associated with the variable element. For example: COM ING BRI NG Factor associated with the amount of attention which is being given to language form during production, the level of automacity versus control in processing, or the intellectual demands of a particular task. For example: THIS IS A NICE CAR
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Microsocial contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features of situation and interaction which relate to communicative events within which language is being produced, interpreted, and negotiated. </li></ul><ul><li>These include </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>level of formality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>participants’ relationship to one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if the interaction is public or intimate. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Linguistic and psychological perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation that occurs in learners’ language as they develop increasing competence over a period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variation occurs in different contexts at a single point of time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsocial contexts </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>ACCOMMODATION THEORY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers change their pronunciation and even the grammatical complexity of sentences they use to sound more like whomever they are talking to </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native speakers tend to simplify their language when they are talking to an L2 learner who is not fluent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L2 learners may acquire somewhat different varieties of the target language when they have different friends </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Input and Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Language input to the learner is necessary for either L1 or L2 learning to take place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers of behaviorist learning theories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Input is important to form the stimuli and feedback which learners respond to and imitate </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Nature of input modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language addressed by L1 speakers to L2 learners is different from the one addressed to native speakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utterances by native speakers to language learners are grammatical, simplified input may omit some obligatory elements. For example: ___ you like it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FOREIGNER TALK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long pauses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Careful articulation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retention of full forms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Nature of interactional modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social interaction is essential for L1 acquisition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ No children can learn their initial language just by listening to tape recordings, radio broadcast or television programs.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For L2 learners interaction is essential but not absolutely necessary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Useful types of modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition allows nonnative speakers more time for processing and an opportunity to confirm perception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase allows NNSs to cast a wider net for words they recognize and may increase their vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion and elaboration offers models of important utterances that permit NNSs to produce language </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>Sentence Completion and frames for substitution provide NNSs with words of language from NSs which they can use in subsequent turns to talk. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical construction allows NNSs to construct discourse beyond their current independent means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension checks and requests for clarification by NSs focus NNSs’ attention on segments of sentences which are unclear </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback from NSs makes NNSs aware that their use is not acceptable and provides a model for correctness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrective feedback is necessary for most learns to reach native-like levels of proficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct correction: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>what cannot or must be said </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>explanations related to points of grammar and use </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ That is the wrong word” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><ul><li>Intake to cognitive processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input contributes to acquisition only if it becomes intake not if it goes in one ear and out the other. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to the interaction Hypothesis, social interaction facilitates SLA because they contribute to the accessibility of input for mental processing: “negotiation for meaning” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some learners are more successful than others includes the degree of access to social experience which allows for negotiation of meaning and corrective feedback. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Interaction as the genesis of language </li></ul><ul><li>According to Sociocultural Theory, learning occurs when simple innate mental activities are transformed into more complex mental functions. </li></ul><ul><li>This transformation involves: </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic mediation (a link between a person’s current mental state and complex mental functions) that is provided by language </li></ul><ul><li>The results of learning through mediation include learners’ awareness of their own mental abilities and more control over their thought processes. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><ul><li>Interpersonal interaction (communicative events and situations which occur between people ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>According to S-C Theory, mental functions that are beyond an individual’s current level must be performed in collaboration with other people. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others help the learner in language development through scaffolding (verbal guidance) which happens with a learner as an active participant. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( For example , a teacher providing help to a student when performing any task) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal interaction (communication that occurs within an individual’s own mind) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When translating to oneself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private speech (the self-talk in which many children are engaged) provides good evidence that even when are not interacting with other, they are assimilating input. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>Audible private speech (engages adult learners) takes place where imitation or other controlled response to linguistic input is considered normal behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private writing in which individuals record language forms and other meaningful symbols on paper to help store items in memory, organize thought, solve problems without intent to communicate with other. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Macrosocial factors <ul><li>How identity, status, and values influence L2 outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Global and national status of L1 and L2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Languages have power and status at global and national levels for both symbolic and practical reasons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, In the USA, people consider English as the single national language which is important for national unity. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><ul><li>The need for L2 learning at a national level is strongest when groups from other languages backgrounds immigrate to a country without prior knowledge of its dominant language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for L2 learning at a global level is motivated by control of and access to resources in areas of commerce and information transfer. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Boundaries and identities </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic boundaries serve </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To unify speakers as members of one language community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To exclude outsiders from insider communication. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossing a linguistic boundary to participate in another language community and to identify or be identified with it, requires learning that language, in addition to learning the culture of that community and adapting to those values and behavioral patterns. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Institutional forces and constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social institutions involve power, authority, and influence related to SLA; the forces and constraints which are related to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social control, determination of access to knowledge, and other instances of linguistic privilege or discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example: Admission to universities and professional schools in some countries requires prior study of a foreign language (often English) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Social categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are categorized according to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AGE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ETHNICITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EDUCATION LEVEL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OCCUPATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC STATUS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They influence what experiences they have, how they are perceived by other, and what is expected of them </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Circumstances of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nation that learner lives in and its history, culture, and geopolitical position, and to social and economic categorizations within the society, which in turn are related to historical, institutional, and political forces and constraints, all of which are related to and reflect the status of the languages involved. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Acquiring knowledge for L2 use <ul><li>Competence and Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative competence combines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic competence (knowledge of language, knowledge of the specific components and levels of a language) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge required for their appropriate use in communicative activities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><ul><li>Competence requires </li></ul></ul>Cultural knowledge Content Context Linguistic elements <ul><ul><ul><li>Language use </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>The ability to use language appropriately includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic competence ( what people must know in order to interpret and convey meaning within communicative situations) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The relationship of knowledge among domains of content , context , culture , language form and structure , and language use is dynamic, interactive and constitutive </li></ul>
  30. 31. Academic vs. interpersonal competence <ul><li>Academic competence </li></ul><ul><li> Knowledge needed by learners who want to use the L2 primarily to </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about other subjects </li></ul><ul><li>The activities that have highest priority are receptive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Academic vs. interpersonal competence <ul><li>Interpersonal competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge required of learners who plan to use the L2 primarily in face-to-face </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contact with other speakers . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The activities that have highest priority are oral: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Components of language knowledge <ul><li>Language has been divided by linguists into the following components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VOCABULARY (lexicon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MORPHOLOGY (word structure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHONOLOGY (sound system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SYNTAX (grammar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISCOURSE (ways to connect sentences and organize information) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. VOCABULARY <ul><li>It is the most important level of L2 knowledge for all learners to develop (for academic or interpersonal competence) </li></ul><ul><li>There is a core of high frequency words in a language that everyone needs to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>The core vocabulary in every language includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function words a limited set of terms that carry primarily grammatical information </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Types of knowledge which contribute to effective use of context for vocabulary learning <ul><li>Linguistic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactic information; </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints on possible word meaning; </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns in word structure; </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of sorrounding words </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>World knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of the concepts which the word represent </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with related conceptual frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of social associations </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Control over cognitive resources </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. MORPHOLOGY <ul><li>L2 learning at the level of morphology can be important for vocabulary development as well as for achieving grammatical accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Words used for academic communication are characteristically longer than words used for interpersonal communication </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Suffixes may convert adjectives to verbs or nouns, verbs to nouns, nouns to adjectives or verbs, and adjectives to adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friend (noun) + ly = Friendly (adjective) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammatical accuracy in many languages requires knowledge of the word parts that carry meanings such as tense, aspect, and number (called inflections) </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>go ing work ed </li></ul>
  38. 39. PHONOLOGY <ul><li>Proficiency in phonological perception is required for listening if learners studying other subjects through the medium of L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensible pronunciation is needed for speaking in most educational settings </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of proficiency in production is required if researchers are using the second language to teach others </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>Priority of pronunciation remains low compared to vocabulary and syntax </li></ul><ul><li>As a component of interpersonal competence, proficiency in phonological perception and intelligible production are successful spoken communication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A significant degree of foreign accent is acceptable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native or near-native pronunciation is usually needed only when learners want to identify socially with the L2 language communicative for affective purposes or for communicative goals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Transfer from L1 to L2 phonology occurs in both listening and speaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It can be found for some aspects of phonological systems, including syllable structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners sometimes maximize a difference between L1 and L2 (exaggeration) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. SYNTAX <ul><li>All languages have structures for making statements, asking questions, and denying assertions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences in all languages consist of </li></ul><ul><li>subject predicate </li></ul><ul><li> a verb, objects + phrases (time, place, frequency, manner, goal, source, or purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>The order of elements, and degree of flexibility in their order, may differ radically. </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Most languages have ways to vary the basic order to some extent for various reasons, including focus, information structure, and style. </li></ul><ul><li>For example in English: </li></ul><ul><li>S V O Peter reads a book </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Grammatical structures used for interpersonal functions are much more likely to be short, simple sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>For example : </li></ul><ul><li>Ok, right, </li></ul><ul><li>it’s, don’t </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>It includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential indicators (connect phrases, clauses, or longer units of written or spoken text) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example : first, then, finally, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical connectors (indicate cause-effect, contrast, and addition of information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example : because, on the other hand, furthermore, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>DISCOURSE
  45. 46. <ul><li>Academic and interpersonal domains involve genres. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic genres include research, lectures, and book reviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of academic discourse competence requires reading and hearing a great deal of academic texts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal genres include conversations, service encounters and letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of interpersonal discourse requires opportunity for social interaction and the input and feedback that it produces. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>RECEPTIVE ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>READING </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most important area of activity for individuals to engage in for the development of L2 academic competence and for interpersonal functions </li></ul><ul><li>It provides significant input related to technological developments, world news, and scientific discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency in reading is an essential aspect of academic competence which takes time to develop in either L1 or L2. </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Developing fluency in reading requires acquiring sufficient knowledge specially of vocabulary, grammar and discourse structure </li></ul><ul><li>Functions for reading in academic settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading to find information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading for general understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading to critique and evaluate </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>LISTENING </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is an important activity for learners: </li></ul><ul><li>To participate in oral interpersonal communication </li></ul><ul><li>To receive information from oral sources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to academic lectures has the potential to be reciprocal depending on whether listeners have the opportunity to participate in discussion. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><ul><li>Reciprocal communication requires learners to speak as well as to listen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-reciprocal communication requires listener to process input and construct meaning without being able to request repetition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video-recording television programs can provide a useful source for listening practice </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>WRITING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the most important productive activity for L2 learners to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a common medium for testing knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many professionals and occupations require a high level of L2 proficiency in writing </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. <ul><li>Effective academic writing requires considerable knowledge of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vocabulary, morphology and syntax, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mechanisms of orthographic representations and conventions related to style and organization. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>SPEAKING </li></ul><ul><li>It is a very important area of activity for L2 learners if they will be using the language for interpersonal purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>There is need for speaking in situations where L2 learners participate in the L2 community </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tourists generally need to ask directions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrants need to shop for goods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign students need to negotiate transactions for housing and also express in an academic or professional speech </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>In order to have a successful participation in conversational speech activities learners must have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of conversational structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of contextualization cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of communication </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><ul><li>Linguistic, psychological, and social perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on SLA focused on what, how, and why questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What exactly does the L2 learner come to know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A system of knowledge about second language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of current elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to encode particular concepts in the L2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic competence </li></ul></ul></ul>L2 Learning and teaching
  55. 56. <ul><ul><ul><li>Means for using the L2 in communicative activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to select among multiple language system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicative competence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does the learner acquire L2 knowledge? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innate capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application of prior knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing of language input </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restructuring of the L2 knowledge system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping of relationships or associations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are some learners more successful than others? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social experience </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 58. <ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship of L1 and L2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aptitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>Implications for L2 learning and teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the goals for learning an additional language </li></ul><ul><li>Set priorities compatible for those goals </li></ul><ul><li>Approach learning/teaching tasks involved in linguistic, psychological and social </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the potential strengths and limitations of particular learners </li></ul><ul><li>There is no one “best” way to learn or teach a second language </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient. Learning a language takes time </li></ul>
  59. 60. Questions?
  60. 61. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>

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